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■^V*-i3 '. '. ^S*" 


? "v 

^. N r* 






"S^l^ Tio man on earth your Father: for he alone is your Fatlicr 
who is in Heaven; and all ye are brethren. Assume not the titL* 
of Rabbi: for ye have only one Teaclier; — Neither assume the 
title of Leader: for ye have only one l^eader — the Mfsstah. 

[Matth. xxiii. 8—10 CampbelPa Translation.} 

Prove all things: hold fast that which is good. 

[Paul the Jlpostle.] 

rWhsX a glorious freedom of thought do the Apostles recommend ' 
'•And how contemptable in their account is a blind and implici*^ 
**^th! May all Christians use this liberty of judginj^ for them- 
L. •'selves in matters of Religion, and allow it to one anotlier, nn(i 
•*to all mankind." [ /^'•n.vrm] 








L "'' 


VOL. in.— 1825-*26. 

A Christmas Fair • . 239 

mt of a remarkable oc- Confession of Faith West- 

rance in a late journey 246 minster, its origin and fbr- 

is - - - 274 ' mation. No. IV. - - 25 

:ss to the Divines com- No. V. 49 — No. VI. 73 

ing the General Assem- Confession of Faith, confes- 

of 1825 - - 38 sion of opinions • • 154 

:ss to the society of Conscience, No. I. 101 

;nds, commonly called No. II. . 161 

kers - - . 116 D 

otes 96, 263, 264 Divine service, a sermon on 175 

B Duncan John If. on Creeds, 

£U S. communication Review of • • 107 

I - - • - 21 Duncan and BfLean 144 

t Recorder - - 192 B 

1, letter from 133 Eli Ena Stiles^ D .D. public 

mode of reading 190 notice of - - 41 

y and Partiality 146 Extract from Dr. Macknight 77 

I's office. No. I. 208 fh>m Lock's prence 

No. II. 241 to the Romans 81 

lum Gideon, D. D. his from Carson's Reply 262 

t and notification of 15 Experimental Religion 258 

ng of bread, an institu- F 

part of Christian wor- Faithful, letter fh>m 45 

. No. I. 11— No. II. 30 Fellowship of saints 126 

III. 55 — No. IV. 83 Forbearance, remarks on 204 

lee Wm. Craig, D. D. French Clergy - - 168 

asking Ridge 129 H 

C Hades defined • - 186 

ell George Dr. views Haldane and Sandeman 203 

>mmentators 238 Hell the term,dissertation on 184 

; vote - - 150 Holy scriptures,the only suf- 

ism for children 239 ficient and perfect rule of 

r of the clergy 60 out feitVi wvd'^T^OAt^ \^\ 

n missions, an oration HoT^ourab\e XJAe o1 Ti. '^^ 

129 refused^ otv Y^nswA^Vi^ ^^ -,c^ 

Morality^ No. I. 193 reason . - - ^^ 

, ^... .^'o•fi. 254 \ 



Informality, sermon on 91 

Independent Baptist 221—282 
Ir^ng - „ - 252 


JLetterfrom Bli 8.Bailey,a Sab- 
batarian - •> 21 
Reply - - 22 

from Faithful • - 45 
Reply - - 46 

from occasional reader 89 
Reply - - 89 

from James Phillips 
Bishop,on Informal- 
ity - . 91 

from Aquila 140 

from R.B. on the pro- 
ceedings of the Sy- 
nod in Baltimore 156 

from T. T. Missouri 158 
Reply - - 159 

from J' H. Indiana 179 
Reply - - 180 

from R. B. S. Virginia 197 
Reply - - 200 

from an Independent 
Baptist 221—182 

Replies 223—285 

from Amicus - - 274 
Reply - : 277 
Lock's views of the ^visions 
and subdivisions of the 
scripture . . - 81 


Many against few - - 192 
M'Lean John, Esq, Post Mas- 
ter General,defendcd from 
Unjust suspicions ^7 

Macknight Dr. views of for- 
bearance • •'77 
Methodists new - • 168 
Milton's views of commenta- 
tors - - - • 237 
Millenium No, I. - - 270 
Morality Christian No. I. 193 

No.n. 254 

JV/codeatus, addresa of 38 

Notes on theGeneral Assem- 
blies last report of 1825 35 
on a Tour 

on Brownlee's oration 
for ChristianMissions 1S6 
Obituary notices - . 
Ode to the Fan\ily bible 

Prefatory Remarks - 
Presbytery of Onondagua, de- 
crees of - - - 43 
Priestly ambition - - 59 
Philo-Christian Union 220 

Restoration of the ancient or- 
der of things No. vu n 
No.VU. 30 No. VIII. 55 
No. IX, 83 No.X. 136 
No. XI. 179 Ko.XU.208 
No.XUI. - r 241 
Remarks on Math, v. 22. vi. 

25. xix. 12 - - - 119 
Review of John M. Duncan 

on Creeds 107 121 

of a sermon on the du* 

ty of the church to raise a 

ministry of **piousyouths"l69 

Rights of Laymen No. I. 133 

Religion in Virginia 262 

Sabbatarians, views of 21 3 

Simon Peter, public notice of ^ 
Sermon on "the Oyster man*'lli 
«*the top knots" Hi 
a popular text 17i 
Smyth Gen. and C. Shultz 73 

Theology, Theoretic, Scho-^ 

laatic Metaphysical 
Textuaries - - . 

Universalism - , • 
Unity of opinion - 

Vision of Mirzah - 

Wcalt3\ o£^il^ C\«ki<^^l'SAv- 



(5ia:E3©^irA^ :BAS>^a^)r[i^< 

tM'o. I— Vol. Ill ) Bdtfalox, Ava. I, 1825. [ Wbou No. Z:- 

Style no man on earth your Father : for he alone is your &the? 
"Who is ia heaven ; and all ye are hrethrcn^ Assume not the title 
of Rabbi; forye have only one teacher: — Neither assume the titlts 
of leader; for ye have onlyonc leader — ^.the Messiah. Math, xxi^, 
Sh — 10. .-•--. Vampbeffe Translation, 

Prove all thingfs^. holdfast tfaatt whiok is go-cd. 

CI*aultke .ipo9th\ 

I " ■ ■ ■ ■ ... Ill ^ 


IfOrWH WSTANDING the flood of opposition vhich was in- 
l^ended to have overwhelmed this work, and aimed at its destnic* 
^on by an ambitious pricstljood, and theit <lelmlt'd admirers, it has 
«cquir«d an extensive growth in its circulation, and a vigor which op- 
position alone cwild give it. A spirit of investig-ation and of unbi- 
assed enquiry, which we had scarcely anticipated, appears to hav*i 
«roiised into acti\ity the dormant eirerjjits of a priest -tWden com- 
munity. M'« have every reason to hopre that this spirit will nor 
give sleep to its eyes, nor sluniber to its oye-lids, until many shall 
tclearly »ee, and cumprehensively understand, the mighty difitr- 
«nce existing" bet».ee*i tbe king-dom of the cler^, aixl that of 
the Saviour of the world. We have little to promise bwX jpcratvcr. 
ance in the arduous co?»flict, so long" as the same necessities exist, 
and until we shall see tlte anictnt order of things restored in sonn* 
fnood degree. — Our constant readers Tiave, perhaps, been cxpectin|!^ 
a series of essays upon some topics in our prospectus, scarcely yet 
to'iched. We have only to request a due exercise of patienceon 
their part, and to oft'or as an apology the great press of many mat- 
ters more immediately bearing upon existing circumstances. W'ni 
^intend to leave noihh^g undone, and to accomplish all that hi^ been 
promised, as we ha^t opportunity; but prudence is necessary to .di- 
rect. We have also the proifered assistance of some of the most a» 
ble and distinguished Nicodemusesofthe times, and shall thankfully 
veceivc and promptly attend t© their communications ypon general 
aad important matters. VoY there are a goodly number of those even 
ainongsLtlie pricsthotd that bid us Gcd speed, nit hough for the pres- 
ent distress they think it expedient to ren.ain in the conclaves of 
the powerful — We must sympathize ^ith them a little ,• for as Paul 
wid, ^H men kave n^tjiaiih, so we see, oil men have vot cowm^s, 

Wtiite the press is pouriner i*>rth every day fresh oil into thjs 
bmp, which guides the devotion cf the thoughtless, and makes them 
diink that they see the sun in a smok\ » jrk, not an editor in the 
East nor in the West of all the Luminaries and religions Heralds, 
has vent ured to dispute one inch of the ground thai we cXs^uw . A^v^i 
vei t)}£'ir snarlinf^ shows they would bi» e \Vt\\e\ cv.\\\A. "W^^ ^t^i:njk. 
(k^ Juiowp Umt the 7e;ss ihev sav tlit belter £or {»ivri\ vrA'OtA -i t^siSft 


an^ perhaps they are right. The Editors of the Western Lumina- 
ry did positively promise in December list to enter the field of in* 
yestigation, and to oppose us manfully, but not a syllable has ap- 
peared on tlie subject in any of their numbers that we have seen. 
Tliev have either quit publishing or ceased to send us their piaper, 
for we have not seen one for a month. Perhaps they are of the \ 
same spirit with our neighbour thepjttsburgh Recorder, who, afte? 
he had aj^reed and promised to exchange papers with us, soon at' 
ve bc^an to enquire what he was doing he forgot his ag^ement 
and ceasfd to send us his paper. These gentry seem to know or ' 
■xt least to think that their cause will not bear the light of open dis- 
cussion, and that a nlent course is the best ppUcy. They have 
given sufficient evidence by their occasional notices that if they 
could do any thing in the way of public discus8i9n they would soon 
be at it. We do not say these things to provoke them into a con- 
troversy, for we have no expectation that there is any excitabilkv 
in tl>cm: but mtrely to shew the manner of spirit they are of. 
l*'c must conft-BS that we cannot view, with other reelings than those 
due to a thief and a robber m ho covers himself with the curtains of 
nii^lit that he may execute his designs, th^se who attempt to ea;- 
tend their empire over the human mind and conscience, hy sup- 
prcs^injc the trutii or witholding the light ffom the eyes of those 
u ho look up to Ihem as their guides. This they do by prejudicini^ 
the minds of many apninfet jhc truth. We hope the day is not At 
distant, in which it will be admitted, that true charity, benevo?ence, 
and r)hU;uUhropy consist not in flattering the wipked, norin speak* 
;Mg peace to every body, but in withstanding to the face, as Paul 
aid Peter, all tli^sc erroiii^s, whether acting the part of the decei\> 
CT, or the deceived. £(ff 

Co?^3iuyT GATED FOR THK CuaisTiiif Ba?tist» 



A'O, II, 

I am aware of the prejudices which ea«^h Christian 
ecct feels for tl»eir own name and creed, and of the 
^reat difHtuHy there will J)e in getting them to drop 
them, or to exrhan^je them for the name of Christiani 
and the word r.f God. I fear that there are many pro-i- 
fessing Christians among what are called Protestant sects^ 
ivho, rathpr than make this exchange, would unite with 
the Iloman Catboli's in defence of human authority, iti 



it (he adoption of a creed," (or confession of faith^ 
as the tV estminstcr,) " Is not only lawful and txpe*» 
, but alfio indispensably necessary." Hiey ougbt^ 
)ver. in that case to be consistent throughout, and 
in tnemselves to the church of Rome, r or if any 
ch or people have authority from God to form creeds 
confessions in religion, and without divine author*- 
ere is no right — the church of Rome had it before, 
as the elder and mother church ought to have been 
ed, and consequently the reformation, as it has been 
d, was a rebellion against superiors, a disobedience 
e divine authority vested in that church, and ought 
ich to be renounced by returning to it. }£ indeed it 
iwful for men to substitute their speculations, and 
•ns derived from nature and their views of scripture, 
cripture itself, and to impose them upon men's con- 
ices, it will be very difficult to shew upon what prin- 
the church of Rome can be condemned for having 
acted : — it will not do to say that they went too far, 
bey had as good a right to judge how far they might 
IS those have who condemn them. Doctor Miller's 
e defence of creeds is based upon the Deism, or 
*al religion of John Calvin. This Deism is at the 
elation of, and pervades every system of sectarian 
on in Christendom^ it hud its origin in pagan philos- 
, relative to innate ideas of God which was at an 
' period incorporated with the Christian religion, 
following sentiments are extracted from Calvin's 
tutes, vol. L chap. iii. ^^ The human mind natural* 
doieed utith the knoioledge of God^^ 
IVe lay it down as a position not to be controverted, 
the human mind, even by rational instinct, possess* 
»me sense of a Deity — for God hath given to all, 
i apprehension of his existence, some sense of divi- 
is mscribed on every heart. All men have by nature 
mate persuasion of the divine existence, a persua- 
inseparable from their very constitution. The sense 
Deity is a doctrine not first to be learned in the 
ols, but every man from his birth is self taught.-— 
need not go out of themselves for a clear discover 
'God: — the seeds of divinity are sown in the nature 
an ." In opposition to all this tbe vrot^ ol ^xA %a:^% 
* the world by wisdom knew u6t Godi.'''* ^^^ ^^ ^^^ 


the history of the world, and the experience and con* 
sciou«ness of everj individual. Locke exploded the doc- 
trine of innate ideas. All the present systems, however, 
retain the consequences of that doctrine, which- are seen 
in natural religion or deism, which is a religion without 
revelation, and in scholastic theology, and mystic divin* 
ity. These are taught in all theological schools, col* 
leges, and universities in Christendom. True philoso* 
phy and the Bibic make revelation essential to religion, 
ifen are born with iBnaie capacities or susceptability tor 
acquiring the idea or knowledge of Deitj \ but revelation^ 
supernatural 7evelation, is necessary for enlightening, or 
improving that capacity, for giving the idea or knowl- 
edge of God* 

The point must be sooner op later conceded, that 
Christ is the light of the world in religion and spiritual 
things, and that in his church he is himself the only sov* 
reign and head, that he only hath power to decree arti* 
eles of faith and the authority thereof, and that he alone 
has a right to ordain rites and ceremonies, and to fix the 
teems of comnuinioa and of chupch membership : anil 
consequently that no ecclesiastics or earthly princes 
have power to make laws in his kingdom, which shall 
bind the conscieneea of his subjects, Matth. jlx» ^5 — 'i7» 
chap, zxiii. 89. chap, xzviii. 18—40. 1st Cor. vUi 6« 
£ph i. 32. Jas. iv. 12^ According to Ghrist^s system • 
of laws, and the principles of his kingdom, the members 
of that kingdom may differ in opinion and in conscience 
too, in some matters of religion without dis-union, and i 
without forming creeds ana confessions and sectarian . 
churches, in opposition to each other.^ It is made even \ 
a part of Christian duty for members of his church to 
tolerate a difference of opinion and sentiment, not in re* 
spect to human creeds, for their very existence is an a- 
bomination: they produce divisions, and are to be op- 
posed every where* 

Read the xiv. chapter of Paul's Epistle to the Ro« 
mans. The principles contained in that chapter, should 
be regarded as the great charter of Christian liberty. 
They are the strongest barriers against all usurpations on 
the rights of conscience, whether by ecclesiastical or civil 
powers. The kingdom of God is in righteousness, and 
jfeaccj and joy ju the Holy Ghost : .vj^ w^ V^^\^1ox% 

baptist; s 

commanded to follow after the things which make for* 
peace, and things wherewith one may edify another. 

fDo, Mr. Editor, print for us in the Christian Baptist, 
the suhsianee of Mac knight's ''view and illustration of 
the matter contained in the x\v, chapter of the £pistle 
- to the Romans." And do you reader, read that chapter 
II in conaezion with 1st Cor. viii. chapter, with care. Thft 
principles of moral conduct for Christians towards each 
, other united in Christ, in these chapters are lessunder- 
stood,«eldomer thought of,and less practised than many of 
us are aware of* 

With respect to the Christian religion, nothing appear? 
to me, to be more absurd and contradictory, than for 
\ men to talk or think of speaking divine or supernatu^ 
I ml things in human language; this is very common how- 
ever in theological schools, and in lectures on divinity : 
this is according to the Calvinistic vocabulary, with which 
Thos.Paine, and all the Deists agree: — then in comes the 
mystic agencies, by which human and natural language 
is made to produce divine or supernatural effects ! ! 
j Human language, that is words and sentences invented 
by men, cannot rise higher than the objects of human 

J thought, and the ideas of nature v nor can it esist antece^ 
.dent to them — The ideas of supernatural or divine things 
are obtained by, or through, supernatural or divine lan- 
guage ; that is, by language which originated with God« 
But according to the system of natural religion, the mind 
possesses these ideas naturalJy, or obtains them by rea-- 

i 5oning, and invents the languagti which communicates 
them without revelation. If we would ourselves speak 
divine truths, or teach others, we must use the terms in 
which it was revealed. It is one thing to speak 0/ divine 
things, and another to speak divine things . We may use 
our own language, the language arising from- sensafionj 
and reflection in speaking of, or concerniHg them, afte^r 
the divine objects are knoim : the knowledge, however, 
and belief of them must be first obtained by the scriptural 
terms and statements in which they were revealed ; and 
if we would retain them, and^ communicate them to o- 
thers, they, must be retained and communicated vu. llv^ 
terms and statements in which we leaiul V\v^xci. 
There Is. si state of mind, of feeViiigs^ c>l ?Lftfe^>^^T^^ ^;« 

0motJoD, arising from the operaU\)u ol iV^ «\v<v\i«^ ^^vt^-i 


through, or with, or by, his gospel truth upon the' hu* 
man heart, which is termed, an experience of grace^ oif ' 
rtligious experience^ which accords with the word of God, : 
in detailing of this experience the language used derives A 
its qualifications from the rules of feelings and sensation ! 
which it describes^ No person who has not experienced 
these states can speak o£ them from the heart. To obtain 
this we must use gospel truth as the spirit operates bj 
and through it. 

It is thought by some that the opposition to human 
creeds and confessions may be apphed with equal force 
a^inst the public preaching: and teaching of religion — 
I think not. Public addresses are made on the subject 
of religion to bring to people's minds scriptural views of 
divine things which have been learnt by the speaker, and 
to assist the hearers by a language addressed to their un- 
derstandings and feelings, and which associates their 
best interests and chief Jiappiness with the objects of faith 
as^revealed in. the gospel, to understand the scriptures 
and *to be!ieve them; but these addresses are never de- 
signed' ta be creeds and confessions for the hearers. No- 
thin g that- teachers say in their public discourses are in- 
tended to be paramount to the word of God ; iH many 
oases creeds are; insomuch,that men are liable to be treat- 
ed as heathen men and publicans under their operations, 
who in all respects according to the gospel are entitled 
to the rights and privileges of Christ's church —Yes," they 
may be accepted of Goddind yet refused admittance into ] 
this sectarian kingdom , or if-already m^mberslof a church 4 

» constituted upon a human creed,. are liable to be cast out 
by the operation of that creed, in the nam« of the Father, 4 
Son, and Holy Ghost, and given to the devil^ and for no | 
otl)6r reasoathan an.uncomp^^omitting^ adherence to the 
word of God, aad authority of Christ according tp the 
gospel, in preference to the authority of the Westminster 
assembly, or of John Westlsy and his hierarchy, or of the / 
Bhiladelphia association, or- the authority of Henry the *\ 
Yillth and his bis hops^ and. successors in the Episcopali*- ' 
an church I '■ This is no extraordinary operation of creeds 
and confe^ionS) for it arisefi necessarily from sectarifta - 
const/tuthnSj and ever^Vhrisixan^ toKo is jaith/ui2 to ih$ 
^ord Jesus Christy and is determined to ^^ staud JqaI *^ 

^^e Uieriy wAerewith hs Aatfc m»dc him jVte,^^ 0M^h\ to \»% 


turned out, must and mil be turned out of the churches 
built upon human creeds J iflhey exercise consistent discip^ 
line ! Paul himself would be ! Reader, weigh this well 
and you must see and feel the contrariety of opposition 
which exists between sectarian churches and the church 
of Christ. Thi^is the reason why Christianity, as it is im« 
properly called by the different sects, produces so litt) 
good in the world. 

The Christian religion was de&igned by its divine au 
.thor to remedy all the evils which are incident to man^ 
state of sin and misery in the world, and to make me. 
faappy and united in peace and love. This design ha. 
not been, and is not accomplished but in a very partia 
and imperfect degree, among even the profeseois of reli- 
ligion. And why is this the case ? 1 answer, tiiat, b; 
reason of Christ having been divided, Christianity ha* 
been converted into a system of war, of persecutior 
and oppression, not against the common meray, the 
destroyer of men^s souls and of their hjl^ipiness, sc 
much, as against each sect, and by each to tpe destruction 
of the spirit, and character, and felicities if that religion 
as revealed ia the gospel. 

Who has not seen and felt the operation of sectarian 
indignation in our country in arraying citkens, relations, 
and friends, against each other, who were Wt peace before 
they assumed the sectarian badge ? Y.e% reader, jou 
have seen the peace and happiness of families wounded 
and destroyed by this ^cnci like influence ; and have you 
not felt some of it too f Can that system of things which 
produces these efiects be the religion of Jesus Christ as it 
appears in the gospel, the ,religion of him who is the 
prince of peace, and the author of good will and kind- 
ness and love among men ? Oh no ? An enemy hath 
done this, it was done by " false Apostles, deceitful work- 
ers, transforming themselves into the Apostlesof, 
and no wonder for Satan himself transformeik himself in- 
to an angel of light.'* ad Cor. xi. 18-14. 

This old enemy has imposed upon the people of God^ 

as be did upon Ev^ and Adam in Paradiise, by adding 

a new chapter to the Bible under the allwtm^ ^x^4 v^^-sct- 

entJjr innocent title of " JVon-esse^rmalsvj^"* v«\V)ft. ^ "nv^.^ ^^ 

dlvidwg Christy and of securing Vi\b mf^w^wc^.^ ^xA'll 

tAiaing human creeds, and seels, aji^A>>X\vo\\V|^^\'^^ 


Is it a non-essential that the new namey the name of 
Christy and of Christian be made to gi?e place to the 
name of Presbyterian^ or o£ Baptist, or of Methodist^ or 
of Epi^opalian ? Is it a non-essential that men should 
believe in, and serve the Lord Jesus by the lessons, and 
instructions, and authority, of human wisdom, taught ia 
creeds, confessions, books of discipline, and liturgies, 
rather than through the word of the Apostles, and the 
authority of Christ ? Is it a non-essential that Christ- 
ians be divided by this reason, into difierent factions, 
and be involved in conduct towards each other, which 
occasions the Christian religion often to be derided by 
the world as a curse to the peace of society, and the 
name of Jesus Christ to be blasphemed among the Gen- 
tiles ? Is it a non-essential that the world of mankind 
should remain in unbelief and be damned ? Reader, 
answer these questions, in reference to the part you 
have acted, and are now acting in this sectarian bu- 
siness, with the awful truth impressed upon your mind, 
that ^^we shall all stand before Christ^s judgment seat," 
and every one of us shall give an account of himself to 
God.'* Hear the Saviour's prayer for unity through the 
word of the Apostles, amongst his disciples, and in his 
church,that the world might believe on him. This prayer 
he put up before he entered upon his sufferings ; and 
to accomplish the objects of which, he endured the ago- 
nies in the garden and on the cross, descended into the 
tomb, rose from the dead, and now fills bis Father's 
throne with all power in heaven and in earth. "Neither 
pray I for these (the Apostles) alone, but for th6m also 
which shall believe on me through their word ; that they 
may be one; as thou Father art in me and I in thee, that 
'they also may be one in us, that the world 'may believe 
that thou hast sent me." John xvii. 20-21. 

This is God's plan for union, and for the conversioa 
of the world, Satan*s chapter of non-essentials notwitb-. 
standing. We are constantly praying and labouring for 
the conversion of sinners among us, and for the conver-- 
sion of the heathen: — but as long as we retain our secta^ 
hn f)'/v}sjoij3 God is bound to bis Son, as far as these di" 
^ms are concetmedy not to hear our praytrs iiot \^lftaa 
"^jc erf ions. The prayer and \nterceas\oTk oi 5^^vv«> 
^ are that all Ciiristians may \>% wx^ \.\ao\3t^ Vbw^.. 


^oTi! of the A poslTes, thai the worM may beuftve in him : 
. his honor, and ^lory, and faithfulness, are bound up ia 
this order. Should oiir prayers and ex&rtions be heard,and 
biassed, in the present state of division and disunion, as 
far as they are concerned^ the Lord Jesus Christ would be 
dishonored, his truth would fail, and the covenant of the 
Father to the Son, that he iviil givQ the Jews and the 
heathen to him for his inheritance, according to the prin'* 
ciples of the new covenant in thegospel, would be brok- 
en . ^one are converted to Christ on sectarian pfincipte$ . 
Then why retain them ? The difierent sects haye not 
sufficiently realized that God in the eonveriiion of sin*- 
ners does nothing more than to make them Christians, 
and place them immediately in the love, and under the 
direction, instruction, and j^ovemmemt, of Je^us Christ. 
The enquiry of the new convert is, ^^ Lord what wilt 
thon have me to do ?" The Lord directs him to search 
the scriptures, and in them he gives precisely the same 
directionf to ally and which, when humbly received and 
practised produces the unity and happiness of the saints, 
and the employment of the means for the conversion of 
the world — Sectarianism, with the chapter of non«essen* 
tials in its hand, and with the pestilential breath that blast- 
ed men's happiness in Eden, interposes, and, as far as 
Mssible, robs the saint of the name of his Saviour, and of 
ots authority too, by giving him the name of a sut and its 
book of laws : by its subtil ity it kidnaps him, and takes 
from him his Christian liberty, and makes a galley slave 
of him to tug the balance of his days at a sectarian oar; or 
plundered of his divine inheritance as far as the univers- 
al love and fellowship of the saints, and the sweet smiles 
of the Saviour are concerned, and as far as active use- 
fulness in promoting the cowman salvation^ and human 
happiness from parts of it in the present lifej he appears 
an exile from his Father's home in a far country, en^ 
gaged in feeding swine and in eating husks^The lan- 
guage of the Saviour to such is, '^ return ye backsliding 
children and 1 will heal your backsliding ; therefore do 
ye spend money for that which is not bread ? and your 
jabour for that which satisfieth not.'* The answer of every 
Christian ought to be,^behold we come quickly unto thee, 
for thou art the Lord our God." 
I know it 13 said that all these iKmg,^ 'wV\\^^ Vt^^^ 


right when the Millenium shall come. I reply that it will 
be by the correction of these errors that the Millenial . 
day will be ushered in. It is moreover alledged that the 
didTerent sects ofChristians must be greatly changed from 
Mfhat they are at present in their religion before they will 
agree to unite upon the gospel and throw away theit 
creeds. I think otherwise— Every real Christian will 
obeylGod, rather than men. '^ My sheep," said the Sa- 
viour, *'hear my voice and they follow me — a stranger 
they will not follow." All that is needed for the restora- 
tion of the church to the Apostolic order, is that ChriS" 
tians be Christians y and act as ike disciples of Jesus Christ • 
Let them throw aside their sectarian distinctions, and 
the commandments of men, and take the name of their 
Lord, and the word of God, and cultivate mutual for- 
bearance towards each other, and tenderness for each 
other^s conscienciQUs differences in opinions acording to 
Romans xiv. and they will quickly feel the truth and 
meaning of what the Saviour said *^ if any man will do 
his will, he shall know of the doctrine whether it be of 
God." And again, *' if ye continue in my word then are 
ye my disciples indeed : and ye shall know the truth and 
the truth shall make you free*'' And, ^' if the Son shall 
make you free you shall be free indeed :-' free from 
error, and ignorance, and sectarian bigotry, and free to 
love Christ and his people and cause universally, and freo 
to he engaged in all Christian duties for promoting the 
conversion of the world, and for making mankind happy 
and glorious. 

But I am asked, whether I design to drop the ordi- 
nance of baptism by throwing away &e name of Baptist 9 
Without saying a word about sprinkling, pouring, wash- 
ing, or dipping, of adults or infants, I answer that my 
design is tiiat every doctrine and ordinance be preserved 
in their proper place according to gospel order, and that 
every thing be called by its proper name, in the fixed 
style of the Holy Ghost. *' The BaptisV^ said, ^we have 
no account in scripture of but one Baptist) ^^ Christ 
must increase but I must decrease," it is high time that 
this be the case. Paul was greater than John the Bap- 
tist, Math. xi. 11. yet he would not permit any of Christ's 
^ disciples to call themselves by his name, or by the n^me of 
^ppollosyor pfFeier. All sects may t«^e «.om^ViK«i^^<:>o^ 


among them, but that good Is common property, anil 
ought not to be limited by sectarian barriers or condi- 
tions. God makes it the duty of every Christian to op- 
pose every sectarian name and creed, and they have a 
divine right to do so, but none have a right to oppose the 
name of Christ or his oracles-— He makes it the duty of 
all who are built upon the Lord Jesus Christ by faith in 
bim, for his name^s sake to exercise tenderness an<] for- 
bearance towards each other in points of conscientioua 
differences, but never to divide, or form new sects or 
creeds. I shall say something about the origin and 
arowth and effects of creeds hereafter in promoting or- 
tikodoxyy &c. beginning with what has been falsely called 
^^ the Apostles creed." I will then address the clergy 
particularly oa their duty in these United States. 




•YO. VI. 

Oh ths BnzAKiKO ov Bread. 

IN o«r last nwnbcrwe demonstrated from rationulprlAcipTcs that 
^ere necessarily must be, and most c«rtaiiily is, a divinely institu- 
ted won^^p for Christian assemblies, and that this w oi'ship is uni- 
formly the same in all meetings of the disciples on the first day of 
the week. That the breaking of bread in commemorai ion of the sac- 
rifice of Christ is a part, or an act c/f Clu'istian worship is generally 
admitted by professors of Christianity. Romanists and protcstants 
gf almost every namoajjrce in this. The society of Fnendi form 
tiie chiefi if not the only exception in Christendom to this general 
gcknowledgment. Their religion is all spirituat^ ar;d may be suit- 
ajble to being's of some higher order than the ratural descendaiits of 
Adam and Eve. But it is too contemplative, loo metaphysicr.1, too 
sublime, for flesh and blood. We have tongues and lips where?- 
with men have been impiously cufsed,but with whiclj God should be. 
blessed* We have bodies too which have become the insfrumenta 
of unrighteousness, but wltich should be employed as instniment<) 
of rigliteousness. And S(>long as the fve senses are Xhfijive nven- 
i|es to the human understanding, and the medium of all Uvvl\\<.\ 
caramunication to the spmi of man, so long V\\\ Xx.Xi^Tvec.'i'SKx^'^i Vcv 
une them in the cultimtion and exhibvtioYk o? 'yv.tV'v w^<^ \\\\\v--^\^n , 
JTtf/ ^ire^ie ifew words f<y th.Qm in du^ iim^ i^r vi^ ^iV'i^^^'^v-^ 


laighly on many accounts. But in the mean time, ttrc sptik taiftqjVB 
who acknowledge the breaking' of brtatlXo be a (Uvine institution, 
and a part of Christian worsiiip in Christian assemblies, to be con- 
tinued not only till the Lord came and destroyed Jerusalem and the 
temple \ but to be continued until he shail come to jud^e the 

That the primitive di*eiplcs did in aU their meeting9 •n the Jim da^ 
ivfthe 'Uft:ek attend on the breaking of bread as an essenliai part of the 
heonship due their Ijord^ ice arefuliypcrsuadedf end hope to make «att>- 
fiicinrity evident to every cantUd Christian. Indeed this is alreadj 
proved from what has been said in the fifth number under this head, 
■for, if there be a divinely instituted worship for christians in their 
meetings on the first day of the week, as has been proved; if thif 
order, or these acts of worship, are uniformly the Banoe as hi|s 
been shewn j and \Uhe breaking of bread be an act of Christian wor- 
ship as is admitted by those we address : then it is fiurJy manifest 
that the disciples are to break bread m all their meetings for wor- 
ship. Tliis we submit as the first, but not the strongest arguxnciit 
in support of our position. We confess, however, that we cannot 
gee any way of eluding* its logical and legitimate ft)rce, though wc 
are aware it is not so .well adapted to everj' understanding as those 
which are to follow, ^r second argHment will be drawn from the 
nature, import, and design of the breaking^ of bread. This we shaU 
ftrst ilUistrate a little. 

Wliile Romanists, Episcopalians, Presbyterians of every gvade^ 
Independents, Methrxlists, and Baptists, &c. acknowledge the breaks 
ing of bread to be a divine institution, an act of religious worship, in 
Christian assemblies ; they all diflfer in their views of the import c^ 
the institution, the manner and limes in which it istobe obsen-edj 
and in the appendages thereunto belonging. In one idea they all 
agi'ee, that it is an extraordinary {xv.d not an ordinar)' act of Christian 
worship ; and, consequentiy, does not belonjj to the ordinary wor- 
ship of the Christian ch\irch. For this opinion they have custom 
«ind tradition to shew, but not one argument, worthy of a moments 
reflection, not even one text to adduce as a confirmation of thefr 

Quaker system into the practice of never breaking bread, just as the 
views of the clergy make and confirm Deists, 

Much darkness and superstition are found in the minds, andexhi* 
bited in the practice of the devout annual,semi^nnuaJ, and quarter} 
ly observers of the breaking of bread. They generally make ■ 
Jewish passover of it. Some of them indeed, make a Mount Sinai 
,>convocation of it. With all the bitterness of sorrow, and gloominess 
of superstition, they convert it into a religious penance accompa- 
■ nied with a morose pjety and an awful affliction of soul and body, ex- 
pressed in fiistings, long prayers, and sad countenances on sundry 
days oi humiliation, fasting, and preparation. And the only joy^ 
exfilbhted on t]ie. occasion, is, that it is a\\ over •. for which some of 
^ijcm appoint a day of thanksgiving T\\ev rejoVce \\\a.\.V\vt^' Vwt 
^proachcd the very base of Mount Sitrn u\Chui^b's 8Vot\"^ ^x ^!«?1. 


fa the oppobite degrees^xf their ascent to, and descent from this pre- 
tematurai solemnity, their piety js equal. In other wonis, thej arc 
.as ..pious on.e week or ten weeis after, us tliej vcre one week or teu 
.weeks i)efore.. If there be .any thing fiiy called superstnon in 
^h is day and country, this pre tjninenily dc8t*r>es the nan\e. A 
A'olume would be by far too small to esdiibit.all the abiuies ot this su- 
cred institution in the present age. 

The intelligent Ckristian views it in j^iite another light It is to 
2ijm as sacred and solemn as prayer tu iiod, and as jo}i'ul m Uv.^. 
hope of immortality and eternal life. His hopv before ti(ul, eprmg- 
ing from the death of his Sou, is grartefuUy ej^hibitcd .and expres.std 
:l>y him in the observance of this institution. ^Vhiie he par t.ii pules of 
^he symbolic loaf he shews his taith in, and his life upon t!ic ijveiidof 
^fe. While he tastes the emblematic cup, lie nf members the new- 
covenant confirmed by the blood of the Lord. Willi s^rcd j'>\ an*] 
■blissful hope he hears the .Saviour say, "this is my body hroKt-n, this 
jny blood shed /or yoK." "Hhen heifeachesfortbUiose liv.el.y.ef»l»Ienv-j 
■jpf his Saviour's lovp to his Christian brethren, the philanthropy of 
God fills his heart, and excit^es con'espoiKleut feelings to i/iosc; 
shaiun^ witti him the salvation -of the J^oixl. UM'e he knjows n.c .man 
after the flesh. Tiea-that sprii^g from eternal love revealed in blood, 
and addressed to his senses in ^-mbols adapted to ibe who!/; man, 
draw forth »dl that is within him of complacent affectioku and I'ei linjc 
to those joint heirs witih bim of the grace of etej'.raj Jitc. '^Vhile it 
represents to him all the salvation of the Lpjxl, M is the ptivngth of 
his faith* the joy of his hope. And the life -tf his Love. It chcrishi a 
^he peace of God} and inscj-ibes the i;piage of God upon his hear', 
«nd leaves not out of view the revival of his h,o<iy;fiom *}vc dust o.-f 
.death, ,atWi its gioriou? transfurmatio^ to tlie JikcRess.of the Son (.f 

It is an institution full ^f ^v'^sdom and goodfles^ .^e^^en- .way adapt.. 
^ to the Christian iciind* As br^d a,nd wine to the body, a-p it 
^rengthens.bis fsutb and cheers bis heart with the iov.c.of Goii. It 
is a cpligious feast ; a feast of joy and gladness ; ttv,e happiest jocca.i 
Mon, and the sweetest antcpast on >c.arth, <tf the society aad enter- 
iainment of heaven, that iportals meet withoo their nay to tlie li^c 
iOanaan. J[|''Such be its nature and inrip.v.rt, and suich its*<ie;9ign,. sky, 
ye aaintfi, whether this act .of Christian w.oirship vovhl hit a privi^ 
fere» OT;a pain, in all your meetingjs for edificatioji and worshcp. Tf -. 
jit be apy pax>€Jf of the kindness oi'the SavioMf to insUtAite it at all, 
jorould it not Jbe a ^ciater proof to allow the sai^?u in all their meet-- 
ings to have i^is token of hJs Joy.e set be^re thejn, and tl»ej' called 
to partake } if it w£r^ goodneas and grape on i^s paiPt to allow yoti 
t^-ice a year va y.our meetings the pi4vilege, w^nild ii^^ot V« i?iex- 
pressibly jgreat^r goodness & grace to .aUoy you X he j^ast in »H wjur 
jneetinga. But reverse th<e .ca^, and «orve;* it int-o ^i3j ;^wf.ul ail4 
fifrievous penance, and then gi^ce is «7:hiJbitcd in not enf*>r«ifvg *i * 
but leldora.. On this view ofit, if it ,b<B |in flyat of favoyy kq eoijvmajK^ 
it only tvirice 4 y.w, it would be a gre^ifeT ^twoA\o C4wvtw.\vA.\v>D!vjX 
twice or once €fnrmg]jfe, Just th^tw aa v»e uTAet%\5MrA. \^'^ va^»»^ 
^§J!h} fiefiifn will its frequeticy appejjijr (^ t»yQ\)3C .9T ftftfi^iTi- 


It is acknowlcdg'cd to be a blissful privilege, and this acknowl- 
edgment, whether sincere or feigned, accords with fact. It was the 
design of the Saviour that his disciples should not be deprived of 
this joyful festival when they meet jn one place to worship God. It 
will appear, if it does not already to the candid reader of these num- 
bers, that the Kew Testament teaches that every time they met 
in honor of the resurrection of the J'rince <j/* /«/<?, or when they a«- 
aembleia ont ptc^ce, it was a principle part of their entertainment, in 
his liberal house, to eat and drink witli likn. He keeps no dry lodg. 
ings for the suints; no empty house for his friends. He iievjui 


generous and philantrhopic heart never sent his disciples hungry 
away. He did not assemble them to weep and wail, and starve with 
him. No : he commands them to rejoice always, and bids them eat 
and drink abundantly. 

Man is a social animal. As the thirsty hind pants for the brooks 
of water, so man pants for society congenial to his mind. He feels 
a relish for the sociSl hearth, and the social table. Because the feast 
of sentimental and congenial minds is the feast of reason. Man, alone 
and solitary, is but half blessed in any circumstances; alone and sol- 
jt^r\', he is like the owl in the desert, and pelican in the wilderness. 
The uocial feast is the native ofl'spring of social minds. Savage or 
civilized, man has his social fire, and his social board. And shall 
ihe Christian house and family be always the poorest and the emp« 
tiest under heaven ? Is the Lord of Christians a churl ? Is he sor- 
dlidly selfish, is he parsimoniously poor and niggardly ? Tell it not 
amongst the admirers of anniversaries, publish it not amongst the 
frequenters of any humuu association ; lest the votaries of Ceres re- 
joice ; lest the sons of liacchus triumph ! 

Tlic Christian is a inaTi. He has the feelings of a man. He has 
a taste for society, but It is the society ot kindred minds. The reli- 
gion of Jesus Chribt is a religion for men,- for rational, for social, 
for grateful bt-ings. it has its feasts, and its joys, and its extacies 
too. The I.ord's house is his banqueting place, and the Lord's day 
is his weekly festival. 

But a sacrament, an annual sacrament, or a quarterly sacrament, 
J3 like the oalli of a Roman soldier, from which it derives its name> 
of^en taken witii reluctance^ and kept with bad faith. It is as sad as a 
funeral parade. The knell of the parish bell that summonses the 
mourners to tlie house of son'ow, and the tocsin that awakes the re- 
collectiini of & sacramental mom, are heard with equal dismay and 
aversion. The seldomer they occur the better. We speak of them 
as they appear to be, and if they are not what they appear 
to be, they are mere exhibitions of hyprcrisy and deceit, and serve 
no other purpose than as they create a market for silks and cali- 
roes, and an occasion for the display of beauty and fashion. 

Amongst the crowds of the tlioughtless and superstitions that 

frequent them, it is rcastinsible to expect to find a few sincere and 

^ievoui, but this will not justify iheir character ; else the worship- 

pers of saints and i^ngcls might be excused, tot ir»«.^\v lif the sincere 

^ai^ 1 1 'J re u i <;:: v amen . * 


From the nature and design of the breaking of bread we would 
argue its necessity and importance as a part of the entertftinment of 
sai'its in the social worship of the Lord in their assemblies lor h»9 
praise and their comfort. We cannot prosecute the subject farther 
at present. We have been preparing the way for opening the New 
Testament in our next number, to produce evidence and authority 
of a higher order. In the mean time let the Christian who appre- 
hends the nature, meaning, and design of this institution, say, 
whether it be probable that it is, or could be an cxtraordivory ob- 
servance, and not an ordinarj- part of Christian worship in the mect- 
in"r of saints. ' Kd. 


WHEREAS the Rev. Mr. Blackburn, D. D. a Pi-os- 
byterian, of the town of Louisville, Kentucky, lias de- 
clared that he did, in a sermon pronounced in Frank- 
foii;, ^'s-weep from the arena''* the sentiments and views 
oxpi^cssed by me in an address deiivei*cd in the cham-- 
ber of the Representatives of the state of Kent^icky in 
November last, and that in my presence too ; (in this 
point, liowcver, he is mistaken, as i wasir Lexington the 
time he spoke on that subject) this is to inform the said 
Rev. Mr. Blackburn, D. D. that I am pi'cjiaivd to de- 
fend, illustrate, and establish those sentiments and 
views before his face, and where he shall liave vm cqiial 
liberty of opposing all he has to say in defence of Ins 
views and sentiments on the same subject. It \s\\\ be 
remembered by many present at that time in Frankfort, 
that the most offensive item in my address, and tho 
most obnoxious to the displeasure of tlie priestliood was, 
"that it was no part of the revealed design of the Sa- 
viour to employ clergymen, or an order of men resem- 
bling the priesthood, in the diffusion, spread, or prog- 
ress of his religion in the world. In brief, that the 
Tjohole Paidobapttst priesthood is an order of men unau^' 
thorized of heaven. They are neither coiTstituted, com- 
missioned, nor authorized hy the Head of tlie church to 
officiate in any one of their assumptions." 

I would most respectfully inform the Rev. Mr. Black- 
burn, D. D. that I feel ready, as far asmm^ix?., \.^^vs^- 
tend for the ti'utb o£ every sentimowl ^iSxvjcsvc^^ wv^^ 

16 THE CUM^TtA^ ^'^ 


Subject > ami any disposed, all things concurring, {9:| 
tticct liini any whei*e, within 100 miles of Lout^ ille, irf ^ 
the month of May or June nextk* for the discussion of that 
{proposition. I engage, upon his taking the affirmative^ 
to shew that the whole fraternity of Paidobaptist cler^- 
iiien> divines^ of' ministers, isa human institution^ nei- 
fiier commanded, appointed. Or decreed of Crod, to officii* 
ate in the office wlikh they have assumed; that alE 
Ihcir right so to officiate i^si[ilf-constituted and bestow^ 
ed ; a«d is supported merely by a laity whose conscien-- 
«es are, in tl»is vespett, created and made by those 
priests that made and ci*eatcd themselves, and who 
J^rcached the people into a deep sense of the reverence 
due to them ad tlie Lord's anointed ones. 

I wtnild wish to have it distinctly understood that 
l!he whole grounds of debate on this subject are express- 
ed in the following proposition, viz. 

** That the Freslji/terian cler^^ or any other fratemi" 
^y of Paidobaptist clergy^ is an order of men divinely: 
constituted and authorized,*^ 

. The Doctor and his brethren say that tiiis proposi- 
tion is true as far as respects their denomination; lam 
Constrained to think, and thci-cfoi-e say, that it isyjz/s^.- 

Now as public discussion, conducted with modera- 
tion and gfiod temper, is of all means the best adapted 
to elicit enquiry, and exhibit trtftli, I am constrained, 
ivom a sense of the high importance- of this question, 
to pn)posc, should tiic Doctor decline; to meet in con- 
ifei*etiice any minister of the synod of Kentucky, on this 
proposition : arid should they all decline calling this- 
matter into question, i will agree,- as &tr as in my pow- 
ur, to meet any mlnistfei^ df ftarning and good stand-* 
ing, of any denomination, who will agi^ee to support the 
above proposition or any one equivalent thereunto, and 
endeavor to shew that it is as false as the assumptions 
of the Roman Pontiff. 

Asthc Dbctbrhas boasted that he has already " swept 
from the arena" my sentiments and views on this sub-- 
/ec% it /fives a peculiar direction to this invitation to* 
iiOL Mjr (iiffjr j.'CQuires mc to give Vam ^ vv^XaviiKifcux-' 


\ itation to do it again in my presence and before all 
who may please to heai* liim do it. He shall have eve- 
ry respect due to his standing and i-cputation, and I 
hereby pledge myself to submit to any rules of deco- 
rum any three respectable citizens sbail appoint ; one 
of them being chosen by him, another by me, and a 
third by those t\^^o. 

[ do not suppose tliat any intelligent man, or any 
friend to free enquiry will snarl at this proi)osal. If 
it be lawful to advance a proposition, it is lawful to de- 
fend it; and if it be lawful to defend, it is lawful to do- 
fend it in tlie pi'esence of them wlio say they can assail 
it. And if it be lawful, genei-ous, and (christian like, 
to attack the sentiments of those whose views difllVr 
from our own, in tlieir absence, it is surely as Clirii:- 
tian like, as generous, and as lawful to do so in their 
piTsence. And if the Doctor has done all he says 
he has done once, he can more easily do it a se- 
cond time,' and to much gi-eater advantage. Few com- 
paratively had the benefit of liis addi^ess on that occa- 
sion : many would have the benefit of his views in such 
a full discussion. Public feeling, the circumstances 
of the times, zeal for truth^ and a respect to all that is 
manly, good, and fair, render this call upon this di- 
vine truly imperative. 

Julij 16, 1825. A. CAMPBEl^.. 

IT affords us peculiar satisfaction to publish the following" docT- 
ments in attestation of the injustice of certain accusations preferred 
agrainst the honorable John M*Glean, Post- Master General, publish- 
ed in the *^ J^^ational Republican" some weeks since, copied in the 
" JfllirUiigton Ar£^ts" and m)ticedby us in our .Tune number. Wc 
deem it our duty, even on probable evidence, to notice and ex- 
pose every encroachment upon our religious and civil liberties, 
"without respect of persons; — and under this conviction g-uve the 
substance of those impeachments under the head of " Jieligions 
Proscription" being* aware if they "wcve T\o\.VT\i^,\Xv^^ c,wj\s\.\vRk\.\^- 
Jure the reputation of the persons accuse<\,Wv\\^«\^Vs^ vi^vw^^'^'^^ 
ready tog-ive currency to any apologv, v\t\^\c«l^AOX\^ ^t v^siCv^^^ 
of those whom censorious ins'irVimwn^Qa XTTiT^euicXies «t c^x^.^^waif 



Washington Citt, June 25, 4825^ *»• ^ 

Sin — A friend has enclosed to me the twenty-third number of 
the «* Christian Baptist," which contains an article imputing to my- 
self and others, the most reprehensible conduct, respecting the re- 
moval of Mr Shaw, who was lately sub -agent at Sandusky, in Ohio. 
Believing that you will not refuse an act of justice, when by giving 
currency to falsehood you have done an injury, I have to ask of 
you to publish the following statement of facts. I do not pretend 
that you are responsible for your publication, as it was substantial- 
ly taken from the "National Republican" published in Cincinnati. 
The refutation, which shortly followed in the same paper, seems 
not to have attracted your attention. 

The duties of an agent at Sandusky were so inconsiderable, asj 
in the opinion of the Secretary of war, to render the expense of an 
ajjent unnecessary. The office was therefore discontinued, and Mr. 
Findly, who superintends the school at that place, answers the pur- 
pose of an agent, without any cotnpensation. 

This arrangement was made without my knowlfdge or agency* 
Mr. Calhoun made the order, the evening before he left Washing- 
ton on a Western tour, and the letter, announcing the fact to Mr. 
Shaw, was probably mailed the next day, and if so, it was franked by 
me, as I franked all the letters from the war department during the 
sibsence of the Secretary. He was absent about three weeks — Af- 
ter his return, I learned' from him, for the first time, that he ha^ 
abolished the sub-agency at Sandusky. 

I never ma<le, to any one, an unfriendly statement against Mr- 
Shaw, or in the least prejudicial to his interest. Of him I have no 
personal knowledge. 

As for the motives attributed to me in the above publication, and 
which, from your remarks, you evidence no unwillingness to be- 
lieve, you must suflfer me to say, that every feeling, of which I sm 
conscious, abhors them. 

I am respectfully, 

Your obedient servant, 


To the Editor of the "Christian Baptist," 

We have, in coroboration of these documents, to state that we saw 
a letter from the department of state, dated May l&sU franked hy Mr. ' 
M*Clean, the contents of which were no doubt unknown to Mr. 
M'Clean, and this might have as readily, and as correctly, been the 
ground of a charge against him, had the contents of it been of such 
a nature as to create any suspicion.— £</. 

Moral les^o.n. — When a man of integrity in any department of life 

h falsely accused, he defends himself or is defended by others by the 

wenpons of reason and evidence; but wheixll^e ^vi\\\7 «t<i.vrev^^w,\i« 

e/, they are silent; or, if they attempt to Atf^Tv^L tYvtms^W^^ \\ 

js by calumny and detractlrn. As the same fvTet\v2X tox\sv\Tt\%* ^^v^ 


I'tf THE Editor op the Christian Baptist. 

Jieaver Creek, fX. Y.J J\Xay 30rA, 1825. 

. f)x4ii Sir — I have read a series of numbers of the Christian Baj/' 
fist with interest, and am much* i>lcascd with your professing' to dis- 
card from your' creed every thiiv^ that has not the exptcus taneti^nt 
of the Holy Scriptures. These, it I riffh-tfy understand you, you con- 
sider the christian's 07»/y rule of i'aith and practice. Thus far 1 cor- 
dially ag^ee with you. I am likewise much pleased with your geii- 
erous oiler to publish^ in the Christian Baptist, any well written- 
piece in opposition to' any sentinvenf you have therein advanced. 
l^rom the above, I have taken th^ liberty to present the following^ 
queries for you^ inspection, presuming' you will feel no reluctanco' 
to g^ve a reason for an^ thing you believe or practise. 

M'^here have the scriptures declared that flie New Testament is 
e^sclusively the ChrislianV guide f 

Where do you find authority for calling the first day of the week 
" Lord's day ?" 

AVhere are you commanded to celebrate the resurrection of ChristT 
every week ? 

In all my Biblical researches I have never been able to find a 
T^arrant for either. 

That the ceremonial law ia- abolished) and that the political law 
of the Jews never was obligatory on any oth^r nation, I cheerfully 
admit. But that the moral law was confined to the Jews, or that it 
lias ever been abrogfatedr-Ihtive yet to leam. If I do not mis&ppre^ 
&end the New Testament writers, they have every where, (when 
speaking of the moral law) spoke of it with respect. *< Think not," 
says the Saviour, << that I am come to destroy 'the law or the proph- 
ets ; I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil," &c. Math. v. 17— -19. 
To argue that he came to fulfil, and' thereby destroy it, Would be 
directly charging him with self-contradiction. If he destroyed it by 
fulfilling it, then he accomplished what he never came to do. Be- 
sides I cannot conceive how a man could justly be censured for' 
breaking one of these commandmentsj or for teaching* others so to 
do, if Christ had destroyed^ the whole. Many other places might 
be quoted, where the New Testament writers " estabhsh the law." 

If the scriptures do not call- the first day Lord's day, and we take 
the liberty to apply that title to it^ or if Gdd'has-not commanded us 
to celebrate the resurrection of Christ weekly, and yet we attend 
to it ; in either case we arc found on Paldobaptist ground ; and if 
we can walk with them thus far without an express- warrant, 1- con- 
ceive we cannot censure them for sprinkling infants, without mani- 
festing the most glaring inconsistency. 

As m the second volume of the Christian Baptist you refer to the 
first, I have taken the liberty to send you the numbers of our Mag- 
azine complete, and request you in turn to send us the first volume 
of the Christian Baptist. We have suspended the publication of our 
Magazine for a short period, but expect toresume it soon. We lx\-^ 
vite voa to a cordial perusal of its contents, Vv\ vj\\\0\^^vl '^^ ^^^!^ 
gerenJ t^^pograpbicsd errors, especially in W\ct fe^vi, \Ax.\.0^ ^'^*'' 
mlihavG the goodness to correct in rcadliig. 


Wc cheerfully reciprocate ywur offer to publish in our future 
numbers any friendly remarks in opposition to any thing published 
in our Magazine. We conceive that free enquiry is the open road 
to truth, and if we are wrong, we will thank our friends to set us 
right. I flatter myself that you will give an answer to my queries, 
cither in the Christian Baptist or by letter. 

Yours respectfully, 


To Mr. Eli S. Bailey, one of ihe Editors of the Seventh 

Day Baptist Magazine, 
DsAR Sm, 

I am ready to give you a reason for my belief and practice 
touching those things whereof you enquire of me. In relation to 
your 1st query, I have to object to the terms in which it is proposed. 
The example of Abraham and of the Jewish worthies, together 
with many of the admonitions and precepts found in the Jewish 
scriptures, may be, and doubtless are, of importance to guide and 
encourage Christians in the right way. The things, too, that hap- 
pened unto the Jews, happened unto them for ensamples, and they 
are written for our admonition upon whom the ends of the world 
arc come ; consequently, of use to guide us. But if you ask- 
Where do the scriptures of the prophets or apostles declare that 
the apostolic writings are to be our exclusive guide in the Christian 
religion, I am prepared to say, that we are expressly, and repeated- 
ly taught, in all matters of religious observance, or of Christian 
obedience, to be guided by Jesus the Messiah, and not by Moses s 
by the apostles, and not by the Jewish prophets. The law was 
given by Moses, but grace and truth came by Jesus Christ. Now 
Hoses commanded the people to obey that prophet whom tlie Lord 
should raise up unto them, like unto him. Moses and Elias, when 
they descended from heaven and laid their commission at his feet, 
recognized his character as the One, or only Christian lawgiver ; 
and a voice from the excellent glory commanded the disciples to 
hear the beloved Son when Moses and Elias were taken to heaven. 
The law and the prophets also were to continue only until the seed 
came, for the law and the prophets were until John ; but since, that 
time a new religion and a new kingdom were set up. Christians 
are declared not to be under the law, but under the gospel, or the 
grace. Even the- Jews, who believed in Jesus, as the prophet and 
king whom God sent unto Israel, were said to be like a woman 
whose former husband was dead, no longer bound to obey him ; 
but at liberty to be married to, and to become subject to another 
lord or husband. Indeed a considerable part of the Epistles to 
the Romans, Galatians, and almost all the Epistle to the Hebrews, 
are written to prove that believers in Christ are not under 
Moses a« a guide in the Christian religlQu, but under Christ, 
who is a Son over his own house ; and not a servant in another's 
house like Moses. Moses, as a servant, faithfully delivered laws 
to the people over whom he reigned ; but Jesus Christ, as a son, 
fi-Zres Mws to those over whom he reigtvs, 3^ owt ipTo\v\v^V ^'cA 




.kiii^. Fop further reasons why we believe that we are now to con- 
^nuc in the Apostles' doctrine, and submit to thcni exclusively iti 
Christ's house, see C B. vol. 1, p. 145-^151. 'I'o this ac{d, that 
when Jesus promised thrones to the Apostles ih his church, he \ct\ 
none for Moses, nor Elias. — Not Moses, but the tvelve Apostles of 
the Lamb, were to judge, or give statutes to Israel. And >\ hen the 
Great King commissioned them, he commanded them to teach only 
what Ae commanded tliem. "Teach the disciples," said he, "to 
observe all things whatsoever / have comnianded you." The J is 
inclusive of all Christ commanded, and exclusive of every thing 
else. Hence, so long as we believe the Apostles to bt faithful men, 
their example, or the examples of the churches whom they com- 
mended, are exactly of the same force as a broad precefit. If you 
had seen tlie 1st volume of this work and the address alluded to, a 
copy of each i have now sent you, I think tliose questions would 
. have appeared to you unnecessar}, at least the first one. 

Under the new constitution all disciples live if they knew it ; and 
if you go back to Moses for a Sabbath, you may go back to him for 
a new moon, a holy day, or what you please. And indeed we are, 
and must be confessed to be, either under tiie old constitution or the 
new. We cannot be under both. We cannot live under the En- 
glish and American constitution at the same time. If [ were to go 
to Moses for a ** acventh day Sabbath" I should not blush to take 
from him an eighth day circumcision, or an annual pussover. 1 have 
paid a good deal of attention to your Magazine, par icularly on this 
topic of your peculiarity, and must think that you are inconsistent 
in telling me any thing about paido-baptist ground. But I should 
be glad to see the seventli da^' kept by those who have a consci- 
ence in this matter, as the law requires; and perhaps in keeping it 
this way, at least once in a life time, they mignt become enlighten- 
ed in its meaning. Please see vol. 1, p. 161-- 169. 

Your second question I will briefly answer : — For the same rea- 
son that Paul calls the table on which the emblems of Christ's death 
are exhibited the Lonl's table, we call the day on which he rose 
^rom the dead and brought hfe and immortality to light, the Lord*s 
day. It is true that every day in the week, as some say, is the 
]x>nl's; and so is every table in tlie world ; for " the earth is the 
Lord's and the fullness thereof," yet an apostle once calls this tabic 
the Lord*t table. But if this reason will not be satisfactory to all, 
we have another. We have as much reason to believe that the first 
day of the week is once called by an Apostle tlie JjovtCa day, as we 
■ have to believe that the table alluded U} is once called the Lord's — 
"I was in the Spirit on the Lord's day." JSow after hearing all 
. that I could hear, and reading all that I could read, from the Sabba- 
tariane and others on these words, 1 must contctid that no meaning* 
can be aiKxed to them from any thing in the whole record but that 
tiie writer intended the day of the Lord's resurrection. For if he 
« meant the gospel day, as some would have it, then the Apostle de- 
grades himself to a puerility, incompatible with his standing: as a 
man, much more as an Apostle. For a8\^e \v\v^a^i^e<5LVo^'t<^\'>^v^^'^^ 
reader M^dresscd with that day in his exWe o\\ v^WtcYvYwcTtt^wtC^'^ 
j-evetation, to have taken a name that 'was as m<Vi^vvv\t ;sa\>cv<i. Vvv 


atV.zt time, as expressive of »ny partkiUar daj*, would have ieeu 
childish in the extreme.. 

But, again, the first day of the week is empliatically the Lord'^ 
^(ir thiij reason, that on this day he was begoiten. At least 
•f'aiil says so. 6ee his application yf a part of the second psalm. 
Acts xiii. 34. ^* This n %r have f begotten thee, my Son,*' Now these 
•^Tfi my reasons, at least a number of them, fox some times calling; 
this d'*y the horxPs day. J -say some tijnes, for I am not tenacioit« 
.about its name. If you conscientiously prefer calling' it th« Itr8.i 
/dmj of the week, and regard it to tlie Lord as ttie irst Christians 
,did, I am not conscientiously weak about the nanie, and should 
never force what may be a. conclusion .of my mind upon the religi- 
.ous practice of Mhers. For I wijU at once admit tliat these reasons 
:may not carry the same weight to every mind* B.ut as yon de- 
manded my reasons for so denoB»Bating it in this way, {which is 
far from being a giCneral practice,) I have given you them freely. 
They are at your service. 

An ar>3wer to your 3d query y.ou will find in the 6tli^nd Tth Kos. 
on the ** Restoration of the Ancient Order of Thing*.** This is of 
jnore importance than the .«am« wegive the day. 

I feel j^ratified with the spirit ami tepvper of your Ijetter, and an) 
only sorry that my limits forbid me giving 4t .a more Xeogthy notice. 
The Kumbers which I have sent you, and which yoa had not seen 
before writing your conmiunicatlon of the 3iOth ult. ^e, 1 think, a 
full answer to the subject matter of your queries; and much mor^ 
Mnimitethan I could now find room for> I would request you to ex- 
amine very closely tJie two articles referred to, i;i the Jst vol.— and 
•to consider tjbem as sin answer to ywjr diffieujties uppxi the Sabbath 
day ^f the Jews, and the Lord *6 day. 

The distinctions of moral, politicui, ^nd ceremonial law, which 
-fun throuf^h your Mag^izine and letter, are of the same family with 
jnfant baplii»m. Some might make them twin sisters ; but 1 would 
ratl^er view them »s the eider aod youji^er branches of th^ sain^ 

Your quotation of M^'th. v.\17, is entlrelyirreievaBt, as it equally 
.-Applies to ycHM* ceremonial as to your moral law, and he was as 
exact in tlie ritual of B^Qses as any other minister of the circumci* 
«ion^ it applies to the prophets too« »s well m to the law i yet it i« 
said of him that he delivered his brethren tlijg ,Jew.3 from the law, 
and that when tlie object of faith was come, they were no longer un* 
.der a school^riMstei', Jn Ciontending for thie du£ observance of the 
JLord's dav we establish the law->r-as Paul did by faiths But in makinjp 
.t^abbajUi days for Gentiles in this northern latitude, W£ put a yo|ce om 
the necks of the disciple?, which makes Ch^t of a<) Irttle eflTect tQ 
Jthem as he was to thos^ ^^ho circumciaed in prder to he saved. 
Yours regpecfully. A, pAMPPELJL. 


(S^y Switir^ articlee .and CQfnmiwififltiojis fiuvfi peen i^rou^ed cut of 
4hj8 number i »o»ne nf -which viU appear m <>«r 7ifijf:t.i^}Ve had tome 
^ JfAouj'^^jff of enlarging this w^rk at tficcheie/^ thi fiecendvolnpi^, bug 
W^r 2far/Qt/9 reasons jshall have to continue it in its |n^«»en( eice fop 
W»/>i/Tr vpfwne^^-^fTe hope the ttfpop^aph} ittjiU ^e bctttr «;c9^t${[ •ll^ 
mf^'i^^'/.f fAe preceding t*9lyniff. 


©ia®a©'iPaA^ ©iiip^ag'^; 

JVb. 2— Fo/: HI] BUFF ALOE, Sept. 5, X825. [W'Ao/eJV'o. 26 

Style no man on earth ^'our Father: for he alone is your faihcr 
who is in heaven; and all ye are brethren. Assume not the title 
of Rabbi; for ye have only one teacher:— Neither assume the title 
of leader; for ye have only one leader — tlie Messiafi. Math. xxTii, 
8—10. Campbell's TransUition. 

Prove all things: holdfast that which is g-ood. 

fPavlthe .1pG!ttle. 

I ■ ■ I ■ I I ■ m 


Of the Origin and Formal ion of the ir:^lminstei\ or PrcS" 

byterian Confssicn of Fa'itli. 
.VO. IV. 

THE parliament ordained, April 26, '645--''That 
no person shall be permitted to preach who is not op- 
daioed a minister in this or some other reformf^d church, 
except such as intend the ministry, who shall be allowed 
for the trial of their ftifts, by those that shall be appointc^d 
thereunto by both houses of parliament^ and it i? earn:- 
estly desired, that Sir Thomas Fairfax ;'a military chief- 
tain) take care that this ordinance be put into execution 
iQ the array. It is further ordered to be sent to the 
lord mayor, and committee of the militia in fiOndon, to 
the governors and commanders of all forts, «;arrisonp, 
forces, cities, and towns, with the like injunctions; and 
the mayor, sheriffs, and justices of the peace, are to 
cqjnmtt all offenders to safe custody, and give notice to 
the parliament who will take a speedy course for their 
punishment.''* This is the way to make and establish 
orthodoxy, and to shew the divine insti(ution of the 
clergy and presbytery, without the trouble of interro- 
gaUng the twelve Apostles. Thus the clergy had their, 
nps opened, and the laity had theiis shut, by tlye laws 
of the land; — and the military, and other rulers were to 
guard the consciences of the people with a drawn sword. 

" At the same time the lords sent to the assembly of 
dWines, to prepare a new direciorij ifqr tfie OTdvtiQ.ti<>tVi of 

fAcfTf me:ori». Vol. lU. Tnge 2G1. 

ft5^ THE CHRIStiAI* 

ministers of the church in England^ without the presenc;^ 
of a diocesan bishop. This took up a great deal of 
time by reason of the opposition it met with from the 
£rast^ans and Independents, but was at last accomplish- 
ed and passed into an ordinance Nof. 8, 1645, and was 
to continue in force, by way of trial, for twelve months. 
On the 38th of August following it was prolonged for 
three years, at the expiration of which time it was made 

The two fundamental rules of this neto directory^ 
which is now thought by many to be as old as Paul's 
time, ran thus — First- '^ The person t(* be ordained must 
apply to the presbytery, with a testimonial of his tak« 
ing the covenu7itj of his proficiency in his studies, &c.'' 
Whether he can conjugate tuptoj and decline Ate, hacy 
hoc J Sfc. S^c.-^ Second, *' He is then to pass under an ex- 
amination as to his religion and learning, and call to th§ 
fninistru'^^ If he be called of God, as Aaron was, to be 
a high priest, and can tell how religious he is, he is then 
to be anointed by the presbytery;— if nof, he 'must re- 
turn to the plough, or loom, and forever after hold his 

peace. r Laslly^ *' ft is resolved. That all persons 

ordained according to this directory shall b% forever re- 
puted, and taken to all intents and purposes, for lawful- 
ly, and sufficiently authorised ministers of the church of 
England, and as capable of any ministerial e*^pioyment 
in the church, as i^ny other presbyter already ordained^ 
or hereafter to be ordain pd.*'-*So this point is made or- 
thodox and of divine authority^ 

The Independents maintained the right of every par- 
ticulfii' eongrei;ation to ordain its oun officers. This 
was debated ten days. The arguments on both sides 
were afterwards pn|)lisbed in a book titled ^*The GrancI 
Debate between Presbytery and Independency.'' At 
length the question was put — " that it is requisite no sin^^ 
gU conp^regation^ that can conveniently associate wilk 
others^ should assume to itself the' sole right of ordination/^ 
It was voted in the affirmative. The following distin- 
guished ministers enteied their dissent. Thos. Good* 
wine, Phil. N3?e, Jer. Bi^iTPWS, 8. Simpson, W, Bridge, 
yy, GreeDhll], and VV. Garter. The majority, how€?eV| 
— ■ ■ - ■ 


ruled, and in such cases alivays regulates the consci* 
ence, and decides what is divine— For the voice of the 
majority is the voice of God. 

^^tt was next debated, whether ordination might pre* 
cede election to a particular cure or charge." That is^ 
whether a man might be married without a wife^ an^ 
afterwards take whom he could get, bj virtue of his 
marriage, or whether a man might be appointed to a 
charge, without having any.— This could not be fairly 
carried and was compromised with the Independentu, 
who agreed to the imposition of hands in the ceremony 
of ordination, *^ provided that it was attended with an open 
declaration, that it was not intended^s a conveyance of 
office power J*^ 
, A debate of thirty day$ was held in the assembly on 
(his proposition ;— *^ thai the scripture holds forth that many 
particular congregations may^ and bt divine authority 
OUGHT, to be under one presbyterial gove^iiment." The 
£Irastians would not except against the presbyterial go v 
emment, as sl political institution^ but opposed the claim 
c{ divine right. But the Independents opposed the u hole 
proposition and advanced a counter divine right of Inde* 
I>endency. Fifteen days they took the part of opponents^ 
9Lnd fifteen days they were upon the defensive. 

The chief enquiries were concerning the constitution 
and form of Uie first church of Jerusalem; the subordi* 
nation of synods, and of lay elders. The Independents 
maintained that the church ofJerusalem wa&oiu congrega^ 
tion; the Presbyterians affirmed that there T^ere many 
congregations in this City, under one presbytery. The 
ablest critics in the assembly, such as Dr. Temple, S el- 
den, Lightfoot, Coleman, and Vines, &c. were divided 
upon this bead, but it was carried for the Presbyterians. 
The Jewish Sanhedrim was proposed in the assembly as 
a model for their Christian presbytery, and great skill 
in the Jewish antiquities was exhibited in this part oi 
the debate, in setthng what were the respective power;* 
of the ecclesiastical and civil courts under the law. 

As the reader, not acquainted with the origin of the 
present religious institutions, will be curious to know 
how the lay elders or ruling elders g,ot \ivto ^itUtetvce^ 
we shall, while DOticing these ptocefeOATV^^ ol^^ '^^^^ts^ 
bijr, just rework, that while thev m^to cis^^a^^W!.^^^ 


the constitution of the Jewish Sanhedrim, and defining iia 
ecclesiastical and civil powers; it was remarked "that 
Moses appoMited that he that should not hearken to the 
priest or the judge should die, Deut xvii. 1'2.'* It was in- 
ferred in favour of church power that the priest held one 
court,and the civil magistrate another^ but Mr. Selden ob- 
served that the Vulgate Latin, Hill within these 40 years, 
read thus — Qui non obediverit Sacerdoii ex decretojudi- 
€is morittur. He that will not obey the priest shall die 
by the sentence of the judge. Mr. Lightfoot added, 
that when the judges of inferior courts went up to Jeru- 
salem, by way of appeal, it was only for advice and 
consultation; but when the question was put for a 
subordination of synods and lay elders as so many 
courts of judicatures, with power to dispense church cen- 
siires, it was carried in the affirmative, and asserted in 
their humble advice to parliament, with this addition — 
*^ So Christ has furnished some in his churches besides 
ministers of the word with gifts for government, and 
with commission to execute the same when called there- 
unto, who are to join with the minister in the govern- 
ment of the church, which officers the Reformed church- 
es generally call elders, ^^ — Hence their name> authority, 
and office. 

When this point was carried by a large majority the 
Independents entered their dissent in writing and com- 
plained to the world " of the unkind usage they met 
with in the assembly jlhat the papers they offiered were not 
read, and that they were not allowed to state their own 
questions, being told they set themselves industriously 
to puzzle the cause and render the clearest propositions 
obscure, rather than argue the truth or falsenesss of 
them;— that it was not worth the assembly's while to 
spend so much time in debating with so inconsiderable a 
number of men — They also declared that the assembly 
refused to debate their main proposition — viz. Whether 
a divine right of church gov eitiment did not remain with ci>- 
ery particular congregation.^^ To all which, says Mr. 
]Neal, it was replied, that the assembly were not con- 
scious they had done them any injustice, and as for the 
rest, they were the proper judges of their own methods 
^f proceeding. So these matters were carried in the 
^esttniaster «,«5emJblv. — 'Jut the !£; \\i^^^ xt^^xx^'ik. 



themselves for the house of commons, where they were 
sure to be joined in opposing these decisions of the as- 
sembly by all the patrons of the Independents. For it 
mattered not what was decided by the assembly, it was 
neither divine nor orthodox until sanctioned by the par- 
liament The English and Scots commissioners were 
very solicitous about the fate of this do^ma of the divines 
in the house of commons, and were determined to carry 
the point bv stratagem. The scheme was to carry the 
question before the house should be full. ''They gave 
their friends notice to be early iir their places, but Mr. 
GJyn perceiving their intentions, spoke an hour to the 
point of jus divinum\ and after him Mr. Whitelocke 
stood up and enlarged upon the same argument, 'till the 
house was fuilj when the question being put, it was car- 
ried in the negative, and thatjthe proposition of the as- 
sembly should Stand thus, That it is la.vful and agree- 
ADLE TO THE WORD OF GoD ikut the church be govern* 
ed by congregationaly classical y and synodical assem* 

Because the house of commons would not go the 
whole length with the assembly in establishing the jus- 
divinum of presbytery, the Scots commissioners and 
the high Presbyterians in England alarmed the citizens 
with iiiG danger ojthe churchy and prevailed with the 
common council to petition the parliament (Nov I5j'* that 
the Presbyterian discipline might be established as the 
discipline of Jesus Christ — but the commons answered 
with a frown. Not yet discr>uraged they prevailed ivitii 
the City ministers to petition, who when they came to 
the house were told by the speaker, ''they need not 
wait for a7i answer but go home and look to the charge 
of their congregations." 

"The Presbyterian ministers despairing of success 
with the commons, instead of yielding to the times, re- 
solved to apply to the house of lords, who received thera 
civilly and promised to take their request into consider- 
ation, but no advances were made for two months, and 
they became impatient, and determined to renew their 
application, and to give it tiie greater weiglit prevailed 
with the lord mayor and court of alAeTtn^w X.o yA«L >^^\bw 

♦^Vh»/'<7 ififK?/^?;;;/, Fc/. Ill, Pa^t 29Q. 


in presenting an address^which they did June 16 — "For 
a speedy settlement of church government according to 
ih9i covenant, an«i that no toleration might be given to* 
popery, prelacy, superstition, heresy, profaneness, or any. 
thing contrary to sound doctrine, and that all private 
assembh'es might be restrained." But it was all in vain, 
the house of lords and the house of commons would not 
be moved by their disagreeable importunity. '^How- 
ever, adds Mr. Neal, this laid the foundation of those 
jealousies and misunderstandings between the City and 
parliament, which in \he end proved the ruin of the 
Presbyterian cause." 

The next and fiercest controversy between the parlia- 
liaraeut and the assembly was vpon the power of the keys. 
But upon this we cannot now speak particularly. 

From the preceding detail of facts we may easily dis- 
cover the spirit of the founders of Prcbbyterianism, and 
what sort of times we would have had, could they have 
obtained their wishes. But there was more moderation 
and benevolence in the aimy and the parliament than iu 
all the high toned clergy of that day. And yet the par- 
liament was priest ridden down to no ordinary degree of 
servility to the superstition ol those times. Ed, 





THE Apostle*^ were commanded by the Lord (o teach 

the disciples to observe all thini^s he had commanded 

them. Now we believe them to have been faithful to 

their master; and, consequently, gave thera to know his 

\TjlI— Whatever the disciples practised in their mectino-g 

with the approbation of the Apostles is eqnfvalent to an 

Apostolic command to us to do the same— f'o suppose 

the contrary is to make the half of the New Testament 

of none etlect. For it does not altogether consist of 

Command*^, but of approved precedents — Apostolic ey- 

ampJe is jusOy f^.stemed of equal authority with 'an Apos- 

Mj/jc precept^ H'*n€0, say the BftpUi^l^, %\\tvf w?^ vjVx^.t^ 

r*au/^ or any Jpo^iJe, sprinkled an \n£s.iv^ ^i\^ v?^ viV^ 


not ask you tor a command to go and do likewise — It 
is no derogation from the authority for observing the first 
day of the week to admit that christians are no where in this 
volume ommanded to observe it. We are told that the dis- 
ciples, with the countenance and presence of the Apos- 
tles, met for worship on this day — And so long^as we 
believe they were honest men. and taught all that was 
commanded them, so long we must admit that the Lord 
commanded it to be so done. For if they allowed, and 
by their presence authorized, the disciples to meet re- 
ligiously on the first day, without any authority from 
their King, there is no confidince to be placed in them 
in other matters. Then it follows that they instituted a 
system of will worship, and made themselves lords in- 
stead '{ servants — But the thought is in.idmissible; con- 
sequf^nMy, the order of worship they gave the churches 
was given them by their Lord-, and their example is of 
the same force with abroad precept. 

But we come directly to the ordinance of breaking 
bread, and to open the New Testament on this subject 
we see, Math, xxvi 26, that the Lord instituted bread 
and wine on a certain occasion, as emblematic of his body . 
and of his blood, and as such, commanded his disciples 
to eat and drink them. This was done without any in- 
junction as to the time when, or trie phce where, this 
was to be afttrwards observed — Thus ttie four gospel?, 
or the writings of Matthew, Maik, aad John leave it. 
At this time tht Apostles were not fully in^^tructcd in liipt 
laws of his kingdom; and so they continued 'till he as- 
cended up to his Father and sent them the Holy Spiri*, 
After Pentecost, and the accession gained that day, tl e 
Apostles proceeded to organize a congregation of dis- 
ciples, and to set them in the order which the Lord had 
commanded and taught them by his Spirit The histor - 
an tells us minutely that ater they had baptized and re- 
ceived into their society 8000 souls, thev continued s fed m 
Jdslly in a certain order of worship anl tdirication — Now 
this congregation was intended to be a modf'l, nnc; uid 
actually necome such to Judea, Samaria, and to the ut- 
termost parts of the earth. The qutsiion then is-.^ tcdat 
order of worship and of edificaiioa fUd tUe JlpoUUs ^v^*. 
ia the first congregation Uiey organized 'VVA?> yiw^^V \i^ 
learaed from the narrative of the hisloViaix V'^^xo \t^o\^' 


what they did. We shall now hear his testimony; Acts 
ii. 41. '• Then they who gladly received his word were 
baptized, aad aboai three thousand souls were, that day, 
added unto them, and they continued stedfastly in the 
Apostle's doctrine, and in the fellowship, and in break- 
ing of bread, and in prayers.'' Oiher things are record- 
ed of this congregation distinct from those cited, such as 
their having a community of goods, and for this purpose 
selling their possessions of houses and lands. But these 
are as peculiar to them and as distinct from the institut- 
ed ortler of worsh:p, as was the case cf Ananias and his 
wife Saphira. Their being constantly in the temple 
is als ) added as a peculiarity in their history. But it 
may be correctly enquired how are we to distinguish be- 
tween those things uLich were as peculiar to them as 
their vicinity to the temple, and those things which were 
common to them with other Christian congregations. 
This must be determined by a comparison of the practice 
of other congregations, as recorded by the same histori- 
an; or as found in the letters to the churches written by 
the Apostles. From these we see that no other Christ- 
ian congregation lield a community of goods, no other 
-sold their possessions as a necessary part of Christian 
religion, no others met constantly in the temple . Indeed, 
Liuke, from his manner of relating the order of worship 
and means of edification, practised by this congregation, 
evidently distingui^ies what was essential, from what was 
circumstantial. For alter iaforming u», verse 41 and 42, 
ui the distinct parts or acts of their social worship, he 
adds in a separate aiid detached paragraph the history 
of iheir peculiarities. ^^iNow" adds he, ''all they who 
believed were to^^ethcr and had all things in common, 
and th.?y sold tliur possessions and goods," &c. This 
too, i? strparatod ironi the account of their social acts of 
woiihip, by a statement of other circumstances; such as 
the I'e-ctr that fe'l upon every soul, and the many won- 
deis and si. ••as which nere done by the Apostles. From 
a minute alLintion to the method of the historian, and 
irom an exan;inatioa of the historical notices of other 
C(»ngj f i^ftiious, it is easy to distinguish between what was 
t/?^. J' Cider oi worship and manner of edification from 
n?>ut \y^s CiVcumstantial. And, livde^A, VWwj \nW\^ ^x- 
aj2:j}!o is binding on all 'Christia.ns, i^\gLt^^ vdl ^\tii\i\si%\aar 


ces similar to those in which they lived at that time — Fop 
tho*the selling of fheir possessions is mention«^d Jis a part of 
the benevolent infiuencesof the Christian reii£;ion clearly 
understood, and cordially embraced, as a voluntary act 
su2:o;ested by the circumsiances of the times, and of 
their brethren; yet, virere a society of Christians abso- 
lutely so poor that they could live in no other way than 
by the selling of the possessions of some of the brethren, 
it would be an indispensable duty to do so, in imitation of 
bim, who, though he was rich made himself poor, that the 
poor, throuo:h his impsverizing himself, might be made 
rich. But still it must be rem-arked that even in Jerusa- 
lem at this time the selling of houses and lands was a 
voluntary act of such disciples as were possessors of 
them, without any command from the Apostles to do so. 
This is most apparent from the speech of Peter address- 
ed to Ananias and his wife, who seem to have been actu- 
ated by a false ambition, or love of praise, in pretend- 
ing to as high an exhibition of self-denial, and brotherly 
love, as some others— Their sin was not, in not selling 
their property, nor was it in only contributing a part; 
but it was in lying, and pretending to give the whole, 
when only a part was communicated — That they were 
under no obligation from any law or command to sell their 
property Peter avows in addressing them, and for the 
purpose too, of inculpating them more and more . ^' While 
it remained," says he , ^^ was it not ihine9 it was still at 
thine own disposal.^'* You might give or withhold without 
sin* But the lie proved their ruin. Thus it is easy to dis- 
cover what was essential to their worship and edification | 
from what was circumstantial. 

Their being baptized when they gladly received the 
word, was not a circumstance, neither was their contm- 
uiog stedfastiy in the Apostle^s doctrine, in fellowship, 
in breaking of bread, and in prayers— This the order of 
all the congregations gathered and organized by the Apos- 
tles shews With regard to our present purpose enough 
is said on this testimony when it is distinctly remarked 
and remembered, that the first congregation organized 
after Pentecost by the Apostles, now gifted with the Ho- 

BREAD, as in the Apostleh doctrine, feV\ovi«Sa\\i^ ox^^vj- 
frs. Tbia is IndisputMy plain from ttxfi ii^xi:^V^:s^^ ^^^ 


»t is all we want to adduce from it at present. It is bad 
togic to draw more from the premises than what is con« 
Cained in them; and we can most scripturaHj and logi* 
cally conclude from these premises, that the congrega^ 
Cion of disciples in Jerusalem did as stedfastly, and as 
uniformly iii their meetings, attend on the breaking of 
bread, as upon any other mean of edification or act of 
worship. It cannot, however, be shewn from this pas* 
Bage how often that was, nor is it necessary for us to do 
so ID this place . We shall find other evidences that will 
be express to this point. We dismiss this passage, in the 
mean time, by repeating that the first congregation, or- 
ganized by the Apostles after the ascension of the King, 
did as stedfastly attend on the breaking of bread in their 
religious meeting^t, as upon any other act of worship or 
means of edification. 

We shall again hear Luke narrating the practice of the 
disciples at Troas. Acts zx. 7. ^^And on the first day of 
the week, when the disciples assembled to break breadf 
Paul, being about to depart on the morrow, discoursed 
with them, and lengthened out his discourse till mid- 
night" From the manner in which this meeting of the 
disciples at Troas is mentioned by the historian, two 
things are very obvious: 1st. That it was an established 
custom or rule for the disciples to meet on the first day 
of the week. 3d. That the primary object of their 
meeting was to break bread. They who object to break- 
ing bread on evtry first day of the week when the dis- 
ciples are assembled, usually preface their objections by 
telling us that Luke does not say they broke bread every 
first day; and yet they contend against the Sabbatarians 
that they ought to observe every first day to the Lord in 
commemoration of his resurrection. The Sabbatarians 
raise the same objection to this passage when adduced by 
all professors oi Christianity to authorize the weekly 
observance of the fir^t day. They say that Luke ^oea 
not tell us that they met for any religious purpose on 
every first day. How inconsistent, then, are they, who 
make this sentence an express precedent for observing 
every first day, when arguing against the Sabbatarians; 
Had then turn round and tell us that it will not prove that 
^ejr broke bread every first day \ \i \t ^o^^ ivol'^Tove 
^e one, it is most ob?iotts it wVW tiol igtoii^ ^Xife ^>is«t y 


for the'weeltly observance of (his day, as a day of the 
Tneetm^ of the disciples, and the weeklj breaking of 
bread in those meetings, stand or fall together. Hear it 
afi:ain: "And on the first day of the week, when the 
disciples assembled (o break bread/* Now all must 
confess, wbo regard the meaning of words— that the 
meeting of the disciples and the breaking of bread, as 
far as these words are concerned, are expressed in the 
same terms as respects the frequency. If the one were 
Afty-tiDo times in a year, or only onct^ so was the o her. 
If they met every first (lay, they brake bread every first 
day; atkd if they did not break bread every first day, they 
did not meet every first day* But we argue from the 
style of Luke, or from his manner of narrating the 
fact, that they did both. If he had said that, on a ^T%i 
day the disciples assembled to break bread, then I would 
admit that both the S.^bbatarians and the semi-annual, or 
septennial communicants, might find some way of ex* 
plaining this evidence away. 

The definite article is, in the Greek and in the £nglish 
tongue^ prefixed to stated and fixed times, and its appear- 
ance here is not merely definitive of one day, but ex- 
pressive of a stated or fixed day. This is so in all lan- 
guages which have a definite article. Let us illustrate 
this by a very parallel and plain case. Suppose some 
500 or J 000 years hence the annual observance of the 
4th of July should have ceased for several centuries, 
and that some person or persons devoted to the primitive 
institutions of this mighty republic, were desirous of 
seeing every fourth of July observed as did the fathers 
and founders of the republic during the hale and unde- 
generate days of primitive republican simplicity. Sup- 
pose that none of the records of the first century of this 
republic had expressly stated that it was a regular and 
fixed custom for a certain class of citizens to pay a par~ 
ticuiar regard to tvtry fourtii day of July — but that a 
few incidental expressions in the biogrnphyof the lead- 
ing men in the republic spake of it as Luke has done of 
the meeting at Troa.s. How would it be managed ? For 
Instance, in the life of John Quincey Adams it is written, 
A. D. 182», **And on the fout-th day of Jul-j^ ^Vi^\xN\\^ 
republicans at the city of Wasbin^lcn tn^i lo ^\^^^ ^^S«Ck 
^oiocejr Adams delivered aa prftViou V^ VkkeiB^?"^ Vi wiiAt 


not an Am(^rlcan, a thousand ^ears h«nre, in circum- 
'stances such as have been stated, find in these words one 
evidence that it was an establisheil usagje during the first 
century of this republic to res^ard the fourth day of July 
as aforesaid. He would tell his opponent to mark that it 
was not said, that on a fourth of July, as if it were a 
particular occurrence, but it was in the fixed meaning 
of tho Engli<ih language expressive of a fixed and slated 
day of peculiar observance. At all events he could not 
fail in convincing the most stupid that the primary inten- 
tion of that meeting was to dine. Whatever might be 
the frequency or the intention of that dinner, it must be 
confessed, from the words above cited, that they met to 
dine. Another circumstance that must somewhat con- 
found the Sabbatarians and the lawless observers of 
breaking of bread, may be easily gathered from Luke's 
narrative Paul and bis company arrived at Troas either 
on the evening of th^ first day, or on Monday morning, 
at an early hour; for he departed on Monday morning, 
as we term it, at an early hour; and we are positively 
told that he tarried just seven days at Troas. Now had 
the disciples been Sabbatarians, or observed the seventh 
day, as a Sabbath, and broke bread on it as the Sabbata- 
rians do. they would not have deferred their meeting tiil 
the first day, and kept Paul and his company waiting, as 
he was evidently in a great haste at this time. But his 
tarrying seven days and his early departure on Monday 
morning, corroborates the evidence adduced in proof 
that the first day of the week was the fixed and stated day 
for the disciples to meet for this purpose. 

From the 2d of the Acts, then, we learn that the 
breaking of bread was a stated part of the worship of 
the disciples in their meetings: and from the 20th we 
}earn, that the first day of the week was the stated time 
for those meetings, and, above all, we ought to notice, 
that the most prominent object of their meeting was to 
break bread . But this, we hope, will be made still moiQ 
evident in our next. Ed. 

—:§»§:— ^^ 

On the Gcfteral M8cmbly*§ Repwtfif MQ}i fast. 

TIIERK is such a dull sameness \t\ lYie tcvwla o^ \\\e ^^xv^nBi 
f^iicinb)y, so much pfthe cant ec;c\e^VAStVc«\%^^A^, vVii\.\a\i\.\vciXi 


Jpterest is excited in reading or reviewing them. From a body 
professedly so learned, having so many education establishments* 
and controlling so many colleges, we would expect a report pos- 
sessing all the qualities of purity, propriety, and precision, as re- 
spects style, if, in other respects, it were destitute of evciy thing 
original and interesting. But when it adds td its attributes that of 
the confusion of speech, and the deterioration of the English tongue, 
it is still worse. As a specimen of its style, the following parugraph 
will suffice. — ** In the Bible society, Sunday school, missionary and 
education societies, and moat eminently in those associations which 
have for their object the relief of poor and suffering females and 
children, the influence of Christian women has been sensibly felt 
among us." What a combniation of words ! — ^lost eminently^ has 
been sensibly felt — This is not a whit better than the affected elo- 
quence of the damsel who said **she loftily felt deep pity at the bot- 
tom of her heart." — Indeed it is just the same style — The divines at 
Philadelphia say we moat eminently sensibly feel. 

Again, — "We turn with pain, to survey the evila uhich are 
brought to view in a history of the last year. We would first notice 
the fearful extent and unanswered calls of our vacant ten^itory in the 
South and West. A famine, not of bread, nor of water, but of the 
word of life, presses them down to eternal death." ►^ vacant tenH- 
tory calls to Philadelphia for the word of lift- ! We have heard iii 
the cant phrase of Presbyterian tactics of a call from a meant church, 
but not before of a vacant territory calling for the word of life, i. e, 
a preacher from Princeton ! ! But in a vacant territory to what 
would this preacher address himself— To the fish, or to the fowls — 
Say ye reverend heads! But stranger still — How can a famine of 
the word of life press down to eternal death a vacant territory ! 
Do they think t preacher necessary to save the brutal or vegetable 
creation from eternal death ! 

But in the next sentence this vacant territory becomes inhabitccK 
and 500 miles square in Missouri and Illinois have 160,')00 soul ^. 
In this vacant territor) , *♦ this wide and melancholy waste we have 
already 18 churches and yet only seven ordained ministers and one 
licentiate." ** In Mississippi and Louisiana are 230,000 in^iabitant;;, 
scattered over 80,000 square miles. In all this vast territory 

we have only eleven miiiist<:rs of the gospel established." 

They tell us that "the board of missions is the organ ofthisbot^y 
to the destitute regions of our church and countr}'. It has b»en 
doing much the last year for our frontier territory and western set- 
tlements. It has employed 52 n^issionaries in different states, lu 
Kew York eight ; in New Jt;rsey one; in Pennsylvania fourteen; 
on the Peiunsula ?wo / in Virginia otic/ in Ohio^vc* / in Kentuclcy 
one; in Indiana/i^wr; in \\Xn\o\& three ,- in Michigan Territory one r 
in Arissouri/ovr/ in Mississippi and Louisiana one,- in Alabama three; 
in each of the Floridas one; and in each of the Carolinas one.^* 
Query — If the assembly' deplore in earnest " this wide and melan- 
choly waste" in Mississippi and Louisiana* why do .hey employ 
fourteen missionaries in Pennsylvania where they have vio wm^xv^j *e.V 
tied ministers^ and only o'le on a vacant territorij o^ ^'^^^^ s^'ax''?. 
miles, witli 230,000 bouIs living on it, and ovvV"^ elenjen s^wVt^^^^^"^;^ 
Urs/ Arc tJwre mote pagans where *^\ierc ux(i **V\^ \^vi^^. viX^< 



Te more need of missionaries where the clergy 
if than where there are few settled! It is a fact. 

ministers ? Is there 
lire most numerous, 

then, it seems, that the board of missions, the organ of this bodv^ 
^ave most need of missionaries where they have the most ministers. 
AVhere they have but eleven ministers, in a vast countr)-, they need 
but one missionary, but where they have more than one hundred set- 
tied ministers, in a less extent of country they need fourteen mis- 
sionaries M ! So then it comes to this, if there waS not a Presbyte- 
rian congregation in America there would be no need for a Fresby- 
terian missionary; where there are most congregations there are 
the most need of missionaries — Yes, indeed, for " where the carcase 
is there will the eagles be gathered togelhel'." 

They add, "the whole broad frontier of our. church from Lake 
Miclngan to the extreme South West of Louisiana is yet to be sup- 
plied with gospel ministers." Female mite societies, and poor pi- 
oii^ youths and theological schools must use g^eat energies. Gos-» 
pel ministers, that is, Prfsby terian ministers, are to be made for the 
frontiers of the Presbyterian church. The geographical bounda- 
ries of the Union are the lines that circiimscibe this church. 'I'he 
ntiier denominations are all to be converted into Presbyterians, and 
swallowed »ip by this Mammoth establishment. Money, colleges, 
and tiieo!ogic»l schools will do all this in a little time ; for the bap- 
tists have only 3000 congregations in the Union and 2,500 ministers; 
the Methodists have only from 2 to 3000 ministers and 27U,000 
members of classes; The Episcopalinns, Quakers, and all other 
dissenters are as nothing, but those 1994 Presbyterian, or gospel 
rninisiers, will soon fill the whole land with their converts, and then 
:^'ill come Ihc millcnial glory. jE^.. 


To the D'fViTies composir.^ ike last General Jisacmhly vhtch 
mtt in May last in the City of Philadelpkia, 

l\ F. VK R V. .V n * i K X TX v.y. V. V, 

FiK>^l the spirit that is breMhed, and from the style adopted 
in all your synodica! rcyiorts, it is too evident to the discerning 
part of the comTv.-.r.iiCy amongst which you live, that you aim at 
high things tlio.i^h lev. er tliun the skies. You evidently aspire to 
(lorainloii a:;'.l ruk* o/er the other sectaries in our land; you aim at 
forming public of inion, and then of wielding its moral force to 
> our own persopul ajygraniizement. For this purpose you found 
colleges and attempt tlie control of all within the sphere of your 
domination. Vou cannot think that your fellow citizens arc so 
MupiJ a,"? not to sec through the thin veil which you throw around 
your schemes. You vtvy well know that learning or knowledge 
gives power, and tliat this power can be managed to the interest of 
those who possess it. You as well know that all the vount? men of 

/brtune ri^e to distinction by means of an accademical education, 

nnd that bcfoyt- this education can be accomplished your plastic 

hands, and jursvvsive ton fi^wcs mvislbe eTn\Aoye^v«\i\\^ "javL control 

<yj the f(>:f}t::ir>s of education. \\. is qiuXe oW\ov\^.^oTKvvf\\9X nwbl 

K.i.r i:ful f'yoiv wUnt \<)\\ do, that vou csAcuA^A-e revwcVv ^ywkv ti -n^X 


have good lessons and good examples before you to prompt you to 
this course, ^ou still remember what Roman priests achieved from 
amonoply of learning, and that when the cleri^y of E'lropc en.9:ra*i- 
ed all its learning thev engrossed all authority over tlie minds, and 
consciences and estates of men. You remember that the time oticvi 
was that a priest must write the last will and test;iment of all iho 
true sons of the hierarchy, and that often all the devotees had, and 
always a part must be bequeathed to the church or clergy or to 
some pious fraud. You are not ignorant of the relation that exist* 
between causes and effects, and that the same causes will always 
produce the same effects. But, gentlemen, deep and profountl as 
your policy is, there is one circumstance that will blast all your 
schemes; which will prostrate all your eff'Orts, and re -act upon 
your own persons with tremendous influence. Too much light has - 
been diffused. You are not to blame for tVis. For it was not from 
you nor owing to your efforts that this lir^ht has spread. 

Your policy and plans are too tedious m their operation to effect 
any thitig in your favor. Dont you see thaA your theological schools 
and colleges have never realized yoi^r sanguine calculations. Ana 
yet you are projecting a new cme \r]t, the West. Dont you see that 
^even years is too long a period to doom' a pious youth to Fa;;'«in. apd 
Christian theology, to qualify him to tell that "God so loved the 
world as to send his only begof ^on Son that whosoever believeth m 
him might be saved.** Dont v^ou se^ a thousand Methodist preach- 
ers and a thousand Baptists an d thousands of others let go the handle 
of the plough, or drop the shuttle ami become eloquent in a day. 
Yes, many of them become ^Jbqtient! Dont you see the proof ot 
it in the thousands which attend their ministrations, and in the 
himdreds they draw off ar ^r: onvert from the lips of yquT kSffJ^^*: 
and pious orators. Dont y^\ g^e that th« other sectaries that have 
been driven into your p olior/ of getting up colleges have from that 
day declined. Dont y q^ gr^^ that many sectaries have gained and 
are giaining upon you . ^v^-i-y year in a geometrical ratio. There i^ 
too much money, md time, and labour, and dullness in your 
scheme. Other s*^ j^j^ .^.3^ send out seven and sometimes seventt^ 
while you are ra? itia^ one ready. Their ministers too, always im- 
prove while you- /sg«t worse; for your system cramps While theirs 
expands the h* jman |>owers. They make ten proselytes to your 
oTie. Natural ^neration is all you can calculate on, if you calculate 
■as philosopr j^^g ought. They have this in their fayor too, but 
besides the y liave other means that weaken you more than youp 
learning a j^sts you. Their preachers too dont require so much to 
support * Jiem. They are hardy fellows and can turn their hand to 
any thir ^^ one of your ambassadors requires ten times as much to 
keep h jm after he has got on the way as one of these pioneers. Your 
policy^ is altogether out in this respect. And all the world knows 
that jQu have no other design in your plan of making ministers thaa ' 
^^* L of extending your sect and securing temporalities ; for you 
kr iow there is not one text from Genesis to the Apocalypse that you ■ 
C' in advance in support of your scheme of making divmes. 

Pious and devout, no doubt, are your intentions \ bat, ^entleticiexxv 
' tjs all a dream. Your influence \s every d^y ^'s.OlycCvcv^n ^xv^^^^ii^ft. 
other societies are ereiy day making inxo^^ \3L\»ci^ -^cwxx'wJs^'^ 


jnTadxng yout dominion, the cradles of your members are tike cbiel 
if not the exclusive means of raisings recruits. It is, believe the 
Toice of reason, a vain and foolish notion which you entertain of 
making yourselves the only church militant. The genius of your 
ecclesiastical establishment accords only with that civil government 
which laughed you into a high sense of your own importance. In a 
country, and under a government such as this, and m an age of free 
enquiry like the present, your views and designs, expressed and di- 
vulged in your synodical reports, are as chimerical as the ghosts of 
the criisaders. As a politician, I now address j^ou as ecclesiastical 
politicians, and as one who feels no interest in the comparative 
strength of religious parties except as they affect our happy politi* 
cal institutions. You may be assured from the history of the world, 
from the nature of causes and effects* from the laws that govern 
human opinion, from all the probabilities that form the basis of hu^ 
man prescience, that your meridian altitude is gained, that you have 
passed the zenith of your gloiy, and fast progressing to that point 
;n the M'esterii horizon where all Uie luminaries, and meteors too, 
forsake the eye of interesting contemplation, or of giddy admiration. 
I speak of your sectarian character, influence, and standing. Your 
new theological seminary to be founded in the West, with general 
Jackson at its head and all the other honourables at its tail, will not 
yetard your declination. That the godly and intelligent membeis of 
yoiir community will unite with them that love the gospel, is only 
saying that what has been done already will be done again ; and you 
know that many of this character have already deserted and are still 
-deserting your ranks. Just as this part of your community have access 
to hear and opportunities to understand the heavenly way, in the 
same proportion will your influence over their minds decline. A 
goodly company of your own fraternity on both sides of the ocean, 
gentlemen, have obeyed the gospel and given you the reasons for 
abandoning your denomination. Many disciples have associated 
with them. The carnal crowd and the stupid devotees who would 
have been pious Musselmen in Algiers, good Catholics in Rome, 
liiigh Churchmen in London, or Lutherans in Germany, will still 
hear and admire you. But let those who have an ea^ to hear what 
The Spirit saith unto the churches, I say, let them but get acquaint- 
^i\ with the ancient order of things, with the laws of the great 
King, and they will flee your coast : they will desert your standards 
and seek for the society of them who obey the Captain of Salvation. 
And they will hear. You cannot long prev«nt them. The voice of 
l^od will break their death-like slumber, and when they awake they 
will see it a vain attempt to seek the living among the dead. 

It is to no purpose, gentlemen, that you boast of sprinkling 12 
or 15000 infants in one year. The half of this number will never 
sit down at your sacramental table. Many of them are afterwards 
baptized when they think for themselves ; and most of the remain- 
der either aposkitize your profession, or in some way renounce the 
baptismal vows. The few adults you sprinkle annually is an injury 
to yon. There is not an intelligent individual among them. They 
aj-c' were dupes. They may be zealous ; but \Yie\t ie%\ "wWl vuyire 
r€?ur cause. Their example is a dangerous one, it VuVvw^^kaw ^tv- 
i*'^; ^nd enquiry is death to vour iiiftuence. tU^ \^a^ ^ wi «i>i ^^ 


Oiem and to othen «yki the occasion the better. Indeed they ought 
to be sprinkled in the twilight or in the dark night. 

You may remember, and if not, ask the aged and they will tell 
3'ou» that half a century ago, where you had one rival in public 
opinion you hav« now ten. Once you had the largest, as well as 
the earliest establishment in this country. Once you governed the 
governors of the people. But a revolution has begun and is fast 
progressing; and as Bonaparte said, '< Revolutions in public opin- 
ion never go back.** Your sectarian neighbours have risen from 
units to tens, from tens to hundreds, from hundreds to thousands. 
While in the ratio of population you have gone from right to left. 

These remarks are elicited by that ambitious and aspiring spirit 
which appears in all your measures and reports, and which has pre- 
vented you last year as well as in the present report from publishing 
to the world the opposition made to > our constitution by some of 
your own brethren, within the walls of your solemn conclave. 

There is but one course which can redeem you from the grave. 
A timely repentance, and a restoration ofthe ancient order o.^'thing^ 
can yet secure to you and your people a name and a place amongst 
the disciples of the Lord. Destroy your constitution and you may 
become healthy. Come out from the'unclean and the Lord will re- 
ceive you. The heart of benevolence could not dictate a dlffertMit 
address. Obey the truth, and you shall have a name and a lioncr 
that will not be forgotten, otherwise you shall perish from the 

Accept, gentlemen, these friendly hints from one of your best 
friends, who cannot, because he dare not, flatter. He believes what 
Solomon saith — •* He that saith unto the wicked, tliou art riglitcous; 
him shall the people curse, nations shall abhor him. But to them 
that rebuke him sliall be delight, and a good blessing shall come up,- 
on them." MCODEAIUS. 


('Copied from the IVashin^on Reporter. J 

I, EzRi Stiles Eli, stated clerk ot the general assembly of the 
Presbyterian church in the United States of America, do hereby 
certify to all whom it may concern, that said assembly having re- 
solved to establish a Western Tukological Sexxnarx, did on the 
oQth day of May last appoint ^.. 

Major gen. Andrew Jacksot, of Tennessee; 

Hon. Benjamin Mills, of Paris, Ky. 

Hon. John Thompson, of Chilicotli'e, Ohio ; 

Kev. Obadiau Jennings, of Washington, Pa. 

Kev. Andrew Wtlie, of Washington College, in Pa. 
to be commissioners of the assembly to examine carefully the sev- 
eral sites which may be proposed for the contemplated Seminary, 
as to the healthiness of the place and regions where these sites 
may be found, as to the amount of pecuniary aid and other proper- 
ty, which may be obtained from the inhabitants of these sites, and 
their vicinity severally, in establishing the cou\C:mv\^V^^^t'a\vw«N % 
and as to alj other circumstances and coi\a\deta\AOYv^>«\\^Oci vi>\'i^'C\a 
hareinffaence in deciding on the location o^ \.\\^ ^emvctfcrj . '^Vvt^ 
coifimissjoncrs su'c to report to the board o? e:\TeO.QT?» ^'^ \\v^^ « 



cm Theological^ 'Seminary, the proposals that have been made *o 
them, and their opinion of the whole subject of the Seminar)*, tiiat 
the suid board, atter dunaidering the report of the commissioners, 
may recommend to the next general assembly the most suituhle 
pluce in their judgment for the establishment of the Western The- 
4;lo^ical Seminary. 

Of these commissioners, general Andrew Jackson js chairman ; 
and they as well a? the directors, are appointed first to meet in Chi- 
I'cothe, Ohio, on tlie third Friday of Julyj at 2 o'clock P.M. and 
tubscquenlly on their own adjournments. 

The agents ajjpointed by the assembly to solicit and receive dona- 
tions for the "\Vesilern Theological Seminary, are the rev. James 
Hogiie, rev, David Morford, of Millviile, Hamilton co. Ohio ; rev. 
James Culbertson, rev J hornas H.UT, ofWof»stcr, Ohio; rev. >Vil- 
liam M'ylie, rev. Klishu 1*. Swift, and rev. Obadiah Jennings. 

This publicutiun is nrade, that due notice of their appointment 
ini'.y reach the commissioners, directors and agents, even should 
they fail of receiving the written circular of the subscriber; and that 
literary corporations and enterprizing indlvid'.ials in the fiourish- 
-ng western towr.s, niay have an early opportunity of makin;.];' ])ro- 
j'Osals to some one of the commissioners, above nuiued, concei ning 
'A\tt location of tlie Seminary. 

Tl.dse ])iintcrs in the south and west, who will y ive this notice 
u gratuitous insertion in their papers will confer a favor on the I'res- 
^vlerian church. 

3'y order of the p-eneral assembly. 


WHEN the following /;w6//c notice is read, it will appear that tkc 
f,<^ncraJ assembly of li^25 yet possesses in an eminent degree the 
pninitive, evangelical, and Apostohc spirit of thehrst labtmrers in 
planting Christianity in the Human empire. — How this precious re- 
llque escaped the ravages of ^■andalis:n, and the reign of Night, in 
'lie ages of undisturbed superstition, is left to the ccnjectures of 
the reader. Ed. 


I, Sixo:c PjiTEii, an Apostle, and stated clerk of the general as- 
sembly of the Presbyterian church of the A> estern l^onian empire, 
«o hereby certify,, to all whom it may eoncern, tiiat said as>M'n»bly 
having resolved to establish a \VESTEU^• Theolookal Semixaut, 
uid, fjui the Idcs of May last, appoint 

Major gen. Clatdius C^iSAii, commander in cliiefofthe army 
of invasion into Britain ; 

Jlon. Julius Aghicola, of Sotith Brit'an ; 
lion. tluiNTUs CuiiTius, of Home; 
^- ,:ltcv. Sexj-ca, of Spain, the true nioralist ; 
^ Uev. MAi-rcE!fAs, son of the patron of Horace, 

rcf he commissioners of the assenibly to examine carefully the sever- 
ai SAU-»i which may be proposed for the contenipiated Seminary, us 
io tjic Jjciithincss of those sites, as to tho amowuX. oV vV^t "sv/a\\\u\w\ nf 
'^r^J'J.^/ite'Mtsntsii, and other mt ans which uvjin Xjg ^AjViw-iiVitowvVW 
f^abitifjiis of those sites, in estabUslung suid i\)ui\\v\iv ^i \^t^ vn 

BAPTISt. \ 4J 

their vicinity. These commissioners are to report to the Rer. 
Matthew Levi, Joannes Markus, Saulus Paulus, 1). D. and the other 
directors of the Western I'heolog'ical Seminary, the proposals that 
shall have been made to them, and their opinions on the same. 

Of these commissioners Gen. Claudius Cxsar, because lie Las 
been a celebrated duellist and warrior, and has no children, U 
chairman, and particularly qualified to take the command in a 
cabinet of clergy, as in a council of war : and they, as well as the 
directors, are to meet at Damascus on the first of the Ides of Jul}, 
at the 8th hour of the day, and subsequently on their own adjourn- 

The aj^ents to solicit and receive donations for the Western, 
Roman, Theological, Gentile ScmmarV, ai'c, the Uev. Mr. Simon 
Magus, Kev. Mr. TertuUus, llev. J. Scrgius, Uev. T. Tiniothv, 
Kev. T. Titus, liev. O. Agabus. 

It is hoped that the friends of religion in the flourishing towns of 
the Western Roman Empire will contribute spiritedly on this occa- 
sion, to a Western source of life, as they have done in the neigh- 
bourhood of Jerusalem, to the Eastern. 

Those scribes and heralds in the South and West, who will jjub- 

lish tiiis notice without any mammon in return for it, as we are very 

«carce of the images of Augustus, will confer a fuvor on the Prts- 

bN'terian church, for which its head will reward them in Panidise. 

By order of the General Assembly, 

SIMON PETER, Stated Clerk. 


Deeply affected with the deplorable situation to which the rhj!- 
dren of the professed people of God have been reduced by a 
neglect of religious instruction, and tlie ignorance in which 
they have been kept, of the privileges of their birthrighi, 
secured to them by divine constitution, do niost eaniesllv and 
solemnly recommend to the churcbes a cartful and prayerful ob- 
servance of the following RULES : — 

I. That every professing parent, guardian, or master of a family, 
observe the duty of instructing his houseliokl in the great doctrii;ts 
of our holy religion, of inculcating on thtir ji)inds the obligations 
thev are under to God, and the covenant lehiiion they stand iji to 
him ; taking for a general text book of instruction, the CutccLism 
o? the Westminster Assembly of l)i\Liics. 

II. That such parents, guardians, or masters, commit their hcuse- 
hold to the instructions of the churciJ, and bring them, or cause 
Iheni to be brought, 1o such place or places of ir struction, us tii^ 
regular authority of the church may from time to tiriic appoint. 

ill. 'I'hat each church, within the bounds of tlii? Presbyter}', ap- 
T>oint certain judicious and pious male mcinberj: t-f the church, a? 
' atecliisis, to go from house to house, and conftr with proiessing 
chris>tiu!is and their households, on the importance of insti uctiuf'- 
cljildrcn in the principles of relic ion, and to a\iv^'^^-^^^''2^'^^^'A^''^'*'^'^'*- 


IV. That the ministers nnd elders, or other authority of the 
^urches, call a general meeting of all the children of the church, 
quarter-yearly, for the purpose of furnishing them sucli religious 
and moral instruction, as their several circumstances, on an exami- 
nation of their views and feelings, shall appear to require. 

V. That every church hold all the children of the church, under 
tn'clve years old, responsible to the church for their future con- 
duct ; that the church never afterwards relinquish their inspection 
and discipline ; that such children hereafter stand on the same 
ground, submit to the same salutary correction for their reforma- 
tion and repentance, or the- same sentence of exclusion to which 
the other members are subject, and that the names of all such 
children be added to the catalogue of members now enrolled as 
constituting the church : It being understood, at the same time» 
that tliey shall profess their faith, in order to a participation of the 
I^ord's Supper. 

VI. That each church collect all other baptized persons, who 
have hitherto been non-communicants, and who will assemble at 
the call of the church, and ascertain wIjo among them are now 
willing to be responsible to the churcli, to stand in their lot in the 
kingdom of Christ, and publicly profess their attachment to him 
and the doctrines contained in tiie Assembly's Catechism ; and, in 
fine, to view themselves, and be treated by the church, as ever 
afterwards members. And that all such persons be also added to 
the catalogue of members composing tlie cluirch. 

VII. That all minors who shall hereafter be baptized, be imme- 
diately enrolled with the church, considered as members, and 
treated aecordingly. 

VI II. That when parents from abroad come and are received into 
o'lr churches, their children, under twelve years of age, be re- 
ceived and enrolled as members with them. 

Done i?i J*re8bt/icrif, at JJomer, Dec. 31, 1812. 

DIRCK C. LANSING, Moderator. 
An excellent plaif, truly, to make and confirm Presbyterians, 
but not Christians. These rules texpressly avow principles of these 
sectaries which but ftfw of their leaders at this time are willing 
openly and explicitly to declare. Such as, 

lit. Not the Holy Scriptures, but the Westminster Catechism is 
the " text booh*' for the religious instruction of the offspring and 
households of Presbyterians. Thus the undersiandmg, and, conse- 
quently, the conscience of those youths are biassed and moulded 
into the Presbyteri&n form. 

2d. That all the cliildren, under twelve years old, born of the 
flesh, are to be enrolled as members of the church, and to be held 
responsible to the church, faith or no faith. 

3d. Tiiat those childi-en of the flesh are to be accounted as the 
seed, and to be the subjects of church discipline, of correction and 
exclusion, as other members. Yet precluded from the privileges 
of the senior members. 
'sft/j. isitt it issLvowed that, of these vinder lvr«j\ve-5ear-old mem» 
^^^^ only a part shall be comnnimcants; aT\d \^\^ o\\\«t Xk«r\.»>^Q\x^ 
■^uujiy whmbcr:^^ are not to be communvcanls. 


5th. That all other baptized persons, whether under or over 
t^Ive yeiLTS old» who are non-communicants, be collected and in- 
terrogated whether they will itand in their lot in the kingdom of 
Christ, avows that those non-communicants have a place or lot in 
this kingdom, whether Christian or infidel. A worldly and carnal 
kingdom truly ! 

6tb. That all baptized minors are considered as members, and 
forthwith to be treated as such. 

QUERIES.— 1. Why not enrol them as members at the age of 
ten days or ten years } 

2. What course of discipline is to be practised on three-month or 
on three-}- ear- old members ; for these are members under twelve 
and to be disciplined by these canons ? 

3. Whether is it their Hrth or baptism that makes these babes 
and minors members of the Presbyterian church ? 

4. if their birth make them members, why baptize them, seeing 
meinbers of the church are not to be baptized ? Or if baptism 
make them members, why compare it to circumcision, for circum- 
cision did not make members of Abraham's family ? 

5. Can one code of laws suit a church of three sorts of members 
^speechless babes, unregenerated minors, and regenerated adults? 

6. In what a miserable condition is that church, which is under 
such lawgivers as the Onondaga Presbytery ! ! 

7. Who placed them on thrones to g^ve laws to any society call- 
ing itself the kingdom of Christ ? 

8. Does not the passing of such laws declare that the New Tes- 
tament IS silent on such things ? 

9. Ought they not tq read Revelation zxii. 18 — and tremble ? 



Dr.Brother^WHlLST your worthy friend & correspondent P.H, 
iff puzzling his brain with some of those many difficulties originating 
in scholastic theology and science, falsely so called ; I am equally 
concerned in trying to ascertain what method to pursue in order to 
introduce " the ancient order of things" amongst churches called 
churches of Christ. And as you are undoubtedly an advocate for 
this reform, and possesnng more information than myself, I take 
the liberty of asking for some instructions. But before I proceed 
to any specifications, I wish to make known to you that my case is 
somewhat singular, and, as such, shall give you a short sketch, 
which, perhaps, may answer some good purpose, especially should 
this ever meet the public eye, 

I have been for a considerable nun^iber of years what we call a 
Preacher of the Gospel, and have been solemnly ordained to that 
ofiice by men of the highest respectability in my order. I have 
itinerated much through the country, and have honestly endeavor- 
ed to recommend the religion of Jesus Christ to my ignorant and 
perishing countrymen, and in doing of whlcU ^^ \ ^xev^\rt^-^^'« 
judge) lliave gained considerable applause, ax\^\w?^'\i^^'cv^^^^^^^ 
upon as a promising young roan. BuT\T\g \.Vu% sXaX^e <ii \!w«n%^^ 
vanity has often been flattered ; and had it i\o\.\>eeTv^o^ ,^^^ ^"^ 
^mculty wifh which I had to grapple, Vl \a xxxvctx^^^^*^^^^' 

«« jyTor can -» ^' , ^ K^e rr»«» ^'^^ .^ ofore. 

f. t"V^°rtonWchl «* *^«e *»^^ ?, Sic WrcK 


parted far from bolh the letter and spirit of tlie covenant under 
vhich God placed them. They were carried captive into Kabylon 
for their iniquities, and while in Babylon thev lost the primitive 
meanin^of the sacred langtia^e, the medium of the revelation made 
them, and thus both the law and the worship under it were not ex- 
Idbited among them. While m Babylon their condition became 
^vorse and worse. It pleased the God of Abraham to turn the cap- 
tivity of Jacob. But the dang-ers and difficulties that attended their 
return were great and appalling. To restore the ancient order of 
things then was a work of no small difficulty. They had a living 
model of the I^ord's house ; they were ignorant of the manner in 
which the religious festivals and in.stitutions were to be observed ; 
they had formed many alliances that were difficult to be broken ; 
and, worse than all, they had lost the true meaning of their apostles 
and prophets. Now so similar has been the apostacy from the new 
covenant that almost all the same misfortunes attend it, and tlie san^ e 
names are, in the new covenant prophecies, attached to it. Ti» com- 
plete the analogy, and to make it a type of that which it doubtless 
circumstantial 1} represented, we may expect to find the same diffi- 
culties attendant on a return to Jerusalem, and a restoration of the 
divinely authorized institutions of the new covenant. Some of the 
professing people of God will novr, as formerly, oppose a return ; 
many will despair of itspracticabilit} ; a living model of the house 
of God is wanting, and tlie sacred dialect has been so much pervcrt- 
ed and is so generally misnn(?erstood, that but few, of even those 
who feel tlie thraldom of the captivity of Babylon the great, know 
vhence they are fallen, and of what things they should repent. 

To make a move in the business of restoration, and in returning to 
the covenant is, I confess, quite a diflferent thing from speculating or 
talking about it ; and yet it only requires an intelligent mind and a 
willing heart. These will direct and embolden every eflor^. Ihe 
people must abandon the language, customs, and manner^' of Ash- 
tlod. For this purpose they will meet, and read, and examine the 
New Covenant writings. They will also look to Heaven for wisdom 
and courage, and as soon as any item of the will of Heaven is distinct- 
ly apprehended it will be brought ii to their praclice. But, my dear 
Bir, personal reformation, or individual conformity to the spirit, and 
temper, and morals of Christian.?, must be the basis of every at- 
tempt at a social or united representation and enjoyment of the 
Christian religion. — This personal reformation will, however, grow 
with, and be. accelerated by, a social and united eflort to understand 
and practise the apostolic instructions. These separated. 
Jt is admitted the form of godliness in individuals and in societies 
may exist without the power; and a congregation niay, like a well 
disciplined aimy, be clothed with all tl)c regimentals, and peiform 
nil the involutions and evolutions to an iota, and 3 et not a soldiei* 
Among them ; not a Christian in spirit and temper—in life and de- 

JJyt this is more likely to be the Cft^'.e w\y >^\\ex^ ^^^^^ -^twsw?^ 

those wlw are daily and ardently cvi\t\v«\w^ ^ VT^tvviV^^^ ^?^ "^"^^ 

Ifoly Scriptures, and aiming at ftlamVm^ V^'^'^^^^^ ^'^^ c.cvt«^\^^''^'«^ 

u-ill of Gad. This course is a sov^TeVv?^ ^^We^c^Xe tk-s^wN.^^^- V^^^o 

But to come to iJie pinching f^nc5lio\\ m ^'^wv c^vc\\^^v;va^-^vw'q 


must be observed, that amongst the congregations with which yoo 
are connected there is found this happy circumstance— thepr have 
taken the scriptures of the New Testament for their constitution. 
Perhaps some of them have made their obeisance to something 
called the Constitution of the Elkhorn or Licking Association, or to 
Eoinething suniamed after the fishponds or nullseats of your country; 
but these are such modern playthings they can very easily be 
drowned in the waters that christened them. But in aU those con- 
gregations which have recognized that Chfist's kingdom is not of 
this world and not composed of all bon into the world by natural 
generation, methinks, it were easy, if the hearts of the people 
are regenerate, to have the ancient order of things restored. 

^la J have no dictatorial authority in these matten, and vould by no 
means covet such; and, indeed, as nothing can be done but by the peo- 
ple themselves, examining', judging, and acting far themselves, Jean 
only say, that all those desirous of knovting, enjoying, and exhibiting 
the Christian religion in Us original purity and e:fcellency, must indi- 
vidually, and in their public meetings, search and examine the •Spos- 
ties* doctrine, and pay no manner of respect to any opinions or prac- 
tices iv¥ch they have formerly regarded, except so far as they see and 
learn, and know them to be the teachings of the Holy Spirit, If they 
cannot' get into this way of reading and examining the Holy Scriptures 
to their profit, let them begin and enquire into the reasons of their pre^ 
sent conduct. Jt is easy to put thtm on the search by proposing thim a 
feno questions to solve — Such as, By what authority and for what rea^ 
son, do we mtet once in a month or once in two weeks to hear a sermon ? 
J3y "what authority andforwf^t reason do we agree with a man, called 
a Preacher, for the one fourth, or the one-half, or the one-third of Ms 
time to preach to us ? By what authority and for what reason do we all 
forsake the assembling of ourselves together except when our preacher 
dravfs us out? Jiy what authority and for what reason do we at one 
time attend on certain acts of woi ship in our assemblies, and not at 
another-^-or why have we ordinary and extraordinary acts of worship? 
Why should we not devote a part of the time employed in our meeting^ 
in enquiring i^ito the groxinds and reasons of our own acts and deeds; 
and in comparing our views, enjoyments, and practices as Christians, 
•with those of them who first trusted in Christ ? ^ii\d why should we 
not, as soon as we discover any incongruity, dcfciency, or aberration in 
our views or practices, immediately abatidon them, and become followers 
of them who among the Jews and Gentiles first turned unto the J^ord? 

My dear sir, I think by tkr time these matters are axcertmined, the 
inews and dispositiotis of all that fear God will be considerably im* 
proved i and, as the best solution of those diffitfulties, we intend to give 
the history of the progress and proficiency of some congregations who 
have taken this course, and are now enjoying a pctrticipation of the full- 
ness of the blessings of the Gospel of Christ, JtwiU not be surprising 
to find some members of your best regulated churches who wilt rather 
walk as other professors walk, tlian in the paths consecrated by the 
authority of the lAtrd and the examples of his fi, at followers. Thus 
Me cAa^' vt'H be purged from among the wheat ; and the disciple in- 
i:&'^44 tc'i/l 6e distiJiguisheA from him who ha» tn^^clij the uame. 
J^'/A prai/e7'8 far your success m the noblett tj all attetk^^jt*, I om 
"rur Ircf/ier^ in ihe hope of fiiwiorf oKtj/, lE^liVVQ^, 

©SdlMS^MS? 2BA:p^It§^< 

wYo. 3— Fo/. DI] BUFFALOE, Oct. 3, 1825, [fVhole .Vo. 27 

Style no man on earth your Father; for he alone U your father xvho 
ia in heaven; and all ye are brethren. Assume not the title of Habli; 
for ye have only one teacher: — Neither assume the title of Leader,- for 
ye have only one leader — the Messiah. 

[Mat. XMii. 8—10. Campbell's Translation.) 

Proroe all things: hold fast that -which is good, 

[Paul the Apostle.] 


Of the Origin and Formation of the WeBtminster or PreS" 

byterian Conftss'un of Faith. 

jvo. jy. 

IT would be tediou<«, though, perhaps, very profita- 
ble to go into the detail of the acts and deeds of the 
Westminster assersbly, and those proceedings of ittet 
]ong parliarnent connected with the call and session of 
those creed-makers. An assembly which satfve years 
six months and twenty- itvo days., in which they had one 
thousand one hundred and sixiy-thret stssions^ niu't have 
done a great deal of ecclesla&tical business, right or 
wrong. Their deeds will appear to posterity either 
good or evil, according to the medium through whirh 
they are viewed If viewed through the medium of the 
popular and fashionable systems of this age^ a major- 
ity of their acts will appear good and commendable to 
those who are their children; but if viewed through the 
medium of the twelve Apostles, by those who venerati^ 
their character and authority, their deeds will appear 
every way out of character, and worthy of the severest 
reprobation. It is a very sUm com'^cndation of them to 
allow that they declared many truths in their confession^ 
for so did the council of Trent, and the council of 


After they had spent thu abov« terra of 5 years 6 months 
and 5i days in creed and discipVme ta^wl^^Vvxtvcv^^s ^^^^ 
who yet kepi their seats were cow^etV^^ voN.^ fc^LSWivvw^' 
committees. After aiajting the \2^w^ vA f:.oTk:^^\^'^^^ ^ 


ronduet^ (tiey become examinators of such ministers ai 
presented themselves for ordination or induction into 
Jjvings. In the form of examining committees they 
might have sat 'till their last breath, had not Oliver 
Cromwell, on the morning of March 25, 1652, turned 
the loug parliament out of doors, and thus being depri- 
^ ed of their patron, preserver, proprietor, .benefactor, 
end guide, they broke up without any formal dissolu- 
tion. Sic transit' gloria mundi — And so may all the 
iincmies of civil and religious liberty, all usurpers of the 
thrones and authority of the Lord and the Apostles, 
xvhether intentionally or unintentionally such— So let 
them be dispersed ! Let their language be confounded, 
and " confusion on their banners wait !" 

They did not like their own establishment when they 
had it built. There was not enough of the dungeon 
and the sword in it. This will appear in the sequel. 

That our remarks may appear just, if they do not al- 
ready from the facts exhibited, we shall in this No. give 
Hn extract or two from the history of their contest about 
f he keys. Those who would wish to have a full state- 
ment of their proceedings, would do well to consult Rush- 
xvorth's. and Whitlcpke's Memoirs, or Neaj's History 
of the Puritans, vol. Uf.^The following hirits will be 
found in Neal^ History, vol. III. p. 292—295, 

''But the fiercest contention between the assembly 
nnd parliapn.ent' arose upon the power of the keys^ which 
the former had voted to be in the eldership or presbytery, 
in these words: "The keys of the kingdom of heaven 
were committed to the officers of the church, by virtue 
whereof they have power respecti\ely to retain and re- 
mit sins, to .shut the kingdom of heaven against the im- 
^lenitent hoth by the word and censures, and to open it 
lo the pf nitpnt by absolution; and to prevent .the profa- 
yiation of the holy sacrament by notorious and obstin- 
ate olfenders, the said officers are to proceed by admrn- 
ition, ^uspensiop from the sacrament of the Lord's- 
supper for a season, and by excommunication from 
fhe church, according to the nature of the crime and 
ffpiuerit of the p^vsofk\^^ all \%hich power tbey claimed, 
pot by the laws of the land, but jure di-cmo^ OT\iv ^.Vv?^^ 
fpjpohitment, • ' 

BAPTI^T^ il 

The Independents claimed a like power for the bro- 
tfaeriiood of every particular congregation, but without 
any civil sanctions or penalties annexed; (he Erastiani 
were for laying the communion open, and referring all 
crimes to the civil magistrate. When the question there- 
fore came under consideration in the house of commons, 
the learned Mr* Seldon delivered his opinion against all 
suspensions and excommunications, to this effect, " that 
for four thousand years there was no law to suspend 
persons from religious exercises. Strangers, indeed, 
were kept from the passover, but they were Pagans, 
and not oi the Jewish religion. The question is not 
BOW for keeping away Pagans in times of Christianity, 
but Protestants from Protestant Worship. No divinei 
can shew, that there is any such command as this to 
suspend from the sacrament. No man is kept from the sa^ 
<2rament, eo nominej because he is guilty of any sin, by 
the constitution of the reformed churches, or because he 
has not made satisfaction. Every man is a sinner; the 
difference is only, that one is in private, and the other 
in public. Die ecclesice in St Matthew were the courts of 
law which then sat at Jerusalem* No man can shew 
any excommunication till the popes Victor and Zephori-* 
nm (two hundred years after Christ) first began to use 
them upon private quarrels, whereby it appears, that 
excommunication is a human invention, taken from the 

3Ir. Whitlocke spake on the same side of the question 
and said, '^The assembly of divines Lave petitioned and 
advised this house, that in every presbyteryy or Presbyte^ 
rian congregation^ the pastors and ruling elders may have 
the power of excommunicationy and of suspending such as 
they shall judge ignorant or scandalous. By pastors, I 
suppose they mean themselves, and others who are or 
may be preachers, and would be bishops or overseers of 
their congregations. By ruling elders they mean a select 
number of such in every congregation as shall be chosen 
for the execution of government and discipline therein. 
A pastor is one who is to feed his sheep; and if so, how 
improper must it be for such to desire to excoiiimunicate 
any, or keep them from food*, to fotbvd ^Xi"^ t^ ^^^ ^^^ 
whomsoever they shall judge uiiVfoi\.\xy^ vjV^^^. ^V^^V.\»s. 
BaJd, Tt$ke, eat, and dr in fc, ye ^jWoU^^Vov^^^vv^^'^^^ 


one of them. But some hare said, it Is the dtity of a 
shepherd when he sees a sheep feeding upon that which 
will do him hurt, to chase him away u*om that pasture; 
and they apply this to suspending of those from the sacra- 
ment whom they fear, by eating and drinking unworthily, 
may eat and drink their 6wn damnation. But it ought to 
be obserred, that It is not receiving the sacrament, but 
the UB worthiness of the receiver, that brings destructiop ; 
and this cannot be within the judgment of any but the 
person himself who alone can examine his own heart; 
nor can any one produce a commission for another to be 
judge thereof. But it is said, that ruling elders are to be 
joined with the pastors; now, in some country villages 
and congregations, perhaps, tiiey may not be very learn- 
ed, and yet the authority given them is very great: ihe 
word tlders^ amongst the Hebrews, signified men of the 
greatest power and dignity; so it was among the Ro* 
;mans, whose senate was so called, from senes. elders. 
The highest title among the French, Spaniards, and Ital- 
ians, stigTieur^ and selgnlwiy is but a corruption of the 
Latin word stniorj elder. The same may be observed 
in our English corporations, where the best and most sub* 
atantial persons are called alderme^ or eldermen. Thus 
ihe title of elders may be given to tbe chief men of every 
presbytery; but if the ppwer of excommunication be giv- 
en them, they may Ghallenge the title of eiders in the high- 
est signification. 

"Power is desired to be given to suspend from the sa- 
crament two sorts of persons,the ignorant and scandalous; 
3IOW it is possible, that they who are judgeid to be compe- 
tent in one place may be deemed ignorant in another; 
however, to keep them from the ordinances is no way to 
;mpmve their knowledge. Scandalous persons are like- 
wise to be suspended, and this is to be left to the discre- 
tion of the pastors and ruling elders; but where have 
they such a commission? Scandalous sinners should be 
admonished to forsake their evil ways, and amend their 
lives; and how can thisbe done belter, than by allowing 
them to hear good sermons, and partake of the holy ordi- 
nances? A man may be a good physician, though he nev- 
ercats off a member from his patient^ and a church may 
. a /food^ churchy though no member o£ ilXx^^ fe\^x\iii<!i.ii 
^- OJX Iha ve heard many cotnpUinU oi iVv^ \>im^\^'UQTv 


of the prelate:^, wLo'f^ere but few; now in IhU ordinance- 
there will be a great multiplication of spiritual men in 
the government^ but I am of opiniony that where the tem- 
poral sword is sufficient for punishment of offlsnces there' 
will be' no need of this new discipline." 

Thcnigh the parliament did not deem it prodtent wholly 
to reject the ordinance for excommunication, because it 
had been the popular complaint in the late 'time?, thai 
pastors of churches had not power to keep unworthy com^ 
municants fi*om the Lm'tPs table; yet the speeches of 
these learned gentlemen made such an impression, that 
thej resolved ta render it ineffectual to all the purposes 
of church tyranny; accordingly they sent to the assembly 
to specify, in writing, what degrees of knowledge m the 
Christian reiigion were necessa^*y to qualify person9 for 
tlie commUnion9 and what sorts of scandal deserved sus'-. 
pension or excoinirvunicalion') Which, after much contro- 
versvy they presented to the houses, who inserted them 
in the body of their ordinance for suspension from th^ 
Lovd'^s »upperj dated October 20, 1645, together with 
certain provisoes of their own, which stripped the pres- 
byteries of that power of the ikci^ which they were reach-' 
ingat: — 

* ' Provided alway»^ That if any person find himself 
aggrieved with the proceedings of the presbytery lo 
which be belongs,^ he may appeal to the cia-ssicaJ elder* 
ship; from them to the provincial assembly; from them 
to the national; and from them U) the pon^liament " 

" It is further provided/^ That the cognizance and ex- 
amination of all capital ofPences shall be reserved entire 
to the magistrate appointed by the laws of the kingdom, 
who, upon his committing the party to prison, shall 
make a certificate to the eWership of the congregation 
to which they belonged^ who may thereupon suspend? 
them from the sacrament.'' 

By these provisoes it is evident the parliament were 
determined not to part with the spintuai sicord^ or sub- 
ject their civil properties ta tlie power of the church, 
which gave great offtnce to the Scots commisb/anei«s, 
and to most of the English Presbyterians, who declaim- 
ed against the ordinance, as bu\\t u^oti Exa^U^'a \.vv\\\£\~ 
pJes, and Jepri'ving the chuTc\\ ol Wv^V-wX^lxOciSXOw^x^^j 
by a divine institiUion . The paTVwL^v^tv^^ oXi^'a.^^ vcv^"^ 
MjabitJon of making the churcYi m^^v^^^^^^^a^QV^^iafc^ 


girt the la^s cJoser about them, and sufejex; ted their cf^-' 
lermiDations more immediatelj to the civil magistrate, by 
an ordinance dated March 14th, 1645 — 6. 

This ordinance of suspension from the sacrament was 
extorted from Ihe two houses before the time, by the 
importunate solicitations of <he city clergy; for as yet 
there were no classes or presbyteries in any part of 
England, which ought to have been erected before they 
had (Jetermined their powers. The houses had voted 
that there should be a choice of lay elders throughout 
England and Wales, and had laid down some rules for 
this purpose, August 19, lG-15; but it was the 14th of 
March following before it passed into a law. 

it was then oidaihed, 1 . '* That there be forthwith a 
choice of [ruling] elders throughout the kingdom of 
England and dominion of Wales 

2, '-That public notice be given of such election in 
every parish, by the minister of the church, a fortni«^ht 
before; and that on the Lord^s day on which the choice 
is to be made, a sermon be preached suitable to the oc- 

3 " Elections shall be madfe by the congregation, or 
the major part of them then assembled, being heads of 
families, and such as have taken the covenant 

4. " That certain persons be-«ppointed triers in every 
class, viz. six ministers and three lay men^ whereof 
seven to be a quorum, to determme the validity of elec- 
tions. All members of parliament, and peers of the 
realm, to be triers in the parishes wherein they live." 

'•The parliament apprehended they had now established 

the plan of ^he Presbyterian discipline, though it proved 

wot to the satisfaction of any one party of Cnristians; so 

hard is it to make a good settlement when men dig up all 

at once old foundations. The Fresbyltpian hierarchy waa 

sts narrow as the prclatical; and as it did not allow a 

liberty of conscience, claiming a civil as well as eccle- 

hiastical authority over men's persons and properties, it 

was equally, if not more insulferable. Bishop Kennet 

observes that the settling presbytery was supported by 

the fear and love of the Scots army, and that when they 

ffej-e gone heme \i was better managed by the English 

i^t-mfy trho w^re for independency a-tiOi «i \)x\iic\\k\% o^ 

i^Jora.tIon} btj^ a.^ fhin«:«? stood nobody v»^^ \\\^%.^^^S v\i% 


Episcopalians and Independents wete excluded; and be- 
cause the parliament would not give the several presby- 
teries an absolute power over their communicants, but 
reserved the last appeal to themselves, neither the Scots 
nor English Presbyterians would accept it.'* 

^' The English Presbyterians, having resolved to stand 
and fall with the Scots, refused peremptorily to comply 
with the ordinance, relying upon the assistance and 
support of that nation .'' 

*•' It was a sanguine and daring attempt of these divines, 
who were called together only for their advice, to ex- 
amine and censure the ordinances of parliament, and 
dispute in this manner with their supeiiors; the commons, 
alarmed at this petition, appointed a committee to fake 
into consideration the matter and manner of it, who, 
after some time, reported it as their opinion, that the 
assembly of divines in their petition had broken the pri- 
vileges of parliament, and were guilty of a praemunire; 
and whereas they insisted so peremptorily on the jus 
divinum of the Presbyterian government, the commitlee 
had drawn up certain queries, which they desired the 
assembly mightresolve for their satisfaction*, the house 
agreed to the report of the committee, and on the SOth 
of April sent sir John Evelin^ Mr. jyatlianUl Fiennts^ 
and Mr. Browne^ to the assembly, to acquaint them with 
their resolutions. These gentlemen set before them their 
2*ash and imprudent conduct, and in several speeches 
shewed wherein they had exceeded their province, whieli 
was to advise the houses in such points as they^ should lay 
before them^ but not to dictate to those to whom they oivtd 
ikeir being an assenibly.^^ 



.vo nil. 


WE have proposed to make still further apparnit 
lliat the primary intention of the meeting of the disci- 
j)les on the first day of the week, was to break bread. 
Wc concluded our last essay en this topic with a nc- 
ttce of Acts XX. 7. — *^And on the first d^\ ^11 tK^vK^^V^ 
Vkhcn the disciples assembled lo Y^w^Vw^Yvi^^r '\Nsr 
tlcsign of this i:iretliig9 \\ Vi t\\.ii^u\* ^^*w>^ ^^ "^ 


bread. But that this was the design of all tlicir meet* 
ings for \Yorship and edification, or that it ^vas the 
primary object of the meetings of the disciples, is ren- 
dei'ed very cei-tain from PauFs fii'st letter to the Co- 
rinthians, chap. xi. The ajiostle applauds and censures 
the chui'ch at Corinth with respect to tlieir observance 
of the order he instituted among them. In the second 
verse he praises them for retaining tlic ordinances he 
delivei'ed them, and in the conclusion of this chapter he 
censures them in sti*ong terms for not keepitig the or- 
dinance of breaking bread as he delivered it to them. 
They retained in their meetings the ordinance, but did 
abuse it. He sjiecifies their .abuses of it, and denoun- 
ces their practice as wortliy of chastisement. But in 
doing this he incidently informs us that it was for tlic 
j)uii)Ose of breaking bread they assembled in one place. 
And the manner in which he does this is equivalent to 
an express command to assemble for the purpose. In- 
deed, there is no form of speech more determinate in 
in its meaning, or more energetic in its force, than that 
wliich he uses, verse 20. It is jirecisely tlie same as 
the two following examples. A man assembles labor- 
ers in liis vineyard to cultivate it : he goes out and 
finds them cither idle or destroying his vines. He re- 
proves and commands tliem to business by addressing 
them thus — ^*Men, ye did 72C/^ assemble to cultivate my 
vineyard.'* By the use of tliis negative, he makes his 
command moi*e imperative, and their guilt more appa- 
rent A teacher assembles his pupils to learn ; he 
comes in and finds them idle or quarrelling ; he ad- • 
dresses tliem thus — "Boys, yc did not assemble to 
learn.'' Iti this forcible style he declares the object 
of their meeting was to leam, and thus commands and 
reproves them m the same words. So Paul addi'esses 
the disciples in Corinth — "When ye assemble it is iiotio 
eat the Lord's supper'' — or (Macknight) — "But you» 
coming togetiier intoonie place is not to eat the Lord's 
snppc'rf* plainly and forcibly intimating that this was 
/?jc design of their meeting or a8sem\i\m^\YVQw^Y^2Lce, 
rtmirnHndinp; them to order, ai\A re\>vo\V\\^ \)cv^\sv ^v\y 
Unorder. A'ovv it must be adnutleA l\i^^. V-vmVs ^\^^SJ 


in this passage is exactly similar to the two examples 
given, and tliat the examples given mean what we liavc 
said of their import 5 consecjuontly* by the same rule, 
Paul reminds the Corinthians, and informs all who 
ever read the epistl^ that when tlie disciples assem- 
bled, or came together into one place, it was, primari- 
ly, for the purpose of breaking breads and in eflect most 
positively commands the practice. To this it has been 
objected that the 26th verse allows tlie liberty of dis- 
pensing with this ordinance as often as we please. In 
the improved translation of Macknight it reads thus-^ 
^^ Wherefore, as often as ye eat this bread and drink 
tliis cup, ye openly publish the deatli of tlie Lord tiU 
the time he come/' Either these words, or those in the 
preceding verse, (^** this do^ as often as ye drink it in 
remembrance of me,") are said to give us the liberty 
of determining when we may break bread. If so, then 
the Lord's supper is an anomaly in revelation. It is 
an ordinance Ynay be kept once in seven months or 
seven years, just as we please — ^for, i*eader, remember 
^ where there is no law there is no transgression."*— 
But this application of the words is absurd, and per- 
fectly similar to the Papists' inference from these 
^ords; for they infer, hence, ^< that the cup may some- 
times be omitted^ and under this pretence have refused 
it altogether to the laity." And certainly if the phrase^ 
^{is oft as ye drink it^^ means that it may be omitted 
when any pleases, it is good logic for the Papists to 
argue that it may be omitted altogether by the laity, 
provided the priests /»/?a«^ to drink it^ 

But neither the design of tiie apostle nor bis words 
■in this passage have respect to ihcfrequencyf but to the 
manner of observing the institution. If this is evident^ 
that interpretation falls to the ground. And tliat it is 
evident, requires only to ask the question, What was 
the apostle's design in these words ? Most certainly 
it was to reprove the Corinthians, not for the frequen- 
cy nor unfrequency of their attending to it, but for 
the manner in which they did it. TSonj ^a '&sss»^^is%*'^' 
design^ and as every writer or R\iB2Jtet'^ ^^^^ ^^'^J!! 
be interptoted according to Yiis A^sv?jW, ^^ ^"^ ^ 


strained to admit that the apostle meant no more than 
that Christians should always^ in observing this insti- 
tution, observe it in the manner and for the reasons he 

And last of all, on tliis paiSsage, let it be remember- 
ed, that if the phrase, *as oft as,^ gives us liberty to 
observe it seldom, it aJso gives us liberty to observe it 
every day if we please. And if it be a privilege, we are 
not straitened in the Lord, but in ourselves. 

But, say some, <^it i^^'Ul become too common and 
lose its solemnity.*' Well, then, the seldomer the bet- 
ter : — ^if we observe it only once in twenty years, it 
will be the more uncommon aiid solemn. And, on the 
same principle, the seldomer we pray the better. We 
shall pray with more solemnity, if we pray once in 
twenty years ! • 

But " it is too expensive.^* How ? Wherein ? Is not 
the earth the LorcPs and the fullness thereof^ It costs 
us nothing — it is the Lord's property. He gives us his 
goods that we may enjoy ourselves. We never saw or 
read of a church so poor that could not> without a 
sacrifice, furnish the Lord's table. To make one ** sa- 
crament** requires more than to furnish the Lord^s 
table three months. I hate this objection most cordial- 
ly* It is anti-Christian — it is mean — ^it is base. 

'^ It is unfashionable." So it is to speak truth, and 
fulfill contracts. So it is tQ obey God jrather than 
man ; and if you love ihe fashion, be consistent — dont 
associate with the Nazarenes— -hold up the skirts of 
the high-priest, and go to the temple. But all objeo 
tions are as light as sti*aws and as volatile as a feather* 

To recapitulate the items adduced in favor of the 
ancient oraer of breaking bread, it was sbewn^ as we 
apprehend — 

1 . That there is a Divinely instituted order of Chris- 
tiah worship in Christian assemblies. ^ 

2. That this order of worship is uniformly the same. 

3. That the nature and design of the breaking of 
Aread are such as to make it an eBS^Ti^xvA ^Tt of 

Christian worship in Christian assemWica. 
^' That the Sjrst church set in order Vn Iwsx^Akwh 


continued aa stcdfastly in breaking of bread as in any 
other act of social worship oredification. 

5. That the disciples statedly met on the first day 
of the week, primarily and emphatically, for tiiis pur- 

6. That the apostle declared it was the design, or 
the primary object of the church to assemble in one 
place for this purpose, and so commanded it to the 
churches he had set in order. 

7. That there is no law. rule, reason, or authority for 
Uie present manner of observing this institute quainter- 
ly, semi-annually, or at any other time, tlian weekly. 

8. We have considered some of the more prominent 
^ objections against the ancient practice, and are ready 

to hear any new ones that can be offered. Upon the 
whole, it may be said that we have express precedent 
and an express command to assemble in one place on 
the first day of the week to break bread. We shall 
reserve other evidences and considerations until some 
objections are offerwl by any correspondent who com- 
plies with our conditions EJ. 


\VE have long considered the various societies called Missionary, 
][)ible, Sunday-School, and Tract Socfeties, as great rtllgio\is en. 
g-ines, fitted and designed for the predominance of the hading 
^claries who set them a-going-, and ultimately tending to a national 
creed and a religious cstablisliment. M'e were aware of the difficul- 
ty of making this manifest to all, because of the good names, fair 
speeches, and pious pretexts by which they were introduced, and 
with which their design was hid from the eyes of the well disposed 
and unsuspecting members of the different religious communities 
in this country. We know, too, that the distribution of the Oracles 
of God is a good work, abstractly considered, and that the teaching 
of the poor to read on the first day of the week is benevolent, anci 
Jiighly advantageous to many, 1 • t there are intentions besides 
pure ben* volence, and appendages to those good works in the 
manner in which they are performed, which convert them into re»i 
ligious intrigues for predominance. Many agents in distributing 
the llible ffraiiif or in selling it at a loyv price, (like one of my 
neighboring parsons,) sell it low or bestpw it with aniui<S*ictA<itv<^'^ 
the receiver to attend his mini&^rsLtionik. K\\^ vVm^ ^^ \k^-^^ "^^ 
filled, and the sect ircreased with tneiXAbets bwighi^w ^^ ^^x^y* 
the pn'ce of a liible, or for one frestoved. \\\ ^\t ^vLX\C\a>i -^^^ 
foCf the same grand object is nev^it \osX s\^V\. o^ - VT^ix«v\^M. 


bcstoxed to the incritorious -, — and these premiums are called *' re- 
ligious tracts," ilesijjntd to be carried home to the house of the 
rewarded as a bait to dtcoy the parents and seiuc^rs into the net of 
the priesthood, and to prejudice the young* in favor of the creed 
or'thc donors. The following" tract, or ** circular," from the frtends 
of a National Tract Society, sent us from the bordej s of Mew York, 
not only hints, but almost, if not altcg'ether, avows the intention 
of all these institutions. Nothing but the prospects of triumph^ 
from sanguine calculations on present appearances, could have be- 
trayed its authors into such an indiscretion as to shew the cloven 
foo't, naked and unveiled. But we shall let it spealc for itself, which 
It dees in language too plain and bold to be misconceived : — 

*• To Iht Fnends of Religion and Good Government . 


" THE present aspect of the times furnishes, to an attentive ob 
server, a clear presentiment of the approaliliing state of the reli- 
gious world. Every reflecting man, who reviews, with deep and 
solemn interest, the astonishing changes which have been made 
within a few years past, in the politics^, moral, and religious state 
of it, roust be animated with the liveliest hope at the bright pros- 
pect which thisaspect presents ; and to see the time fast approach- 
ing "when the lion and the lamb shall lie down together, and 
mankind learn war no more." To what are we to ascribe that more 
tolerant and benign spirit — that elevation of feeling which pervades 
the religious world now, more than it ^d hfly years ago ? Who 
would have believed, even twenty years since, that FresDyterians, 
Kpiscopaliuns, Baptists, Methodists, &c. would have joined to de- 
liberate at this day on the best plan for propagating Christian know- 
ledge, and of forming Bible, Missionary, and Tract Societies? 
What has done this, but that illumination nf mind, produced by the 
Holy Scriptures, pi'eached and propagated by God's minibters, con- 
stantly increasing? 

«* We sec, more and more every day, the benign and salutary in- 
fluence which our happy form of civil government is diilusing 
through the world, in correcting that asperity of feeUng, which 
has so long tended to estrange mankind from each other. The 
press is every where spreading abroad among them a correct 
knowledge of their true and mutual rights and interests. To the 
introduction of this knowledge among those, before strangers to 
each other, is succeeding an interchange of fumiliar intercourse, 
generous feelTng, and Christian charity. Such are the emanations 
from a principle of increasing Konevolence, and enlarged philan- 

"In turning our attention more immediately at home, we see men 
of the most exalted rank in society becoming the friends and asso- 
ciates of all religious teachers, without distinction, and the gradual 
itpproxinuttion of sects and parties to each other, is every where 
visible atnd evident. The conflicting awd d\BCOTAATvt eleiivetxts are 
STaduRj/j' knitting' and joining together, lowa^rcXs ^ Tt\w^i cc^tiv^ViV^ 
f^rtd perfect Christian union. The more tVev becoirve t\vXx^\v\^Tvt^, 
fie more theyl^^aie convmced, thai the tanIiColO:\«eteYvc^ wxiW^ 


Christians 19 immaterial and nominal. They see that the child 
generally inherits the religion of its parent, and can easily be 
mouIde4» according to circumstances, into almost any, and, if ne- 
cessary, into a national form. They no longer believe that the 
Presbyterian who turns Congregationalist or Baptist, or an E^.isco- 
palian who turns Methodist, and vice versa, is an inftdel, but is 
merely changing the form of worship to the same Common Parent. 
They begin to see and reflect, that if one rehgious denomination 
is wrong*,, every other may be, and that for any one in particular to 
pretena to infallibility, is anti-Christian and intolerant. People of 
different persuauons can now unite like bands of brothers, to con- 
cert plans for the increase and dissemination of religious kriow- 
ledge. A spirit of brotherly love and concord is more and moT\i 
rulirg- and reining in the hearts of our countrymen. Theological 
Seminaries, Bible, Missionary, and Tract Societies, which are every 
where increasing, have produced and extended religious impres* 
sions, generally, and awakened Christian zeal and research every 
where, under a well-founded prosj>ect tha- increased blessings will - 
flow from the multiplication of all, and particularly the Ittier, by 
the establishment of a National Tract Society at New York, under 
the united care and superintendance of the most distinguiitlicd 
clergy of various denominations. 

"From this view of sentiment and feeling", students of dilFerent 
|»ersuasions can meet and read the same relig'ous authors, in tlie 
same institutions, under the same professors, for the acquisition of 
theological knowledge. Thus, while errors and corruptions are 
detected and expqsed, will correct and orthodox religious senti- 
ments be promulgated and defended by learned students employed 
in the same holy and divine calling, for one common purpose. It is 
by these means we see so many of our first men becoming conve^t^, 
more and more to the Christian faith, and devoted to the interests) 
of Bible, Missionary, and Tract Societies. At the seat of the; 
genei^al government, we see congress electing chaplains in rotation, 
^ to oflTer up prayers for the success of their deliberations. While 
we witness such concert among the higher orders of society, as to 
religious worship, with a favorable disposition to the distribution of 
religious tracts, properly composed, we have a good right to con - 
elude it will issue in a wise National Creed, and that tlie most pious 
and enlightened men in our country will see the impropriety of 
sending out Missionaries and Divines to preach the Word of Life 
with discordant and conflicting views. 

•« The fruits of this unanimity lately produced the admiration of 
tlie •* Nation's Guest,*' in receiving tne viats of the clergy of all 
denominations, who repaired in a body to pay their respects to him, 
so different from any thing he ever saw in Europe. 

** This pious unanimity and zeal will be apt to produce its owu 
temporal reward. See the want of it in tne late war. vfh^** *»— 
influence of mauv diaaffectfi^ ,.ia--»— — — - 

ccssfiiUjr exerted to paralyzeVr^ni;::;'' V^ P^^«rfu"y and'suct 
ment. They were nottW «Vi ?^ ?^^ ^V«^M\^m ^1 ^.^N^k- 
which th^irL'^Zuiho^^^^ ^"^-^^^^^ «^"^^^ \Wy.^^^ 

tbeir station Aaf bernn,^ ""'^^^ ^^'^^^^ Ott^ftt ^oix^v^^. 'S 


layman ftels liiinself honored to join the Presbyterian and Raptisf, 
the Kpiscopalian and Methodist, a.s8eniblcd together to deliberate 
on the best means- which their joint councils may suggest for th« 
extension ot" religious knowledge. The clerical robe is becomings 
less an<l less the theme of scoU'ers, and nioirc and more a proud and 
honoruble budge to him, ^vho, for his tbeoloigical attainments is 
cntilird to It, 

" By cnli»*iBg moral arwl religious, and consequently numerical 
forcff, in tlic cawse of religion, all the opposition ef infidelity will 
be bf'r»M.» domn and overpowered. Until those collisions and con- 
ilicls of i^>inion, growing out of the same Christian belief, shall be 
annihilaled or greatly abated, our country, in times of distress an«l 
danger uiivy be divided and distracted b} religious feuds and quar- 
reb. The business of government onght, as much as possible, arc! 
may be practicable, to produce unanimity and concord, both in our 
civil and religious institutions. 

" As sure af> the force of circumstafuccs produces order and s\ r- 
tenvin tVie world, and assure a»tlK:re is a tendency and gravitation 
in natural and physical b<Klies towards each other, so sure, in the 
moral and religious world, will the lesser bodies or sec^s be attract- 
ed to the largest. Anioug refractory and apostate spirits, opposi- 
tion may be expectt d,- but it will be made to yield to the power 
and inihrence of evangelical truth. 

" A reference to the state of Christranity in Knglar«l, furnishes 
an an\ple solutinn to this position. A great majority of the people 
there are reconciled to tlve efvtablished ord«r, and nnite in fj^ving* 
tlie.r «ip])ort to the state. 1 do not say this becanse 1 am a» 
Eljlatropalian, for 1 am not ; brit to enforce the necessity cf unani- 
ni.ty in the prevailing'' religion of the state; or, of making it 
raiion;d in it» form, tendency, and operation ; since that may be 
considcrL'd ortltrdox ^« hich has the most adherents, w\w are made 
yo by hirth, e<lucatiou, or accident ; as each sect pretends, from 
Scripture, to derive proof to its system. His the force of circum- 
stanotftwe fi^kvo b: en speaking of, which has produced the estab- 
lished region of i'*»ig:land-^tl\e choice of its people, and which is 
necessary to its peace— the security of the governmejit, and the 
strength of the iwtion. 

•' Vvhut a benoiicial influence m'ouW it have on public sentiment 
and fecHpg, if the index of its character should be distinguished 
by a n)ore nation:il costume, which would be solemn and imposing, 
and such as would secure to the sacerdotal character that reverence 
wliich Is due to it. The emblems of worship, properly prepared 
and urranged, and approved of by a majority of the nation, might 
be made to correspond with it in other respects. Will it bebe- 
)levef\, that thu^ q'lalificd, any of the leading sects of this country 
M'ouid n^pcl the sanction of government if ofiered to tl>em i Are 
the proftssors of worship in England to be, and would tliose in 
thi.H «M>uutry, p.r<?ferring a different mode, be consigned to perdition 
f()r diflering from each otlier ? 

*' From what has been said we may rationally conclude that 4 
^oa/ot/s CO'Q/Jtrution urnvrtg tlie most re?^\>ecVab\e rtW^iowR siect^ i|4 
our cQuntrr', Is f?r>fJi/?^/to a con^Ud^ttAOi^* ^ ^^^ ^T\»o^\tS ^v^ 


trines, tind forms of worship, so desirable to every true Cliristiun, 
and which may eventually bring' about a conventional arraiigenieTit 
as t9 a settled form. Thpse anticipations may be furtJier realized, 
ia securin? from cong^ss an -appropriation of a portion of thi- 
public lands, to a limited, and yet sufficient number of the clerg^y, 
and for a well defined course of education. This is prospecti\i% 
andtliose who are fastidious about it may ^radualb* sacrifice thc'.r 
prejudices and scruples, which will be likely to be dissipated by 
the light of religious knowh?dg^c on the altar of harmony ai\d 

•* We are not at present proposing to our coimtrj- a governmcntid 
form of worship, or any prescriptive rule of homa^ to the Divine 
Scing — ihe enli^litened state of the world forbids it. IJut is it not 
\ycll to provide .guards and securities, in time, against those innova> 
lions and coniiilsions which may endanger our social state r When 
vars and troubles come, is It nodiing to know the moral and reli^^i- 
ous influence of so respectable an onier, as a iiithful and unitcxl 
-ecclesiastical body will be cserted, vrhcre its interest and duty 
dictate, in explainmg and inculcating tfie duties, in oonciliating thV 
feelines, and uniting the energies of t}\e country against a common 
enemy? .And what, in such an event, can tend so much to 
strengthen the arms of government, and draw them to eacli others 
-as to compensate the labors of relig'ous servants faithfully tk-\'oted 
to its views ? In the sunshine of prosperity, when no perplexitici; 
.assail us, we are not to calculate on an unclmng^ahU? stale of 
things. The progress of events, which ai*e fast transpirinfj" and 
developing themselves, furnishes tJiebest comment on the writers 
views. T4iey are plainly disclosed in declaring the ohjt-ct of thiB 
circular to be, the gfradual union and amalgamation (.f all religious 
sects and parties. It ori^nates &om a source w hich aims fft no 
other than the v }luntary sacrifice and restraints wliich a majority of 
the nation may be disposed to adopt, and which its iritcrcst end 
tnuiquility may require. This project, which follows the course 
and operation of circumstances and events, goes fortli divested of 
All party views and considerations. The principal objection to it is, 
whether the selection of the present is a proper time for bring^n^- 
into consideration and .discussion, those plans of improvement ar.d 
reform, which are fast maturing, so as to accomplish, sooner or 
later, what is now proposed. Feeling iUe happy ])rt;sentiment of 
an improving state of tilings in the religious world, the writer de- 
sires the sober and reflecting part of the communiiy to culculate 
whether the great and permanent interests of religion do not sub- 
stantially require that aa early foundation should be laid for iis 
greater extension and security, on the plan suggested, v hich may 
tend to arrest those distractions and divisions on account of it, 
which, if continued, may tend also to discourage goyernmcnt, in 
case the state of the country may require it, from giving any form 
■or encouragement to it ? 

«* By a spirit of forbearance, and the enlightened councils of wise 
ftnd good men, our system of government is daily secuvir;^ tho. 
affections ofBll parties to it, and accvuvtvci^ ^t-aXei^^v^-.v^—- 
2iothing' is ivand'ng'as to OUT Te\^gAO\is coTv^vViQTv>\>>i^"^'»''^^-"»^^'^ 


well concerted plan, to prodace, ss the Hev. Dr. Bccchcr a»>a, 
•• a homogeneous influence," which >»^iU issue in a uniform and 
harmonious system of Christian worship; and which, like our 
admirable form of civil government, may excite the admiration and 
mpplause of *< all who as yet are strangers to it." 

Now, courteous reader, mark what ** ChtPammuten** are about; 
^^* an interchange of familiar intercourse, generous feeling, and 
Christian charity," engaging « men<of the most exalted Tank in 
■ociety," *< the friends and associates of all religious teachers," 
-snaking *<the radical difference among Christians immaterial and 
nominal" — •• moulding children into a national f&rm of rcfiiyfoii"*— 
*' preparing learned students to promulge and defend a national 
orthcdoxy — and ** all to issue in a tnte natiojial creedJ* As a terror 
to government, the powerful and successfiil pualyzing influence 
cf an exasp^erated priesthood, in the late war, is presented; and ^ 
a^ a bomup their zealous co-operation with it in evcxy meaaure 
when future exigencies may require, if government should honor 
the derictU robe, establish a prieotly cootume, and appn^niate lands 
«nd money for the priesthood. ** A convgntiofuU ammgement to 
settle a national form" and to consolidate exertion in these efforts^ 
is proposed to engage jp^vernment " to compensate the labors of 
]<eugious servants futhfully devoted to its views"— and ** gradualljr 
to unite and amalgamate sJl religious sects and parties." All that is 
wanting to these ends is Dr. Beecher's ** homogeneout infiuence,** 
which " time, and a toell concerted plan,'* will produce. And is it 
not distinctly avowed that Missionary, Bible, and Tract Societies 
have these ends in view? Comment is unnecessaiy. Monarchy and 
hierarchy will be restored, and the present hberties and cii^l 
^orcniment will be overthrown by these haughty, arrogant, and 
nmbitious priests, if the Christian and republican members of this 
community are not aroused into vigilance and activity in withstand- 
ing the unhallowed importunities, unwearied exertions, and Jesu- 
itical schemes of «< God*8 mnisters," as they impiously call them* 
selves. Ed, 


NOTHING can reconcile the different sects in religion to relin- 
quish their sectair names and creeds for the name of Christian and 
the word of God, but a clear proof that their names and creeds are 
not only unscriptural, but are subversive of the Christian character, 
nnd in their consequences prevent the world believing in J^esus 
riirist. In my two former numbers! have shewn, in some degree, 
the truth of these things, and feel sure that every tender-hearted 
Cliristian cannot fail to feel much affected by the considerations 
there exhibited. 

I promised, in my last number, to give a short account of the 

origin of creeds as distinguished from the word of God in the 

f gospel This 1 do, the more effectually to evince the deception 

tfi»t IS practised upon the world and V\ie delua\OTw vov^^t >«\\\OexS\. 

labors on this subject. 


The first creei bf which we are irtf<*mcd, as distinguished from 
*' the faith which was once delivered unto the saints," is Pjesented 
to us under the imposJitST *^"^ ^^^^^ ^itle of **The Jpo^tles' Creed, 
which is so often repeated b V th^ »c>ti*fln Gathohc* »pd the Episco- 
palians as of divine origin. 'j)upiHf ixi I"?' Ecclesiastics^ History ot 
the first century, than whom ft more cor.-cct ^^'^^P^^^^L '^'''♦l!) 
hath not lived, though of Catholic profession, •'^^^ *!^, f^ s"|JJ^ 
evident that this creed was not composed by the Apoo. ^** '*--*t^, 
Jerome says that the faith of the creed was an Apostolic tracuuo.., 
and was not written on paper by the Apostles. " The fathers of 
the three first ages,** Dupin observes, "disputing with heretics, do 
not pretend to say that the creed was composed by the Apostles* 
but that the doctrine comprised in the creed is that of the Apostles." 
«« We find,** he further remarks, "in the second and third ages ot 
the church as many creeds as authors^ and the same author sets the; 
creed down aftera different manner in sevenJ places of his works, 
which plainly shows that there was not then any creed that was 
reputed to be the Apostles, nOr even any reputed or established 
form of f«ith except that which was written m the word of God. 
St. Jerome exhibits two different creeds, and Tertullian made use 
of three different creeds in three several places, all of which creed* 
are different from the Vulgate.** So much for the origin of the first 
creed, which is rung" upon all the changes so often every Sabbath 
by Catholics and Episcopalians as Apostolic. 

The next one which we shall notice, and which is the most dis- 
tinguished instanceof creed-making in history, is the A'lcene Cretd^ 
which was made by and under the authority of Constantine the 
Great, in the year 325, and was established as the constitution and 
test of the true Catholic church, and the Divine measure of all 

The history of this creed is the following. There were in tlie 
church of Alexandria, in Egypt, two pastors, one named Alexander, 
and the other Arius. Alexander, on a certain occasion, afl&i'med, in 
reference to the Trinity, that there was "an unity in Trinity, and 
p:\rticularly tliat the Son was co^ecernal, and conaubstantial, and of 
the same dignity ivith the Father," Arius objected to the language, 
and urged that " if the Father be^at the Son, he who was begotten 
must have a beginning of his existence as Son ; and from hence, 
said he, it is manifest that there was a time w^henthe Son was not.*' 
&c. I'his difference in speculation between these two men, neither 
of whom seems to have attended to the scriptural statements on the 
subjects, involved all Christendom in a name, and set bishops 
against bishops, who set the people together by the ears, and gave 
occasion, as Louates, in his Church History, observes, to the hea- 
then to ridicule the Christian religion upon their public theatres. 
Julian, the nephew of Constantine, who, by reason of these dis- 
putes, renounced Christianity and returned to Paganism, used to 
call into his presence the boxers on each side of the controversy 
to abuse each other for his amusement. 

The dispute between Alexander and \t\\x^ ticc'a.i\wv^<Js.^«^^'?iK^- 
t'mc to call his CEciimenfcal CouucU— -\\\e v-ovvxvc^vXo^^-w^^^^;;'^^'^^'^ 
as it was called, to settle the orthodoxy oxv \\v^ «v^>^^^^% ^^^^ 



creed as YoUoweth:— " We believe in one God, ihc Vatlior Al- 
mighty, muker of till thinp^s, visible and invisiblcj :aml in one Loi-*!. 
Jesus Christ, the Son of God, Iheonly begfotten ; beg-oUcn of tl»i- 
Father, that is, of the substunce of the Tather, God of God, J/ighr. 
^of Light; true God of true God; bcijotten, not made, consubs'ur.- 
nial with the Father," Sec. This wns the established creed or the 
■ iroii bedstead by which every man was to bs measured, and to be 
■lopp'd ir stretched as he mig-hi be too long" or too short, accordinij 
to its dimensions. V/ith its erection w us for^td *• tiie infernal ir.- 
stniments of torture and dcatli for eficcting unifonnit\ in relig-ion," 
which were put into the hands of tiie clcr^-y by the civil authority. 
This occurred in A. 1). 5!35,.and was the first regular establishment 
of Chiisti unity by civil authority, blimX has been perpetuated dow n 
to tiie present time in the old world. At .that time Constanline, 
though utibaptizeil, assumed the title u" Universal Rishop. AVith 
this creed, and the power of punislii ig nerejcs, was exhibited tlie 
full revelation of the Man of Sin, and wiili it was established the 
kingdom of the clergy. See Jones' History /if the Church, vol. I. 
It was at this time, as DupinTemarks, that **JBisho|)S met together 
vith liberty, bein;^ supported by tlie autliorily of princes, and 
iiiade abundance of rules concerning thfi government and ocdinan- 
clS of tlie church. Previous to this the discipline was plain nnd 
simple, and tlie church had no other splendor to recommend it but 
what the holiness Of the manners of the lives of the Christlar.B 
gave it." 

Had the poor worms of tlie dust, Alexander and Arius, and 
Athanasius, been let alone to enjoy their speculations, with a 
moderate attention to the word of God, their differences of opinion 
would either hu\e done no harm, would have been healed, or would 
have died witli them. 

Jones, in his History, remarks, that "the effects of this general 
council were to lay the foundati«^n for a system of persecution of a 
romjilexion altogether new; professing Chrisiians tyranizing over 
t;ie c msciences of each other, and inflictiiig tortures and cruelties 
fur grca* er tlum they had sustained from their heathen pei secutors." 
Kacii slfle of the Avian controversy, when in power, persecuted other with thcmost ruthless sanguinaiy violence. True Chris- 
tianity had nothing to do in this dark business. This was the 
rcvelaiion of tlie Man of Sin which had been previously ht or 
f.i,idfHi?d by Pagan emperors. 

'1 he difference bet\^een Alexander and Arius arose from the 
neglect or disregard of the doctrinal «'atements and factsas reveal- 
^.'.l in the word of God on the subjeci of the nature and character 
of Christ, and by metaphysical speculations, aided by 
t.'joment's natural relii^-ion, without regard to the word. 

It is impossible fjr those who entertain a reverential regard for 
the f;reat God, not to be stnack with the presumptron of sinful,, erring mortals, who would dare to in\esiigate a subject 
of Sx-^h awful import as the 7Nufhts of the divine existence, oriho 
y\y.-/j'rj presanui logo furtlier ui the discovery of God than he has 

f" ft cffilcJ noM' seem, that, accorcTmg to t\\c mosl tT\\\^\v\.c:T\Q.CL 

'/■re vStns cf the s^b'>ct, loth sid-s o^ t\iQ l-T:iw\ cutv j:QN^\'^i 


much with tUo, principles of tlie Andover school in Mussaclmsettr', 
'•Divine revelation never leads us to conceive cf the Son of <iou 
abstractly from the incarnation of Ute icovil. The vovd that v«; 
God, was made flesh. The Holy Ghost overshadowed the Virgin 
Mary : — this was the reason, n(»t only of her conceiving* that liul} 
tiling-, but also of its beiag" called the Son of (iod. AltJiough tli'' 
sonship of Christ always supposes and includes his godhea !, iri 
which the eternal orlg'inal and essential dignity of his person con- 
sists; yet it does not appear from scriptirre tiiiil lie is called the 
Son of God, merely as God, or to teacli i^s llie origin and manner 
of his existence in the godhead: it sctms applicable to him as 
Kmanuel, God v ith ms.** Human knowledge of Jehovah can go ny 
i'ijrthcr than the terins in whicli the divine natr.rc as Falfier, Son, 
>and Holy Givost arc revealed, -ihe cherubim veil the res', with 
their wings. 

In tlie western statesa very unproGtiible controversy has existed on 

tiiis subject. If men could be content w ith tlic scripture statements 

-of the nature and character of Christ, and could realize the fuel il>;..t 

he wasworshippedas God by inspired Apostles and Christians, for 

which they sufl'ered death, and which was indeed the first cause (;f 

their persecution, it would end all controversy, and we should soon 

see a union of sentimeni. Without tlie agreement that Clirist is 

jreally an object of worship, and is of course Divine, tliere can 

jiever be Cliristian union between them. 

These disputes haveoriginaleda technical phVaficolog}- on both 
rs'.des, which has greatly narrowed the vocabulary in religion, and 
Las rendered some modes of expression almost obsolete, which 
■were indulged in without scruple by the sacred v/ritersi^ 1'^ y 
liaye occasioned, on the Arian side of the question, in many ju- 
. stances, the relinquishment of the latitude with which the scrip- 
tures express themselves on the nature and -glory of Christ, and 
•liave produced a scrupulouE and systenw ic cast of dict'.on which 
is altogether inconsistent with tlie jioble freedom disj)laycd by tlic 
inspired penmen. Many expressions arc employed, without hesi- 
tation, in scripture, which are rarely fouhd even in the direct form 
cf quotation in "their writings, and arc never heard in their public 
addresses but with a view of subjecting them to explanations and 
speculations, which -so mutilate and mar the cliaracter of I'hrist as 
to render him altogether an object unfit fm- the -worship of Chr-s- 
tans, and who, if thus seen, had never been worshippedLy Ste- 
phen and Paul and the Apostolic Christians. I'aul wrote his first 
epistle to tlie church of God which 4s at Corinth, and ".^o all (Jutt 
in every place ^call upon, or Jnvohe, the vaiae of\ ar u-M-xhiJ\ Jcauf 
Chviftt our l^ovd, both their and ovr Lord.** 

'I'iie next hwtance of creed-making" A^-as in Hjc reign of If enr* 
\' III. and his immediate successors. -Iliis is said to have foiimec 
"^he dawn of the Ileformation, which has eventuated in the fornii. 
ton of tl)e Y.p'iscop'A church in EngVaiNd o^uvim V\\<iSv^A^\^\^^t«^ '^vvNs.'V^ 

>• ;'Zi which uhso th< 


After havihg been married to Catharine of Arragon ftjt a mimber 
of years, Henry VIII. became, attached to Anne Bo|eyn, atid peti- 
tioned the Popo to divorce him from Catharine that he might marry 
Anne, which the Pope refused or delayed. He then obtained a 
sentence annulling his marriage from Bishop Cranmer. The Popo 
rescinded Cranmer's sentence and excommunicated the king. This 
induced Henry and his parliament to pass an act abolishing the 
Pope's power in England, and by another act they declared the 
king supreme head of the church, and all the authority of which 
the' Pope was deprived in England was vested in. and assumed by, 

Henry was a demoted Roman Catholic in heart, • and becoming 
jealous of Ann Roleyn's attachment to the Protestants, had hec 
beheaded, and the next day married Jane Seymer, who dying, he 
married Ann of Cleves, and in a short time put her away and marri- 
ed Catharine Par. ' 

Edward VJ. the son of Jane Seymer, succeeded his father Henry 
VIH. tc^lhc thnme, when nine years old. He was a good little boy 
and friertdly to the Protestants. He and his bishops d'd something 
towards forming and improving the church of England. Marj% 
daughter of Catharine of Arragon, succeeded him, restored the 
supremacy of the Pope of Rome, and beheaded Cranmer and 
others. After xMary, came«to the throne Elizabeth, daughter of 
Anne Boleyn, who restored the ecclesiastical order appointed by 
her father, and was the JirH female Pope of England,- for she " ar- 
rogated to herself that ecclesiastical supremacy over the faith and 
worship oi her subjects which before was supposed exclusively to 
belong to the court of Rome." The bishops and clergy were so 
far from having any hand in forming of the present established 
church of England or in ordaining its rights and articles of faith, 
t!.at it was done, not only without them, but in actual opposition to 
them. The parliament and the queen alone established her supre- 
macy and the common prayer-book, in spite of all opposition from 
the bishops in the house of Lords ; and the convocation then sitting 
was so far from having any thing to do in those church articles for 
reformation, that it presented to parliament several propositions in 
behalf of the tenots of popery, directly contrary to the proceed- 
ings of parliament. 

Such is the pure spiritual origin, if I may speak ironically, of the 

Episcopal church of England and of these United States. Are 

there not many of the marks of the Beast upon it ? In the churrh 

of Christ he i« the sole head, founder, and lawgiver; all authority 

and jurisdiction are in him and flow from him; but in the church 

of England the king or queen is " supreme head, possessing all 

power to exercise all manner of ecclesiastical jurisdiction, and 

archbishops, bishops, antl archdeacons, and other ecclesiastical 

persons have no miinner of jurisdiction ecclesiastical but by and 

under the king's n5;«jesty, who hath full power and authority to 

hear and determine all nuuiner of causes ecclesiastical, and to re- 

/orm nm} correct all vice, sin, errors, heresies, and abuses whate- 

rer.'' 29th Hen. vli'i. cb. 1. S7\\\ Hen. vm. c\v. 17. tat. EUz, ch. 1. 

^^w /jj)f/jop:» for these L'nited States, after xVie T^\o\\i>:\^Ti, ^>i!;^ 


not be ord»ned in England without the consent of his ecclesiastical 
supremacy Georc^e UI. and it was with great difficulty that the 
succession Could be obtained on that account. 

In consequence of this supremacy, the king or queen hath power 
to excommunicate from, or to re-admit into the church independent 
of, yea, in direct opposition to all its bidiops and clergy. They 
revoke, if they please, any spiritual censure ; suspend or excom- 
municate any bishop or other clergy ; and by proclamation, without 
repentance, can restore the vilest offenders to the bosom of the 
church. They have power to forbid all preaching for a time, as 
did Henry VIII. Edward VI. queen Hary and Elizabeth ; to limit, 
instruct, and prescribe to the clergy what they shall and what they 
shall not preach, as did Elizabeth, James I. Charles, and kmg^ 
William. Such is the channel of legitimacy through which Episoo* 
palians alledge that the apostolic succession has been handed down 
to them, who, with the Roman Catholics, assume €he exclumve 
nght to preach the word of God and to administer the ordinances of 
the New Te#ament by virtue of this pure spiritual legitimacy, and 
this, too, in these United States ! Can that be the churdi of Christy 
with such a head to it, which exalts itself above all that is called 

He who reads Jones' History of the Church of Christ, the history 
of that society of Christians which we see described in the Acts of 
the Apostles and in the Apostolic Epistles, which has been perse- 
cuted rince Gonstantine by such secular ecclesiastical eim>lish- 
xnents as that of the Enf^lish episcopacy, will readily perceive 
that the church of Christ is quite a different thing from such hier> 
archies, and that their creeds and confessions have no claim to di- 
vine authority, but are reprobated by it. It will be seen that that 
wUch has been described by Mosheim and Milner as the Church of 
Christ has been the beattly persecutor of his church. 

The MetAodUt Society and system was first formed in 1729 by the 
association of John and Charles Wesley and some other persons^ 
for religious exercises and their own improvement in reading the 
scriptures. Their regularity and seriousness procured for them 
the name o^Methodiste. Mr. Wesley gives us the following account 
of Methodism :^'<The JSrat rise of Methodism (so called) was in 
November, 1729, when four of us met together at Oxford; the 
^cond was at Savannah, in April, 1736, twenty or thirty persons 
met at my house; the laat was at London on this day, (viz. May 1, 
1733,) when forty or fifty of us agreed to meet together every 
Wednesday evening, in coder to a f ee conversation, beg^n and 
ended with prayer.** From 1760 to 1790, several persons of Mr. 
Wesley's society emigrated from England and Ireland and settled 
in various parts of Americiu During the war between England 
and America sXL communication between the two societies was cut 
off. This was vety much felt by the American Methodists. Mr. 
Ad^ury, the senior minister, was importuned to take proper mea- 
sures that the societies might enjoy the privileges of other church- 
es, by the ordination of ministers. This he refused because of his 
attachment to tlie church of JEugland. OtvX\\\s «^ tsv^vstvVj ^\ "^^ 
preachers separattd from h^m and cViOBe ^^\. oi ^i3t^R3^a^^"^ '^kW 


senior brctliren, uho ordained others bj the imposition of hands. 
Mr. Asbury prevailed on tliem to return, and by a vote at one of tiie 
conferences, the ordination was decUrcd void. After the war Mr. 
Wesley ^rew up a plan of church government, &c. for the 'Ameri- 
can Methodists, andordained Dr. Coke a Jwu tuperintendent with 
Mr. Asbury over the Methodist connexion in A'crth^^mcnea, The 
reason Mr. Wesley assigned for this measure was the following, 
which he gave in answer to a question put to him by William Jones, 
a chaplain of Lord Bishop Horn, in the following words : ^Whether 
it was true that he (Wesley) had invested two gentlemen with the 
Kpi9copal character and had sent them in that character to Ameri- 
ca ?" As soon, said Mr. Wesley (in answer) as we had made peace 
vith America, and allowed them their independence, all religions 
connexion between tliis country and the maependent colonies was 
:at an end ; in consequence of which the sectaries fell to work to 
increase their several parties — and the Anabaptists, in particular, 
were carrying all before them. Something was therefore to be 
done, without loss of time, for this poor people (as he ealled them) 
In America : and he had therefore taken the step in question, with 
a hope of preventing further disorders.'' Thus Mr. Wesley, who 
was only a presbyter, consecrated two bishops, which was com- 
plained of by Bishop Horn in his charge to the clergy of Norwich, 
i^ee Jones' Life of Horn in Horn's works, vol. i. 161. and vol. iv. 52. 
I frankly confess that Mr. Wesley had as much of a divine right 
to ordain bishops, to form a creed, to make abookof discipline, 
.and to ordain and establish rights and ceremonies in tlie church, as 
the Pope of Rome and all his Cardinals had ; or as had Henry VIII. 
and Pope Elizabeth with their parliaments and bishops ; or as had 
parliament with the Westminster Assembly, who made the Presby- 
terian Confession of Faith ; or as had the seven Baptist churches 
of London, or the one hundred churches wlio composed the Phi- 
ladelphia Confession of Faith. In behalf of the Lord Jesus Christ, 
who IS the one lawgiver, and is head of the church, however, I aver 
that all these powers have been exercised -without right and in oppo^ 
sition to his authority — and any man who submits to them as avthori- 
tative in religion, ^worships the image of the beast and bears his mark. 
The fVestnUnster Confession of Faith was formed by the West- 
minster Assembly which was convened as an ecclesiastical council 
of parliament in 1643. The ordinance which convened them stated 
that they were " to be consulted with by parliament for settling the 
government and liturgy of the Church of England." Its professed 
design was to reform Episcopacy to the standard of former times. 
But the interests of parliament, in opposition to king Charles I. 
became so reduced that they were obliged to call in the aid of the 
Scots. Their aid was offered on condition that the parliament and 
the Westminster Assembly would abandon Elpiscopacy, and attempt 
the establishment of Presbyterianism, which at length they ad- 
vanced into jus divinum, or a divine institution, derived expressly 
from Christ and the Apostles. On tfie 17th of August, 1643, the 
Solemn League and Covenant, embracing these objects, was de- 
J/rcrcd into the assembly by Dr. Henderson It was adopted by 
Jp^liament find sent over the three kingdorcvstobe sn^wu Vsi %\\^ 


I A 

signed. The objects stated in the Covenant were to promote tlie 
extirpation of popery, prelacy, heresy, scliisin, scepticism, and 
idolatry, and endeavor a union between the kinj:;donis in one Con- 
fession of faith, one form of church g-overnmei t, and one iByectory 
of worship. They took an oath to be orthodox in (roctrine ajrrcc - 
able to the word of Gotl; and in discipline to do what fhtry should 
conceive would be most to the glory ol" God and ilie ^'•ood and peace 
of the church/* The Westminster Ccnfessif r of F«»iih was the 
result of this hoTy alliance. The (iencnd Asst- bly ofihe Presby- 
terian Church in these United S aTcs; sav, in their minutrs of 182*4, 
m reference to the Westminster Assfcn)bly, that its members were 
" fuUof the Holy Ghost'* when ihey produced that Confession. 

The Baptist Confession of Fiuth -uxix published in L&mhn'in 164.'^, 
not under the name of a Baptist Conftssiaji, but ** of teven con^rf- 
gallons in London,'* The name of Bufiiist*' as is observed hy ^9 dunis 
in hi9 history of the reHs^iova -worlds " is only of modei'n date and o *" 
local appltcatior,'* Anabaptists a;2r/ A nti-paklo-baptists A<7</ betn the 
vntal epithets by icltieh Christians -who believed that the immersion of 
believers was baptism, hud been called by their opposers. They pro^ 
fessedly published the confession of faith for the information and 
satisfitction of those that did not understand what their principles weie, 
or had entertained prejudices against thenXf ami persecuted them on 
account of sentiments which they did not entertain^ 

In their Confession tht y say, " WV confess that we Know but in 
part, to show us from the -u-nrd of God, that which ive set not, we 
shall have cause to be thankful to God and to them. But if any man 
shall impose upon us a?:y thing that we see not to be comrnanded by our 
Lord Jesus Chtist, we should, in his strength, rather embrace all 
reproactlfs cmd tortvres if men, and, if it were possible, to die a 
thousand deaths, rather than do any thing against the truth of God, 
or against the l.'crhtofour own consciences,'* 'IViey did not assume or- 
bear the name of Baptists, but professed ihemstives to be baptized 

7%?/* have I given a short but just sketch of the origin of ihe sects 
and creeds of our country. In nty next number Jdetign to addrtss the 
preachers of all di'nominut ions on the subject of 

1,^ . '^^ '- ■— 


A MR. SCHULTZK of Vlr^mia, has given a bold 
challenge to all the clergy in general, and to Bishop 
Jiobart of >"eW York, in particular, to stand to thelp 
arms; for if not, he will publish <o the world a treatise 
**on the doubtful origin of all our miracles, and also all 
RELIGIONS, except cncietit Thei$m,'^^ This anciert Tfietsm 
<i{ his is supposed to be the invention of somebody be- 
fore Moses, whom lie represents as a xao^Ww^^AVcv^* 
and Impostor, Tfu cannot hut adm\t^ V\\^ vuVc^Y^^x'^^ 


t i!a strons;- minded layman^ as he represents himself, who, 
after 40 years' study and 20 years' praying, discovered 
how Aaron's roJ budded and blossomed; and that was 
by soaking it in warm water or oxygenated muriatic 
acid, mingled with water, &c. &c» We have no room at 
present to publish any strictures on a piece of his com- 
position which has appeared m a late Philadelphia paper. 
But as Mr. Schultze appears a very conscientious Deist, 
and really a very devout one too, aad as he declares his 
belief to be established in the unity of God^ the tmmar- 
tality of the $oul, and a/ti/tire state €j rewards and punish^' 
mt-nts. and has very respectfully challenged the clergy-— 
we, though not included in his general challenge, would 
promise, if the clergy fail to convince him that he is 
mistaken, to shew that his creed is stolen from the Bible. 
For, according to right reason and common sense, the 
unity of God, the immortality of the souly and a future 
state of reirards and punishments^ are not knowable by 
our five senses, the sole avenues to the human under- 
standing. And we will engage to shew, if Mr. Shultze 
S leases to favor us with his manuscript, (without a penal 
ond of 5000 dollars for its return, though we will pledge 
our word to return it if possible,) that he must, on his 
own principles, renounce his own creed too, aYid become 
a downright Jitheistj instead of a Theist. And, indeed, 
there is no man who can stop on this side of pure Athe- 
ism who rejects the Christian religion. And this is 
equivalent to saying that no man can Reasonably be a dis<« 
believer of the Christian religion. Ed. 


O^jr* JkL'2J\rT artides are throngedortt of this vork, rehich roe -would 
be happy to present to our readers. Jiy usinff small type toe exhibit a 
great deal more matter thaii -was contemplated or proposed at ovr com^ 
mencement. ,ind yet toe are obliged to lay aside many articles toorthy 
of meeting the public eye. Of the communieations received, toe make it 
a rule to give publicity to those first that ate mo ft immediately connect'" 
edtvith the leacUng design of the toork, 

M the time tohen this number is issued^ toe expect to be absent on a 

journey through the eastern part of Virginia / but the business of the 

establishment tcill go on as uaual. Ml orders toill be duly attended to» 

Arrangements are made and making to put the New Testame^jt to 

press 071 the first ofJVovember next. Ed. 

^ T/iE Christian B^Tiftr" is €^Ved W\d ^MbUah^d by Auz^ir. 
^XM CAxrasLi^ at Oru ZMlw^^x annunu 

©jajaa©^iiAsr ^BAiPS'itg^^o 

•Ao. 4— Fo/. m] WUFFALOE, Nov. 7, 1825. [H'/,ole jVo. 2S 

Style no man on earth your Father,- for he alone is yoitr father ivho 
It in heaven; and all ye are brethren, ^issvme not the title of Rabbi : 
for ye fiave only one teac/ier: — A either assume the title of J^eathr; for 
ye have only one leader — the Mkssiau. 

[Mat. xxi'ii. 8 — 10. Campbell's Translation.] 

Prove all things: hold fast that which is ifood. 

[I'aul the -\postIc.] 


Of the Origin end Formation of the JVestminstcr or Pres- 

bijttrian Confessicn cf Faith, 

J\'0.' VI. 

THE Parliament, desiring to comprehend the Inde- 
pendeuts within the new establishment, recommended'by 
the assembly at IVestminster, or ti) jj;ive them a 
toleration, did, on September i :?, lo44, order a graml 
committee of accommodaiwn^ to con&itler the ]ioin!s ot' 
difference. The Independents wonlJ have stated th«i 
points of difference and would Jiavc riiileavored a corn-- 
promise while the discipline of tho clu^rrh was pendJiii^ 
in the assembly; but, at that time, t}ift Tresb} Urjaiis in- 
sisted that the new form of <2;overnijie!it should llrit pass 
into a law as a standard, before the ox<:e[>li<^Jis of tiie 
Independents ^*hould be consitleied. Upon ^^hlch l}i<?y 
Aere adjourned by the FIousc of Commons till the allkir 
5hould be determined in the Assembly, wiio agreed, 
April 4, 1C45, '' that the brethren who had entered their 
lissent against the Presbyterian o:overnnient should bo 
1 committee to bring in the whole frame of their o;ov.'?rn~ 
nent in a body, with their grounds antl reasons.'' ']i:e 
Independents desired liberty to bring in their tbjecilwns 
Dy parts as the Presbyterians hail done their aavic^s, 
3ut this not bcin*5 admitted, they desired tiine,{o periect 
heir plan before any other scheme passed iiito u. law; 
}ut the Presbyterians, without any regard to the corn- 
)roniise, by the assistance of their Scots friends, pushed 
he affair to a conciusion in Parliament.*, w^ow \n\\W-\'^ 
udependcnts laid aside tiieir ov:i\ >v\odcU •j.wvV \^v^v>a-:a ■ -^ 



n remonstrance^ coxnplainingof the artful conduct of the 
assembly, and that the discipline of the church being 
fixed, it was too late to think of a comprehension.*— 
Thus the Presbjterians jockeyed the independents, and 
intrigued their jus divimim. 

The jfarliament saw (he mistake, and by their own 
hands resumed the affair, and revived the comntittee of 
accommodaiion^ November 6, 1645. 

A committee of the most distinguished Independents, 
and also of the leading Presbyterians, met several times 
on the subject of accommodation and toleration. At 
their last meeting, March 9^ the Presbyterian paper in 
Answer to the overtures of the Independents, concluded 
with these remarkable words— **That whereas their (In- 
<ie pen-dent) brethren say that uniformity ought to be 
urged no farther than is agreeable to all men^s conscien- 
4:es and to their edification, it seems to them as if their 
Tjrethren {<he Independents) not only desired liberty of 
conscience for the»^.selves, but for all men, and would 
>iave us think that we are bound by our covenant to bring 
the churclies in (he three kingdoms to no nearer a con- 
junction and uniformity than is consistent withths liberty 
of all meal's consciences; which, whether it be the sense of 
ine covenant, we leave with the honorable committee." 
Hereupon, ^^Jeremjah Burroughs, a divine of great 
f'.andor and moderation,^' declared in the name of the 
Independents, 'Hhat if their congregations might not be 
exempted from that coercive power of the classes; if they 
mijihtnot have liberty to govern themselves in their own 
way; as long as they Jaehave peaceably to the civil ma- 
i^istrate; they were resolved to suffer, or some other 
place of the world, where they might enjoy their liberty. 
iint while men think there is no way of peace, but by 
lorcing all to be of the same mind; while they think the 
v;ivil sword is an ordinance of God| to determine all 
'onlroversies of divinity; and thajt it fnust needs be at- 
tended with fines and imprisonments, to the disobedient; 
while (hey apprehend there is no medium between a 
strict uniibnnity, and a general confusion of all things; 
while these sentiments prevail, there must be a base 
subjection of incurs consciences to slavery, a suppres- 

*-4?tf/tf^ roi, Ui, page 807» 

BAPTISr. 75 

pression of mach truth, and great disturbances in the 
Christian world." 

Thus ended the last cammlttee of Lords and Commcms 
and Assembly of Divines for accommodation. Nothing 
was more detested and abhorred by thp majority of the 
Presbyterians than toleraiion. The London divines^ 
"vvho often at this time held their meetin«;s at Zion Col- 
lege— and had a synod every Monday to consult in ordci* 
to aid the Westminster Assembly in carryinc; ihelr points 
favorable to their own estabhshmeut, and in opposilioix 
to any toleration of other sectaries— TLey besougl»t, in 
a letter of January i5, 1645, the Assembly ^^io oppoS'*- 
witk ait their might the great Diana (toleration) of thtt 
Independents." In this Jetter these words are to bn 
found— "Not, say they, that we can harbor the least 
jealousy of yourceal, fidelity, or industry in the oppo- 
sing and extirpating of such a root of gall and bltUiiiesj 
OB ioiertUion ts, and uill be both to the present and future 
fl[gfes." The city ministers, in a provincial assembly, 
November 3, 1749, in a vindication of their beloved 
presbytery, "represent universal toleralicn as contrary 
to godliness, opening a door to libertinism and profane * 
ness and a tenet to be rejected as 8quI polson.^^* 

Such was the spirit of the Presbyterians both in and 
out of the creed- making assembly — and, as Mr. Ne^ie 
Justly observes, this no toleration was turned upon them- 
selves by the prelatists in twenty years; so that they who 
would, and who did shut the gates of toleration and cf 
i&ercy upon othors, had those very gates shut in their 
own tsice. Mr. Baxter, tyrannical as he was, lived to 
deplore the blindness and obstinacy of this assembly upon 
this subject. His words are, ^'The Presbyterian minis- 
ters were so little sensible oi their own infirmities^ that 
they would not agree to tolerate those who were not 
only tolerable but worthy instruments and members iu 
the churches, prudent men who were for union in things 
necessary, for iiberiy in things unneeessai'yy and for charity 
tn all; but they could not be heard.^' 

We shall notice but one other act of this assembly, and 
dismiss them from our view for a while* The Parlia- 
ment requested them to recopameni ^om^ ^>^\^x -^^xiv^^k 
«» I.I 

"^JVfiokj page St 3, 


bf the psalms of David than Slemholdh and Hoph%m\ 
They re -id over Rouse's vftrsion, and, after several 
iimcndments, sent it up to (he house, November 14, 
J645, with the following recommendation: ''Whereas 
the honorable House of Commons, by an order bearing 
date November 20, 1643, have recommended the psalms 
published by Mr. Rouse to the consideration of the as- 
sembly of divines, the assembly has caused them to be 
carefully perused, and as they arc now altered and 
amended, do approve them; and humbly conceive they 
may be useful and profitable to the church if they be 
permitted publicly sung.*' Accordingly they were 
culhorized by the two houses. 

Thus we have seen how the Presbyterian confession of 
faith, solemn league and covenant, directory for public 
worship, form of discipline, Presbyterian church govern- 
ment, and Rouse's version of the psalms of David, got 
to be canonical and of divine authority. And with deep 
sorrow, too, we have seen that no toleration was the 
first sprout from this sweet or bitter root. The follow- 
ingitems give the whole in miniature: — 

1. When king Charles I. sought the assistance of his 
Catholic subjects in earryine on a war for his own pre-^ 
rof^ative^ the Parliament which opposed him sought the 
assistance of the Scots nation in resisting his clahns. 

2. The Scots, prejudiced in favor of Calvinism through 
the preaching of Kuox and others of the Geneva school, 
agreed to assist their English neighbors upon condition 
that they would assist them or unite with them in estab- 
lishing one creed, one discipline, one ecclesiastical go- 
vernment in both nations. 

S. In order to this it was stipulated that an assembly 
of divines be called as an ecclesiastical council^ to aid the 
Parliament in settling a religious establishment that 
would meet the views of the Scots." 

4. That the assembly at VVestminster was summoned, 
convened, sworn, instructed, paid, and controlled by 
this Parliament. 

5. That the solemn league and covenant was inlrodu- 
red, fashioned, matured, and established by the same 

diviaes and ParliaLment 
o. TliB, t Jlou se 's psalms was ca^oiuzt^ 9Jk4\^^v\^\BAi.^^ 
^v^ same authority. 

BAPTIST. . 77 

7. And that the ^vhole ended in religious despoilsn)^ 
tyranny, and no toleration. That swords and consta- 
bles, exile, confiscation, and death were the attendants, 
and sanctions of this system» , 

It is to be hoped that many of the modern lPresby(e!*i- 
ans have seen the folly of their creed-makers, and do 
lament that such should have, been tbe cljpcumstances 
svhich £ave birth to their system. — r—-Ecf. 

^^^^^* •^"^ • ^^^^^ 


From Dr. MaehnighVs ''''Vitw and Illustration^^ of Ro' 
m^aSj xio, Sf xv.ckaps.. Publislud by request, 

THIS extract does g^reat honor to the gt)od sense and Christian 
spirit of Dr. Macknight, and should be particularly noticed by 
his Presbyterian brethren. It also shews that, in respect of can- 
dor and Christian liberality, he was as well qaaliiied, as he was 
with the necessary erudition,' to be a faithful and impartial 
translator. Ed, 

*'To proceed then, the apostle having declared In the 
xivth chapter, that the weak Jewish Christians, in the 
affair of meats and days, were bound to act according ti> 
their own conscience, notwithstanding it might be crro- 
neous, he, in the beginning of the xvth chapter, told the 
well instructed Roman brethren, that th«y ought to bear 
ovcan'y the weaknesses of the ignorant and prejudiced, 
that is, they ought to do what they could to prevent their 
weaknesses from being hurtful to them In particular, 
they were not to please themselves with the eating of 
meats, which their weak brethren reckoned unclean, if 
they had reason to think any who entertained that belief, 
would by their example be tempted to eat such meats ** 
contrary to their conscience, ver. I.— He therefore ex- 
horted every one to please his nei|;hbor for his good, b/ 
abstaining from such meats as were offensive to him, in, • 
order that the body of Christ might be edified, ver. 2. — 
To this they were called by the example of Christ, wha 
pleased aot himself by sensual gratifications, but sub- 
jected himself to atl maniierof hardships and reproaches 
fjr the glory of €!od, and the good of men, as wasfore*- 
told conceraing hiai, ver. 9 «-Hete the apostle took oc- 
casion to inform the Romans, that wUal^N^T W^^u^^ '«^%.\<^ 
SLDcieatfy written in the seriptur^S^- viwft vi\:\W^v\iox <^\x.^ 
jM^ir action^ that by what is xeeot&e<i tioxi^^it^jLVu^ Viii»' 


their own definitions of doctrii>cs, confessedly above 
human cooiprehcnsion, as the infallible dictates of the 
Spirit of God, by whom they pretended to be guided in 
their deci&ions. And having deluded igtiorant, supersti* 
tious princes with that false pretence, they excited them 
to persecute all who resisted their unrighteous usurpa- 
tions, and who rejected that corrupt form of religion 
which they had established. For these deluded princes, 
^o stop the mouths of those who stood up for (he truth, 
made use of the diabolical arguments nf fire and sword, 
Tacks and gibbets, and every cruelty which furious bigot- 
ry could devise. So that during many ages, the saints 
were worn out, and genuine Christianity was well nigh 
t)anished from the earth. May God preserve his church, 
in the present, and in all succeeding times, from the like 
•evils, that the religion of Jesus may never again be made 
the instrument of gratifying the evil passions o[ covetous 
and ambitious men." 

IN presenting wit readers H'itli the fonowing" extract, we are afraid 
of being- charged with the crime of plagiarism; because it will 
be remetnbered tlirtt, if we have not used the very words and 
jiiirases in some of our public addresses, we have certiiinly, on 
-various occasions, viva voce, and, perhaps, witli the pen too, 
expressed every idea in the extract, and yet never acknowk'dg^- 
ed Mi'.'Locke as our tutor in any instance. Vet, strange as it ' 
may appear, we arc perfectly innocent of the crime. For, until ' 
A few days ago, we had iiever seen or read one sentence in this 
work. In preparing for the edition Qf tl*e JVeiv Testamtnity arnon^; 
otikcr works lately received, tliis of the justly celebrated Locke 
came into our hands. It is the 2d cditicn, putfllKlied in London, 
173.1, nearly a century ago. This great layman, commentator, 
and phiIosoph<.*r, to whom all the British empire and all America 
^re indebted for bis essays on ToUrution, on tlie Uuouxn Uiuler- 
st:ii)ding« and on other accounts, did, in our jud);ment, ard in 
that of t^e great Dr. Pierce, and many others, nmke the best 
effort towards understanding tlie apostolic epistles ever made 
since the g^eat apostacy took place. But he was a iayman, else 
he should ha\ie been better known, and moix: univerbully read as 
a commentator. His praise a« a philosopher i« comn£3(Aubatji 
with the Kiiglisli tongue — aiul, indeed, with noodern Kuropc; 
hut hi« cituructer as a Biblical critic is not so well known, because 
he had never been consecrated. We publish this extract on 
^'iccouMt ^F its intrinsic cmpottance, and to shew tlut some of 
tAosc vi^m's which are said to be peculiady ourown^ were enter* 
tiiiitvii J Atutdred years ag<i; and concuT \w ihevi m^ \Xvt xwitcssiwf 
•/" rAe trauislMtion'of the New Testament N«\ji5:\i ^ts «s«i :i^<^u\\o 



From Ihe Preface to Lockers Paraphrase and ^''otes on 

four of PauPs Epistles. 

TO these we may subjoin two external causes, thai 
have made no small increase of the native and oris;inal 
dimculties that keep us from an easy and assured dis* 
covery of St. Paul's sense, in many parts of his epistles, 
and those are — 

Firsts The dividing of them into chapters and verses, 
as we have done; whereby they are so chopped and 
minced, and as they are now printed, stand so broken 
and divided, that not only the common people take the 
verses usually for distioct aphorisms, but even men of 
more advanced knowledge, in reading them, lose very 
much of the strength and force of the coherence, and 
the light that depends on it. Our minds are so weak and 
narrow, that they have need of all the helps and assist- 
ances that can be procured, to lay before them undis- 
turbedly, the thread and coherence of any discourse ; by 
which siione they are truly improved^ and led into the 
genuine t^ense of the author. When the eye is con- 
stantly disturbed with loose sentences, that by their 
standing and separation, appear as so many distinct 
fragments, the mind will have much ado to take in, and 
carry on in its memory, an uniform discourse of depen- 
dent reasonings; especially having from the cradle been 
used to wrong impressions concerning them, and con- 
stantly accustomed to hear them quoted as distinct sen- 
tences, without any limitation or explication of their 
precise meaning from the place they itand in, and the 
relation they bear to what goes before, or follows. — 
These divisions also have given occasion to the reading 
these epistles by parcels and in scraps, which has farther 
confirmed the evil arising from such partitions. And, I 
doubt not, but every one wiil confess it to be a very 
unlikely way* to come to the understanding of any other 
letters, to read them piece meal, a bit to-day, and 
another scrap to-morrow, and so on by broken intervals; 
especially if the pause and cessation should *^e made, as 
the chapters the apostle's epistles are divided into, to 
end sometimes in the middle of a ix^c.owc^'^.^ -axA.^'wwi.- 
times in the middle of a sentence. \X. c^'wsvqX. ^^x^^^^ 
tout be woudcrcd at, tliatlhal s\\ov\\i\ie v^^xwN.^-^^'^'^^ 


AH antiquity concurs in evincing that for the three first 
centuries all the <!hurehes broke bread once a-week. 
Pliny, in his Epistles, book 10th; Justin Martyn, in his 
second Apology for the Christians; and Tertullian, De 
Ora. p. 135, testify that it was the universal practicje in 
all the weekly assemblies of the brethren, after they had 
prayed and sang praises,— "then bread and wine being 
brought to the chief brother^ he taketh it and ofiereth 
praise and thanksgiving to the Father, in the name of the 
Son, and the Holy Spirit. After prayer and thanksgiv- 
ing Ihc whole assembly saith amen. When thanksgiving 
is ended b}' the chief guides and the consent of the whole 
jieople, the deacons (as we call them) give to every one 
present p;irt of the bread and wine, over which thanks 
are civen." 

The weekly communion was preserved in the Greek 
<:liurch till the seventh century; and, by one of their 
;-,anons, ''such as neglected three loeehs together were 
excommunicated." — Erskine's Diss, p. 271. 

In the fourth century, when all things began to be 
"hanged by baptize4 Pagans, the practice began to de- 
*!line. Some of the councils in the western part of the 
Roman empire, by their canons, strove to keep it up. 
Tlie council held at Illiberis in Spain, A- D. S24, decreed 
that "no offerings should be received from such as did 
not receive the Lord's supper." — Cot*nci////i. canon 28. 

The council at Antiocb, A. D. 341, decreed that "all 
who came lo church, and heard the Scriptures read, but 
afterwards joined not in prayer, and receiving the sacra- 
ment, should be cast out of the church till such time as 
they gave public proof of their repentance.*' — Coun. 
*9nti. can, '^d. 

All these canons were unable to keep a carnal crowd 
of professors in a practice for which they had no spiritiir 
al taste; and. indeed, it was likely to get out of uy 
altogether. To prevent this, the council of Agatha, 
lianguedoc, A. D. 50G, decreed "that none should be 
esteemed good Christians who did not communicate at 
least three times a-year, at Christmas, Easter, and Whit- 
Funday.'** — Coun Agatha^ canon 18. This soon became 
flje standard of a ^od Christian ; and it was judged pre* 
sumptuous to commune oftener. 
ThJngs went on in this way £or moic^ \\v^t^ ^^^ 1^^\^> 


\intil they got tired of even three communicatloDs in one 
year; and the infamous council of Lateran, which de- 
creed auricular confession, and traneubstantia^ion, de- 
creed '^that an annual communion at Easter was siifH. 
cient.'* This association of the ''sacrament'* with Easter, 
and the mechanical devotion of the ignorant at this sea- 
son, greatly contributed to the worship of the Host. — 
BinghamTs Ori. B. 15, C 9 

Ihus the breaking of bread in simplicity and godly 
sincerity once a- week, degenerated into a pompous sa- 
crament opce a-year at Easter. 

Ai the Reformation this subject was but slightly inves- 
tigated by the reformers. Some of them however, paid 
some attention to it. Even Calvin, in his Ins. lib, 4, 
chap 17, 46, says, "And truly, this custom, which en- 
joins communicating once a-year, is a most evident con^ 
'Mvance of the Devil^ by whose instrumentality soever it 
may have been determiaed '* 

And again, Institutes, lib. 6, chap, xvii, sec. 46, be 
says, "It ought to have been far otherwise. Every week ^ 
at least, the table of the Lord should have been spread 
for Christian assemblies; and the promises declared, by 
which, in partaking of it, we mjght be spiritually fed." 

Martin Chemnitz, Witsius, Calderwood, aiKl others v^f 
the reformers and controversialists, roncur with Calvir; 
and, indeed, almost every commentator on the New Tes- 
tament, concurs with the Prestyterian Henry in these 
remarks on Acts XX. 7. "In the primitive times it was 
the custom of many churches to receive the Lord's sup- 
per every Lord^s day.'* 

The Belgic reformed church, in 15S1, appointed the 
supper to be received every other month. The reformed 
churches of France, after saying that they had been too 
remiss in observing the supper but four times a-year, 
advise a greater frequency. The church of Scotland be- 
i;an with /our sacraoients in a year; but some of her 
ministers got up to twelve times. Thus things stood till 
the close of the last century. 

Since the commencement of the present century, many 
congregations in England, Scotland, Ireland, and some 
in the United States, and Canada, bo\.Yv\v\^t\^^Ti^^T\^'«^^ 
Baptists, have attended upon lV\e su^\ieT e-NVit^ ViSsv^ 
day; and the practice is every day g^aimji^ ^tcwvcl^. 



These historical notices may be of some use to those 
who arc ever and anon crying out imu^ationl innovation f 
But we advocate the principle and the prapti^ on apos- 
tolic grounds alone . Blessed is that servant who, know- 
ing his master^s willf doeth it with expedition and delight. 
Those teho would tmk to see an aph refnUUiofn of the 
Presbyterian mode of observing the sacrament, and a de- 
fence of weekly communion^ would do tD€ll. to read Dr Johtk 
': Mason^s letters on frequent communion^ who is himself a 
.^Migh-^toned Presbjterian, and, conssquenilyy his r€marha. 
' iffiH be miSri^ejgarded by his brethren thon wine.— -Ed. 

AT the request of sevei*al friends, we give ike fol- 
lowing paraphrase on Rom« viti. 7 — 25. 

The proposition which the apostle has in ^le^ign to 
enforce, is that contaiyied in the last clause of verse 
ir, viz. "If wo believing Jews and Gentiles suffer^ 
^vithout apostacy, the bodily afllictions incident to our 
obeying the Lord, as he suffered the afflictions attend- 
ant on his humiliation, we shall be glorified with him 
at the resurrection of the just, at which time we shall 
be fully revealed v^s the adopted sons of God." 

For my part, says Paul, I do not esteem the afflic- 
tioi)s of our bodies in the present life as worthy to be 
compared with the glory that shall be exhibited in us 
at the resurrection of our bodies from the grave. 
For such is tlie transcendant glory to be revealed in 
us, that the earnest desire of the believing Jew and 
Gi^^nttlc loof^etli in hope for the manifestations dP tlie 

.,,^sons of God in theiv glorified bodies, in which tlicv 
will appear in character as the adopted sons of Gou. 
For the believing Jew and Gentile, as respects the 
body, were, in consequence of one man's sin, subjected 
to cori*uj)tion in the grave; not, indeed, with their own 
consent; but they now cliee|fully submit thcip bodies 
to tlie (lust of doatli because God hath subjected tliera 
to it, in hope that these mortal bodies shall be liberated 
f/'om the bondjige of corruption in the grave, and in- 
troduced Into the irc^odoni of tlie glorious immoitalit/ 

of the children of God. Besides, \sc Vwov^ \Xv2L\.\i<^ii-. 
O'suff'crlhg isi f}pt CAclu&ively tUc\ak p^ ^;V«;\^^^^T^^|te^ 


the whole human race groanetli together and travail otfi 
in pain even yet with all their efforts to escape these 
evils. And not only the unbelieving Jew and Gentile, 
but ourselves, who, by faith in Jesus, arc become the 
sons of God, who bav^ the chief and most exalted gilts 
of the Holy Spirit, even we ourselves groan witljir* 
ourselves, anxiously wailing for tlie full adoption of 
the sons of God; namely, the i*edemption of our bodies 
firom the grave at the rcsm^rection of the j ust For we 
are sustained in these b^Mlvly sufferings in liope of tliis 
glorious resurrection. Now you know, O Romans! 
that hope which hath obtain^ its object is not Iioim ; 
for what a man seeth, how can be hope for it? But if 
we hope for that which w^do not see, then we patiently 
wait for it; as is the case with respect tothei*esurrec- 
tion and glorification of our bodies. 

Jtfr. Campbellf 

AS different persons often understand the same expressions 
very differently, so it happens, in my neighborhood, with the 
readers of the Christian Baptist, until it is at length ajp^ed to 
refer to you, for your real meaning on one point, with regard to 
'which many are very tenacious. 

'Ihe fact. is just this, that while I cannot, fur certainty^ see any 
thing to fgult in what you have advanced (so far as I have happened 
to see an^ read) but much to admire and approve, being long since 
convinced that all those hireling preachers, and high-ftying profes- 
sors with tliem, who are so hand^and-glove with the world that 
they beair none of that persecution^ hatred, and odium, which 
Christ promised as the sure and inevitable lot and portion of all his 
true followers — I say, whife 1 am fully convinced that these are not 
the true and real followers of Christ, in that straight and narrow 
xoay pointed out by him, many think otherwise, for want of knowing 
and duly, considering those well pointed truths, in proof of it, 
which you are gradually furnishing; and which, I trust in God, will 
in the end be attended with great moral good. 

A religious Arcliimides has long been wanted, to raise the moral 
world from its chaotic darkness, as to true and abstract religion. 

But, sir, many think that you go too far, and condemn all, be- 
cause (like or as a man of true and accurate" science and extensive 
erudition) >ou do not, as such ones cannot, agree fully and exactly 
wiih any one of the sects— because, say t\\fe^»^WL^^«wv\» ^wAk^w 
aW the sects, except perhaps lYie sodeV^ cS^ VJei^-^t^yAa^ ^^^ 
iiuakers; and that you seem patVieT lobew oxv.^ws^^^ ^^^ - 
that reveMion is full (by which 1 uTideT«X»xv^ TSJ^^x SS 
Tdeas essentJ&Uy to scriptuije reve\a\ioiv» ot \5afe vi»ftO ^ 


avow a belief that thev are, by times, under the monitions of the 
Spirit, which 1 am inclined to believe, of some of them, except 
when they, like others, run into the heathenish and unscriptural 
practice >f making long public prayers, which my Bible wholly 
condemns—neither can I believe that the Spirit of God ever taught 
anv thing so totally unreasonable and absux^. 

However, to do them justice, I think that they do not make so 
long prayers, full of ^'vain repetUioru,*' and pompous dictatorial 

But, sir, if you should utterly deny all the monitions of the Spirit^ 
and every kind of revelation, m our times, then we should certainly 
be at issue on that point: For t fully believe that, in this respectv 
God is the same, to his true and faithful followers, at least, as h^ 
was in the davs of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, Joseph and others^ 
and that he still, by times, reveals certain things to some men and 
women, and points out to their understanding^ certwn things which 
are, and things which shall come to pass — I say; I believe this, be^ 
cause my experience has proved it; because I liave, several tiroes 
in my life, been thus advised of things to come, in such a way and 
manner, and upon such a particular crisis, that it seemed impossi' 
ble for me to mistake what was intended* 

And though these monitory impressions, of something to come, 
were several times limited to things most improbable and unlikely 
to take pl&ce, still they never once failed. Also, being generally 
ficcompanied with an impression that I must heed, mind, or remem- 
ber them, as things which would certainly take place, in due time, 
I was therefore generally quite unable to doubt of them for a 
moment of iRme. 

I have judged these monitions as coming directly from Deity, be- 
cause 1 think that no one else knows all things to come, and is also 
"friendly enough to advise us of them beforehand. 

To conclude, sir, let me plead for the rights of conscience and 
opinion, especially for the society of Friends: For, if our Saviour's 
words a^e verified at all, by any people, it must be allowed to be 
%y them — I mean in what he said to his followers, when arraigned 
for their opinions and preaching; and whereon he commanded 
them not to meditate what they should answer, or what they should 
say, adding that he would give them words and arguments which 
none of their adversaries should be able to gainsay or resist. If 
this promise can be consistently extended to any of his followers of 
latter times, it would seem to me to be most applicable to then", 
because their opponents cannot refute their arguments — they car.- 
not hold way with them in dispute upon scripture ground (see tlieii* 
evasive excuses upon Berkly and other of their writers) and there- 
fore have had recourse to civil power to crush and silence them, 
just as your opposers would now silence you, if they could, by the 
fjame means, and for the very self-same reasons: namely, because 
they cannot hold out a fair argument with you, either upon scrip- 
/ara/ or philosophic ground, right reason, or common sense. 
/t Js /or this reason, sir, that priestcraft xsaXvUxtr^* V\\.'%^ud\ 
and in the very raving' paroxisms of t\*?speTa,V\ow, ^w ^e^^T q^ \\\^\c»^ 
fG over the uiiderstancVmgs of Vhe t[\u\\\\vA«, 


It fears tivat people will beg-in to use their biains properly; and 
to think and reflect on the nonsense of their arrogiuit pretensior.s, 
as though God had g-iven them a power which moital never had, 
namely, to be the real and efficient cause of the salvation of others, 
which would leave this plain and homd inference as an inevitable 
result, namely, that if by their presence and exertions, many souls 
would actually be saved, that it is hence most clearly and fairly de- 
ducible, that, by their absence or jemissness, miwiy souls would be 
lost. This, althoug^h not perceived by many truly honest and re- 
ligious minded persons (who are therefore zealous to send mission- 
aries out to all the world) is a most horrid and abominable doctrine: 
For, as such circumstances depend on the providence of God, which 
has not left it to any one to choose in what age and place he should 
be born, so as to have a religioMs education and an able and faithful 
teacher, therefore it refers buck tlic \\ hole blame on Deiy, and his 
providence, for all that arc supposed to be lost in that way; and 
which, therefore, as a Mr. ^Vithercll justly remaiks, in a like 
case, makes God more cruel than the Uevil can possibly be, be- 
cause tlie Devil has not power thus to plan and execute the less and 
destruction of nearly ull, thus unconditionally, as to any thing in 
their power to fix, control, or alter in tlie least degree. 

Christ said, "follow me, and I \\ill make you fisliers of men:" 
But he has no where told us, as I understand, that these same men 
would othervnisc be lost; fo. this would reflect great injustice upon 
God and his pro^idcncc, which is said to notice even the Jitil© 

Ag^in, .we, that "they who turn many to righteousness 
shall shine us the stars for evermore;" b\ which 1 unrlerstyr.d tljiit 
they who are the will inpr and faithful instruments of God's provi- 
dence, in this way, sl.ail, ui due time, reap ihe just lewurd of all 
their labors and exertiur i 

But I must not ei.Jarj.e much, because it is quite an incorrigible 
task to undertake to n^akr ihe multitude see that every ji^enuine reli- 
g-inus tenet must ha^ " f'.r reason, as well as scripture for iis support. 

And again, becit;.se 1 think that right reason and scripture, and 
the obvious char ctei* tf Deity, fully warrants the idea that he 
would be disposed to revtal certain things, in some ])eculiar cabes 
directly to mortals like us; and tliat he accordingly does reveal 
them, while on my part I n.ay not be able to make people s^e it to 
be so, any better than I can make tjiem see ajid believe that, ac- 
cording to scripture and reason, God is far too just to ever let or 
sufl'er one simple soul to be ultimatel} lost, becaiise, in his pro>i- 
dence, no Christian professor was ever sent to teach and instruct 
it. — Or, again, any b( iter than 1 cun make tlum see, and under- 
stand, that although the things tauglit by li.e preacher may be, as 
the scripture suit h of good works, good and profitulle unto men, yet 
that they never can be the entire anvl efficient cause of their salva- 


\arS/.-^AIIth:it I know of God, and VVitV\^N^ 'J^^ ^"^^"^^ 
^7 of Jjim, Ut'rom the revelation h^Ua^ ^^Ntu>i^. 'V^*^ 

TO ".y.v occ.^sjox.iL j^e.^dek:' 


a revelation from himself, men could have knoMiTi his existence, oi« 
his character, a wiitten record or a verbal representation of hlmscH 
^vas superfluous. And if, without tlie revelation, he can be known, 
they who have it not are Justin as ^ood circumstances as we, if not 
in hotter. I cordially embrace and cheerfully subscribe the aphor- 
ism of l*aul, which afRrins that the world by its philosophy knew 
not God. This is not only an article of my faith, but an item of my 
experience. Is any child born with innate ideas of God? Do we 
not see that they must all be tauj^ht his beings and perfections? 
"Where i» the nation which knows him without a written revelation, 
i)V some remnants of tradition originally derived from the Hible? 
1 hese questions I do'not propose to you as if you were of a contra- 
ly opinion — but to enforce ilie truth that all that is known or know- 
j.ble of God is derived either directly or indirectly from his verbal 
communication.-} to men — ^and aided by these the heavens drclare 
liis glory, and the earth proclaims his g-oodness, and every thing* 
in tiie universe pavs its tribute to the Bible. So long* then as I be- 
lieve the Dible to be from God, so long* 1 must l><dieve it to be a 
perfect revelatio-n — not perfect in the absolute sense of the word, 
for tliis would not suit us any more than Paul's communicating re- 
Aelatio»>s wliich he hud in the third heavers; but it is perfect as 
adapted to mun in his present circumstances. Many things are only 
hinted, not fuliy revealed; and while here we must see as through 
a glass darkly, but in another state we shall have a i^evelation of his 
glory which will be perfectly adapted to us in those circumstances; 
but even then that lovelation will not he absolutely perfect, for a 
revelation absolutely pei-fect would make God as" well knowD to his 
creatures as he is to lumseltj which I would hunibly say appears to 
me impossible. 

As ttt those monitions and impressions of which you speak, X 
know some things certainly, aixl I conjecture others'. The Bible 
tells me that communications, monitions, and impressions have been 
made upon the minds of men in dreams, visions, and trances, &c. 
Yet the knowledge of salvation was not communicAted in this way. 
It would have been as easy, by a dream or a monition of the Spirit^ 
*is you speak, to have made Comehus and his friends acquainted 
with the salvation of Jesus Christ, as to have vouchsafed the vision 
to Cornelius and to Peter. Yet thij was not done, because n< t 
agi'eeable to the Uivjne mind, who seeth not as man seeth. When 
there appeared to have been a necessity for comnpunications of 
t}>is kind they were not made. And now that the revelation is 
completed and givtn to us with awful sanctions — and tlxe most tre- 
inendojis tlu-cats against innovators, and against those who either 
add to it or diminish from it, it is as absurd to expect such moni- 
tirns, as it is to tru^t in dreams and visions. This far may }»e known 
with certiinty. With regard to impressions and monitions now 
made on ^he human mind respectuig passiJig events^ either when 
tJje body is asleep or awake, we* have heard much, experienced 
something-, and know notlung^ 1 onc« v«TvV*TeA\:o \kT^^vcX «. future 
^^e/Jt from u dreaciu \\ hich 1 then be1ie\e6Lvio\]tV^ tomt Vq V^«&^ vs\^ 

riV ? V^'*^ ^ctiia% come to pasa ccivtrwy ^o «it\^ ^"xv^cX^Wotv esi^^ 
^'^ ii-ax2i things kiiowa. IJut v^AiAt ot \^Si\ l^vw tcw»wj 'sm^ 

BAPTIST. . 91 

things woirld be necessary to form a s)rstcnuitic tiicon'. It mig-li^ 
foe conjectured tliat, as ang-els are ministering' spirits, employed by 
liim tiiat ruleth over all and knoweth all things, in perlbrming- their 
respective missions, they do impress the mind of those to whom 
they minister, and sometimes prcadmonish them of future event*. 
But again, others are punished as was Pilate's wjfe b} such im» 
pressions, and many, if not most of thet^ monitioiis, are useless, 
as the persons premonished cannot makefinj' use of them; for this 
would destroy their character as preihctjons which necessarily ai'e 
unconditional. So that after all, our wisest and happiest course is 
to attend on the written monitions of thr Spirit; for however w c 
may amuse ourselves with speculating upon the subject, wc must 
be ignorant of them until we know what sort of an intercourse ex- 
ists between embodied and disembodied spirits, which we c^n 
never attain to in this state. All the lig'ht we have or can have is 
at useless as the feeble ray that finds its Auy through a small aper- 
ture into a cell — it neither enlightens, vv.rms, or cheers the solitary 
prisoner. Let us then attend to the certain prophetic rvor<it as unto 
a light that shines in a dark place, until the fuH splendor of heaven- 
ly light bursts upon our spirits when disencumbered with these 
clay tenements. Of these remarks it may be said, they are more 

amusing than instructive. ?2(L 

^•mtmoio'.o w m 


Mr, Editor— PLKASE to publish the following for the use of the 
Baptists at large, that they may be brought to see the necessity of 
a stedfast adherence to the original standard of Christianity , to'the 
rejection of every competitor. 

Dear Hrethren-^Ouvtcxt is taken from the Redstone Minutes fon 
1824, 6th article, which reads as follows~'«iJSF()i:MALn'Y." 
The text issliort, but contains wei,y;hty matter and great confusion, 
inasmuch as ithasser\'ed not only to perplex the saints of the Most 
High God, but also to destroy the validity of the sacred swnpturc. 
My dear brethren, think it not strange when I say that I have been 
at about 40 associations in England, M'ales, and difterent parts of 
this union, (which many will acknowledge who read this when they 
see my name,) and that, putting them all together, the confusion at 
Redstone exceeded all I ever witnessed — and all about this informal' 
ity, O, -what a mighty vorti/ and well handled by the worthy right 
reverend Divines, \Vm. Brownfieldand I^awTence Greatrake, th<fy 
being filled with zeal not for the scripture nor for the cause of Chri.* t 
contained therein, but for the Philadelphia Confe.ssion of Faith, the 
word or opinion of men lUit to come to the wort/ of my text, k t 
it be observed that I was appointed by the Stillwater Association, in 
lBv?5, a messenger to the Redstone; and when brother Wheeler t,:f 
W ashington read the miuutes of the aforesaid association, the Kcv. 
gentlewian, Mr. Brownfield. got up and offered his objections to the 
messenger, as being of doubtful character, and therefore could i\ot 
have aiseat with them. I immed\ate\'y Tfcc^^%\^*\ ^xv ^^x^^wsasoi^w v^'v 
the same by a specificjitiou of c\\aT^e&; \.o njXvvcXvV^^^sJ^^^^i^^^"^' 
fiist place, that he had heard that \ \\a^ de.T\\^^>^e^^^'^'' "" 
rjiith. To which I answered tUaX \d\d»\iVJ\T\\^^^ ^"^"^^"^ ^ 


to all human creeds and confessions of faith, and giving some reasons 
for the same. The next and last charge was, that I baptized Ephraim 
Smith in tlie bounds of the Flat Uun Church, without bringing him 
before the church. Now for a full reply to this latter, I say that he 
u as wrong informed; for I baptized brother Smitli and wii'e, not in 
the bounds of the Flat Run Church, but 5 miles beyond the resi- 
dence of her members, tl»e nearest being Deacon Berry, at whose 
house they were received into thechurcli; so that in this Mr. Brown- 
field is mistaken. And now, Mr. Browntield, as you are a learned 
man, and one that is able to inform the ignorant, 1 shall pro])ose the 
following questions, hoping tliat you will answer them for the in- 
formation of the ignorant Baptists, that must have an explanation of 
the scri])tare from such men, \ ea, from such orthodox preachers os 
you and Mr. Greatrake arc: — 1st. Is the Confession of Faith a sufii- 
cient rule, without the scripture, for the Baptists — if not, why con- 
tend for half rules? 2d. What deficiency is tliere in the sacred scrip- 
ture that makes a confession of faith necessary? od. What part of 
t';ie scripture is there that points out the necessity of an explanation 
by confessions of faith? 4th. What confessions of faith, out of the 
man-y in the world, are the most orthodox, seeing they are all tlie 
production of the learned? 5ih. And why should the Baptist Con- 
fession of Faith be more holy, more evangelical than tlse Westmin- 
ster, its mother; or the Popish Manual, its grandmother? Gth. Have 
not these confessic.ns of faith, with their advocates, the ascen- 
dancy over the scrijiturcs? Tth. Have not these confessions and hu- 
inm creeds been more for the support of carnal systen:s, of wars, 
divisio:is, and bloods'icd, than the purity of the religion of Jesus 
(viriht? 8h. Wlurc do you find in scripture many tliin^'s contain- 
ed in the Philadelphia Cor.fesbion of Faith, viz. elect infants, the generation of the Son of God, and Godfi)reuidiiuin.:»^ what- 
sicvcr Cometh to, without being tlie author of fin? Many other 
q.iestlons may be proposed on this head, but I keep them for 
a {Mt;ire ])erio.l, requesting you to answer t!iem through the 
sjme i-ncdiiim, anJ by so doing you will not only obiij^e me, but be 
instrumcmal in converting thousands of the Baptist brethren to a 
belief in human creeds and confessions, who are now so ignorant at 
to IrjUeve i'l the wird of (Jod on!i// 

Bui the second charge against my person is on the subject of 

b iptism, which you tliought proper to bring against me, though 

l!ie church did not; neither did thty think tliat there was a 

jiK vn or vicar of the church to do so; namely, M". Krowufield. But 

trus'.ing that 1 may h.ave 1 berty of ap])roacii, without kissing your 

TOF., 1 will propose some more questions ou tliat topic:— 1st. lias a 

regular (/rdained minister of the gospel a riglit to baptize any 

where, and every wliere that he may h't called to labor, pu'ovided 

t\e candidates give hi;n s-itisfaclion? 2d. Bofore what church ^l:d 

Philip bring the eunuch, and tlie many baptized in Sa;iiaria, with 

^i!jc msny that Paul baptized? od. And whcjfe is your scriptu);c for 

ilic mhiister to hrin;^' the candidates to tVic e\r.\val\ btlbre ba^jtisn:? 

■^i.'j. Why (fid you attempt to censuve m^ 1^oTV\\\avrv\cUcit,'^.^A.\\\^ 

''\/^. ^ ^^'^J'^preseiitntion, (vi/. «*in \\\o. bDv\T\iis vi^ V\\e c\vv\yc\v"*'> 

'■^' '/ not in Cixtb, publish it not iu iwsiidod\ So nc^w* m^ ^^i^-er 


brethren, I have got over tlie first part of my text (informaiU\ 
as it respects m>self, and shall dwell on the same as it respei 
others. But before I can attempt to give you a full detail of t 
. matter, it will be necessary to inform you that there is one article 
their constitution like this, tliat all churches forming that body shs 
ill their letters, acknowledge their belief in the doctrine contain 
in the Philadelphia Confession of Faith, so far as it agrees with 1 
scripture. Query. How are we to know its agreement with t 
scripture, but from the scripture? and if the scripture is necessa 
to prove the accuracy of the Confession of Faith, then why n 
serve as a standard of the same^ It must be granted that we mi 
be wiser than the Confession of Faith can possibly make us, y< 
wiser tlian the compositors themselves, before we are possibly afa 
to judge of its correctness. Now, when we brm^ into view the 
truths, undeniable facts, we must lament the manifest weakness 
its warmest advocates in the Redstone Association. Is it for wa 
of talent? No; but a zeal for a system; to the wounding of God 
children, destroying their peace, taking away the key of knowledg 
the scripture, and attempting to put the mark of the beast in u 

\ hand, even confesnons of faith, and human creeds/ 

But, to resume the subject. When the letters were read, tho: 
of them that did not refer to the above Confession of Faith, cv< 
"tiiose in \rhich the faith of the respective churches was fully, pa 
ticularly, and clearly stated, Mr. Gre'atrake, as busy as a bee in sui 
y iner, and with the zeal of an inquisitor, rises stately from his sea 
and says, "Mark that letter for informality;" while those who a 
knowledged the Confession of Faith passed the all-scrutinizing ej 
of the reverend inquisitor. O, brethren, does not this put you 
mind of old times, when it was death to be giiided by the word 

' *iod, yes, and the most tormenting death, to renounce human creed 

l{uman creeds have ever served as grindstones to grind swords ar 
lancets on, and as firebrands to burn the bodies of (iod's peopl 
Yes, and the same spirit yet prevails in its advocates to llic presei 
day. For a proof of this, I will give you some of the ringleader 
language: Mr. Greatrake, in his preaching the introductory sermo 

(said, «*Before we would give up this (the Confession of Failh) 
would rather see this roof 'jome down and kill this audience ar 
myself." Mark the expression! I'ause awhile! Is this persuadir 
men? Indeed, I may say, that tlie whole of his discourse, tw 
hours long, was a series of vehement invective and insinuating d< 
clamation against the advocates for tlie all sufficiency and alone ru 
iiciency of the holy scripture for the edification and preservation < 
the church. But again, in his deliberative style, in the time of tli 
warm contention in the association, says he, "Rather tban we woul 
give Tip this point, we would suffer every drop of our blood to b 
spilled. ("Order!** says the Moderator.) \'es, order.' Forshamt 
Is this the religion of that God of peace, of order, and of lov< 
"Was the religion of Jesus establish i*d on earth for the spilling < 
blood?" No, blessed Jesus, thy relij^ion is stlV loN<t» fexVit-M^^^ 
long" suffer} nff; as the angel siiid, "On carvX^ vcwiC.^ — ^^^a^'^w 

/jnongst men. " Jtut where docs iKis a\>\r\X spiXw^ Sroxsv^. ^t«« 
carjjil hcar^, frooi the old in:.n of sm, l\\e viAiVYvov o^ \V<i Vrs^'« 


Gracious Lord, ire these thie propagators of thy word? Are these 
the men who prove their calling^ snd election sure? Are they 8U«B 
as adorn thy cause? Or are they not blind leaders of the blindf 
From sucl^ good l^rd deliver us, until it shall seem thee fit to 
change them and to give them a love to thy word. Take not thy 
^rewtrmrdng grace ftom them," but give them that ••faith which 
works by love and purifies tiie heart,^ that they may see that thy 
word is sufficient for the government of thy church below, and be 
made, with thy saints, earnestly to contend for the ftith delivered 
to them in thy w&rd. And now we come to the application of our 
teat, *HnformaHtif.'* When I first lomed the Baptists, it was mere- 
ly for the sake of my text. Perceivifng that too many, yea, almost 
the whole world were wbrshipp^ts of the great goddess FormaUiy* 
even that image, which, they say, came down from heaven, bv 
means of the mviae aathority of the clergy, in the shape of creeds 
snd confessions, for the preservation of orthmioxy; or, in the hm- 
gin|^ of other times, for the preservation of uniformity: and per- 
eeivng at4he same time a respectable body of dissenters, called 
Baptirts^ who conscientiouriy refused to wotship this image which 
thecleivy had every where set up; I felt constradned, by the force 
«f tile divine testimony against all such petsecuting inventions and 
innovations, to join the Baptists for the sake of that very informaH- 
ty, which, to my utter surprise and astonishment, I found assumed 
in the Redstone Association as the watchword and signal of clerical 
persecution. TeU it not in Gath, publish it not in the streets of 
Askelon, lest the daughters of Babylon rejoice; lest the uncircum» 
cised triumph. 

But, O my brethren, of the various associations that I have met 
with, especially you of Baltimore, will you not be astonished when 
you bear that Lawrence Greatrake is the zealous abettor and stren- ' 
uous advocate of this clerical persecution, that I witnessed in the 
Redstone Association, in confederacy with the above named Wm. 
Brownficid, the alleged author of it — even that same L. G. that you 
took so much notice of in my presence, and in his absence in May, 
1823. Yes, the very same, who also, with all the subtlety of ma- 
licious insinuations, of defamation, and evil surmisings, attempted 
the ruin of C — *s reputation. May God, in the greatness of his 
mercy, grant him repentance, and bring him to enjoy that religion 
in heart, which he seems so much to boast of with his tongue; and 
that, instead of contending for the mark and authority of the beast. 
he may contend for the alUsufficiency and alone sufficiency of the 
Holy Scripture, the plain and authentic record of tlie faith once de- 
livered to the saints; to the utter ^ejection of all huriiSn creeds, 
those unauthorized productions, which have given rise to all the 
horrid cruelties which men professinj^ Christianity have excited, 
and have inflicted upon their professing brethren for conscience 
sake — and leave these unhallowed means, these inventions of men, 
these anti- Christian devices, to those that cannot support their 
systems without Iheni; namely, inftiivt spriivklers, and let us go xo 
t/>e Uw and to the festimdnv, and rewowivce \\ie \v\^^«w\V\w^'^ ^K. 
^honesty, and attend to the word of \\\e Great Head oj the dmxc'.w 
-But once more, before I conclude iVissuUec^AiK^i^'^^'^^'^'®''' ■'^ 

Iklr. Brownlield's arpiaent offered on behalf of rAi« morjTrc-^f ccil^ 
this horn of Popery, this mark of the Betut, mmely, the Confeision of 
Faith, vhich were as foHowsy at near as my memory serves:— •• Shall 
we throw aside what so many great, (food, and learned men hare 
bestowed so much trouble to compile? I say, no, for if we give up 
this, we have no standard of regulation — beside treating those good 
men with contempt." I shall mention another circumstance or ex- 
pression of his coUeagoe, (Mr. G.) made in my presence and in thkt 
of brother Wheeler and others, "that the scripture was not the 
8tan4ard of the church, no more tlian an old stump, but it was the 
meamnff of the scripture." Good God! is there a Baptist in the 
-world thus filled with popery! Yes, there are some that relish ilic 
Confession of KiUth more than the scripture! I have an exhibition 
of the same sentiments in my house at this time, wriiten by Mr. 
Galitzen, a Catholic priest, in Cambria connty. Pa. against Mr. John- 
son, a Presbyterian minister of Huntingdon, of the aforeiiaid stMt; 
the latter contending for the sacred scripture as beir.g tlie alone 
standard for the gospel church; when the former says that tlie 
Bcrijpture is no standard; but pleads the infalhbility of the chMrch. 
So now we have Mr. Greatrake's meaning — his sentiments in full— 
he has been converted to a Popish belief— not tlie word, but the 
meaning. But from whence comes this meaning.' Not from the 
)aity — they are an unlhmking, ignorant set of mortals; nor even 
from the modem clergy themselves, that is, our present ones; but 
Irom our holy fathers in En.tcland, that were pleased, about 200 
Vears ago, to take from the scripture the marrow or meaning, leav- 
ing nothing but bones, or words without, for those that 
cannot acknowledge their infallibility. Poor Baptists! ignorant lay 
brethren! you need not look to the clergy now — ^go to the Phila- 
delphia Confession of Faith, and see the opinion of your fonncr 
brethren. I say, go to your confe&jions of faith, and believe all 
they say. Do not judge for yourselves, but put your trust in man; 
fen* it is better now to obc> man than God. And if you have not 
this preciouft treasure, this pearl of gieat price, sell your Bibles to 
buy one, for you must have it and believe it before you can have 
admission into the Association called Redstone. Yes, furnish your- 
selves with this roost holy and instructive book, and it will save 
study and time to gatlier your sentiments from that old-fashioned 
book, the Scripture. And now a word to you, Mr. Editor: — Had 
you not better give up the notion of publishing the^Aew Testament^ 
and turn your attention to Confessions of Faith, that the world may 
enjoy this new light? But do not expect my interest or exertion for 
the sale of them, but send on your proposals to Messrs. B. and G. 
I have no doubt but their interest and influence will be great for the 
sale of tliese. And now I publish to the world, to all whom it majr 
concern; yea, to the Redstone Association, and its supreme head, 
Mr. B. and his vicegerent, Mr. G. and all others, that I renounce all 
confessions and human creeds, whether Popbh or Protestant, be- 
lieving them all to be one piece of priestcraft and vwv^%Vl\ss^% «^ 
abide by the New Testament as my on\y'\mmtdA?i\.CTv\^Q5i^«>5'^^»« 
pnctice. And now my Baptist brethren, \\\eae ^T«i ixv>j «wy!opMe^ 
And^pu Confession of Faith Chrisliuns, 1 vrwvX. «vo %^%X^«»1 


until I have that lenity to covet a ^eat with the Popish beast. These 
are my sentiments as*a Daptist, and the sentiments of all Baptists I 
ever knew, before i happened to go to Redstone; and even there, 
J am happy to say, I found a few contrary to what I believe to be 
the universal sentiment of Baptists; say about six divines, beside^ 
whom I found many v/orthy brethren — Philips, Spcers, Estep, 
Luce, Deacon, Wheeler, Sec. &c. (The latter's sermon has been 
read by the several churches I attend, with approbation, and by 
many others. These I found in the faith of the scriptures. So now 
I conclude with my love to all, praying that God may bring" my 
Popish brethren to see the error of their ways; that ceasing- to con- 
tend for human inventions, they may siedfastl^ adhere to the New 
Testament, that authentic record of the faith once delivered to the 
saints; and that the union which has been broken by attempting to 
obtrude an unuutliorlzcd standard upon the churches, may be happi- 
ly restored — are the prayers ot one of a suspicijus character by 
Mr. BrownfielJ, but not by the Baptists. 

Pastor of the Baptist Church in Cadiz, Ohio. 


DURING a late revival at Camillus, New York, a 
man who had been sprinkled in his infancy wished to be 
baptized and join the Presbyterian church. The Pi'es- 
bytcrian divines would not baptize him because he had 
been spnnkled. The Baptists would jiot immerse him 
because he wanted to join the Pi'esby teriaiis. At length 
a new sort of Christians, called *Smitliites/ immersed 
him. 'He tlien joined the Presbyterians.-^ The church 
was satisfied with his sprinlvling, and he with his dip- 


(jf^ A communication over the signature of James 
Phillips, ])astor of the Baptist church in Cadiz, Ohio> 
has found a place in this number without the knowledge 
of the editor, who is now on a tour to the east- 
ward; and which may not be, in every respect, compa- 
tible with tho tenor of this work. Should this be the 
case, it is presumed the absence of tlie editor will be 
a suflScient ajmlogy/cuj its insertion. 
It IS probable, as Mr. Campbell has not seen this 
A'e?. Jn tjrpcy sojBetypograpMcaliuistaikesx«v^^\i^l«vsiw^ 
'^ ^t. • The Pvmter. 

JSTo, S^VoL III] BTJFFALOE, D^c. 5, 1325. {WhoU J^o. 29 

Style no man on earth your Fathers f*^ he alone to your father -who 
it in heaven; and all ye are brethren, Aotume not the title of Rabbi; 
for ye have only one teacher; — JVeitlter atntne the title of Leader; for 
ye have only one leader — the Messiah. 

[Mat. xxiii. 8—10. Campbell's Translation.] 

Prove all things: hold fast that -which is good. 

[Paul the Apostle.] 


WE have been in the practice of making pretty ex- 
tensive tours lor the last three years, with a special re- 
ference to gainiiig correct infornnation on the actual con- 
dition of the religious communities in this extensive an<i 
prosperous country. We have both read and travelled 
in quest of information; and have found additional proofs 
that there is a great diflerence between reading geogra- 
phy and travelling over the surface of a country j between 
hearing of, and seeing the religious world, between view- 
ing ipen and things with our own eyes,and looking at them 
through the media of books and newspapers; between 
contemplating society in the closet, and mingling with it 
in actual operation. We have been long convinced that 
to live to purpose in any society, it ib necessary to be 
well acquainted with the state of that society; it is ne- 
cessary, in a certain sense, ^'to catch the living manners 
as they rise." Man is a creature incessantly developing 
himself — perpetually exhibiting new and strange appear- 
ances. And while it is true, that ^'as in water face 
answereth to face, so doth the heart of man io man,*' it 
is equally certain that the varied year and the ever shift- 
ing scenery of the heavens and the earth are but emblems 
of the changes continually exhibiting in human society. 

Society is continually in a progressive state* It is 
either advancing in intelligence and virtue, or marching 
downwards in ignorance and vice. Reg^ardless of the 
spirit and character of this age and of tnis great commu- 
nity, many are for holding the people down to the stand- 
ards of the J 6th and 17th centuries, H^Xit^ vs^ ^cw5^ 
the creeds and forms that suiteOi VVi^ u^ ««A ^vt«'>^**^ 



stances of our ancestors, cotemporarj with Chatles I. 
6ound with new rivets on the. necks of our countrymen. 
This is not more absurd than to oblige men to wear the 
apparel which suited them when bojs, and to compel 
men when they have no taste for the pranks and amuse- 
ments of children, to go through all the forms. 

We are happy to find that, in spite of the reigning 
doctors of traditions, the people are gradually awaking 
to a sense of their religious rights and privileges. M'^e 
find a large majority of most religious communities are 
quite unsettled in their views of religious principles and 
practices. They have lost the greater part of that con« 
fidence of being the most reformed Christians, and the 
ivisest in the world, which was the characteristic of 
every sect, some quarter of a century agone. Many 
who thought their church almost infallible, noiv readily 
admit that she not only may^ but that she actually does, 
frequently err. And there is a spirit of enquiry march* 
ing forth, before which, most assuredly, the rotten sys- 
tems of tradition and error must and will fall. 

We learn, however, from experience, as well as from 
books, that the human mind is prone to extremes in all 
circumstances.^ We see when men have been long en- 
slaved in church or state, they become anarchists in 
both. Tyranny and anarchy, if not themselves opposites, 
are, in this respect, the extremes of certain principles and 
practices. When a tyrant is dethroned, and his \assals 
liberated, he finds his quietus in a guillotine, and they 
convert his palaces into towers and strong holds for each 
other in rotation. So in the church. 'I'hey who call 
the Pope anti-Christ, and renounce any successor of 
St. Peter, set themselves up as Popes, and thus a whole 
congregation of protesters become a college of cardi- 
nals, and they will have no Pope because each one 
wishes to be Pope himself. Democrats in politics, and 
Independents in religion, are not unfrequently the great- 
est tyrants in the world. I am a democrat because I 
love kingh^ power, and dont like to part with it to other 
hands. And you are an independent because you like 

/apal supremacy, and wish to have your share in full. 
o/j/jrioeaa to say (for I am called a democrat and an 
jndependent) ibsLt such is the issufe ot boV\i/\l\i^^. ^lo^el^ 
tratched apd constantly guarded. 


There is anarchy in the church as surely as there is 
anarchy in the state, and mutinies and insurrections are 
not confined to sailors and soldiers. My friend, Thomas 
BiblicuSf always in every sect of which he was a member, 
and he had been a member of at least four, always op- 
posed evel*y appearance of tyranny in the priests and 
rulers of the congregations of which he was a member, 
and was ever and anon talking against his ecclesiastic 
ruler and priest, and declaiming loud and long on the 
liberties of the children of God. Finally, he became an 
independent, and was called to become the president of 
the meeting, and soon became a full grown despot that 
could bear no contradiction, and aimed at absolute power 
in the church. 

James Libertas, too, an old acquaintance, eternally- 
declaimed against creeds as impositions on men^s con- 
sciencss, and yet he was always employed in imposing 
his own opinions upon his brethen, and frittered tne so- 
ciety of which he was a member to nothing, by multiply- 
ing non-conformists at every meeting. Indeed, many 
are praising the life they will never lead, and condemning 
others for their own sins. My cousin, William Puritan^ 
was always lamenting that he never heard ^^a sermon 
preached'* against evil speaking, and was always telling 
what evil things his brethren were saying of one another, 
and yet he always concluded his remarks by observing, 
that while so many indulged in evil speaking, he must 
call them all hypocrites and railers. 

In my late tour of a thousand miles I was reminded of 
what I bad before discovered, that religious sects and 
forms cover the earth as the different sorts of timber the 
soils. In one place it is all oak, in another all pine; in 
no place all hickory; in some places every sort of tim- 
ber. Here it is all Presbyterian, and Methodist under- 
wood ; there it is all Methodist, and Presbyterian under- 
wood. Here it is all Baptist, and there it is all sorts. 
Here seme bend before they break, and there some 
break before they bend. I often asked myself is this all 
'nature, and that all grace? Or is it nature that covers 
this soil with Baptists, and grace that covers that with 
Presbyterians? Here Calvinism reigns predominant, and 
there Arminianism. On otv^ Ai^ ol Nickfc Xi^'^vj ^^^w* 
to be kept from Arminian ertota^v otL Vi^a o^^t v.^^^ ^ 


Galvinisfic errors. To tell a man, iii one county, that 
he is an Arminian, is to traduce him; to tell him in ano- 
ther that he is a Calvinist, is no honor to him. Again I 
asked mjself is this nature or grace?— tTpon the whole, 
I discover that many are Calvinists in the things pertain- 
ing to the next world, but Arrainians in the things per- 
taining tp this. They believe that all things In the next 
world will be as decreed, but in this they believe that 
men are rich or poor, honorable or base, according to 
their works. 

Among the strangest occurrences which I witnessed, I 
note the fact that f visited three associations this fall, 
having no written creed, other than the scriptures of the 
apostles; and disclaiming any jurisdiction over the 
churches*, they met, had a social interview, and parted 
without a quarrel. This, indeed, was to me a strange 
occurrence. For it is almost impossible to assemble 
half a dozen of teachers of any sect, and to keep good 
friends for one day. 

But one of the most prominent signs of the times, and 
one of the most significant, I cannot close these desulto- 
ry remarks without noticing. It is this — The people 
every where have an insatiable appetite for sound doc-' 
frtne. They eat whole sef^ons alter sermons, and run 
after this and that preacher for sound doctrinsj and are as 
hungry after as before. Is he sounds—Is he sound in the 
faith^ This is the all-important question, on the solution 
of which depends the character of the preacher for or- 
thodoxy or heterodoxy — And his reputation is all in all io 
hitn. The preachers too generally labor all their lives 
to die with the reputation oFhfeiving been great and ortho* 
dox preachers; and the people follow them up to hear 
sound doctrine^ to sit ais jurors upon their views and 
abilities, and to bring in a verdict, which, if true, makes 
them good Christians, and the preacher either great or 
little, sound or unsound in the faith. ^*But, worse than 
all, and most to be deplored,'* sound doctrine is made> 
like charity, to cover a multitude of sins. One man gets 
drunk — he is arraigned before the bar of the church— he 
confessiRS his fault, and apologizes for it by a dogma of 
sound 'doctrine, viz. he is not rets ounfifceepcr. He is par- 
doned. This is a sample of the use atvA Vm^ot^axit^ oi 
ound doctrine. Errors of opiuioti become va tci^^^ 


places the cause of ecclesiastical degradation, and of 
exclusion from the church, while immoralities are over- 
looked^ and ascribed to the ^^*emaintng conniptions'^^ of 
human nature. Errors in opinion are treated as felons, 
while immoralities are indulged as a wayward cjuld, the 
darling of his mother. This is not so much a sectarian 
peculiarity, as it is the characteristic of tl < times. It 
would be of infioite importance to the religious commu- 
nity and to the rising generation, if, from the teacher's 
chair, m the church, and in every Christian family, less 
was said about thi» sound doctrine, and the time occupied 
therein devoted to recommending, enforcing, and prac- 
tising that ^^hoiiness without which no man shall see the 
Xiord.'» Ed. 


THERE is a proposition in proof of M'hich a thousand arguments 
and facts can be adduced. It is the foUowing — Throu^httut Vhrf 
tendom every man*9 reb'ffions experience corre^pondt with hia religigva 
eilucatien. If any ambiguity rests upon this proposition, it arises 
not from the terms in whicli it is hud down, b ut from the religious 
8y^tems we have received. This will be removed by a minute at- 
tention to what has passed and is now passing in our own minds, 
and under our own observation amongst men. 

One fact will throw much light on this subject. It is this — M 
those feelins^8, »enitibiliiiea, erpeiience, called reliffious, bejjrin vitli 
the cvnacietice. Conscience is by the popular philosophers in morals 
and religion, called the moral sense. Admitting the name as a cor- 
rect one, it follows, that without conscience, or this moral sense, 
a man can have no more religious apprehension, feeling, or i^eusi- 
bility, than a blind man can have of colors, or a deaf man, of sounds. 

•Uut to adapt the above proposition to every apprehension, let it 
be noted, that all systems lay down a consciousness or a conviction 
of sin, or g^ilt, as previous to repentance and conversion; as the 
commencement of all true experience. Now, in this, conscience is 
concerned, as all must admit; and tliis is all that is necessary to prove 
that all religious feeling, experience, sensibility, or whatever men 
may please to call it, bejyins with the conscience. Now, if it can 
be proved that the consciences of men vary according to their edu- 
cation, our proposition is easily proved — that every ma7i*s religious 
e rperience correapotids vfith his teliffions edneation, 

A. B. feels guilty, or his conscience accuses him of sin, if he eat 
pork on Friday, or beef during lent. . Whereas C. D. can eat iisb, 
flesh, or fowl whenever he is hungry^ and can be so fortunate as to 
get it, without the least sensibilitj^ ot guilt, or conviction of sin. it 
nrnst be admitted in this case, aml\\\\eu\\i5wyaaM.^w^'2X«s>w«^'^^ 
there isa deep sene of guilt in l\\e V>vea%\. o^ K.>^» ^wv^w-wv^vc^ 
heurtofC. D. and that a diff^rencti \t\ Te\\^\ov\^ te^vij«Xv«v ^ 



cause or reason of Uiis variety of conscience, and diversity of ieli« 
gious experience. 

£. F. IS convicted of g'uilt because his children have not been 
baprized— because he has not dedicated them to the Lord in bap- 
tism; and G. II. could not, and dare not have his baptized, for the 
same reusuii that E. F. feeU guilty in not doing it — because he 
thinks it a sin. 

J. K. will n'it be baptized himself in water — his corscience will 
iiol perniit him; because water baptism is done away, as a work of 
the flesh. J.. M. would feel guilty to commune with N. O. the 
Baptist, and N. O. would feel guilty to commune with L. M. the 
l*resbyterian. In fine, we might go on to shew that there is as 
many consciences as sects, but it is superfluous; enough is said to 
sliew that evenr man's conscience is formed, and varies from another 
according to his education. 

Many, I know, very improperly call convictions of sin, sensibi- 
lity of gfuilt, and all the commotions of mind, perturbation, and 
confusion, through which they pass, and of which they are consci- 
ous — I say, they call it all Christian experience. But in so doing, 
they make Turks, jews, and Pagans Christians; for all have these 
religious sensibilities, and experiences of which we speak. Infidels 
themselves have consciences; they fear and tremble, though they 
do not believe, us demons. The conflicts, agonies, remorse, doubts, 
fears, horrors, reformations, penances, often christened and confirm^ 
ed as Christian experience, have no Christianity about them. Men 
that are not Chris^ans experience such things. Love, joy, peace, 
long suflering, gentlenesft, goodness, fidelity, meekness, temper^ 
ance, are the fruits of God*» Spirit in the hearts of Christians. 

A man mvy put out his own eyes, and stop liis own ears, and he 
may se;xrhisown conscience, but all men have some religious sen- 
sibility ubout them at one period or other; they have a conscience 
"which accuses, or excuses according to their education; and doubts, 
I'enrs, agonies; hopes and joys, too, originate, proceed, and termi- 
nate according to their moral sense. 

'lliere are some monstrous or unnatural consciences which we 
can reduce to no system. If we were to attempt it, however, We 
^hould fail altogether, unless we could bring them to quadrate with 
a monstrous or unnatural education. Of this kind is the conscience 
of X. Y. and W. X. couIU not admit a Methodist preacher into his 
meeting house and pulpit, but he could conscientiously adnnit a 
theatrical exhibition of folly, vanity, and vice into it; and sit, look 
on, and laugh at it. Y. could not conscientiously, on the Sabbath, 
go to hear a moral and conscientious teacher of what is called yr«e 
srracci because of his views of the atonement: and yet he could 
•aiX. in his house all the Sabbath day, and revile his religious neigh- 
bors; and on Monday lie, and cheat, if his interest required it. 
W. debarred all from his communion table who would frequent 
playa and' theatrical exhibitions, and yet he wrote several farces 
nJmself, and taught hi3 students to act them in propria forma. He 
debarred all those who. were guilty k& occ».^oim!xV^ \\«wr«v^ «nj 
other preacher than himself and his broU\eTfie\A.TWOTs\v«\s, wv^-^fX 
nc could sllnv^his people to hear aud xtad v^*^* WMi XQioaxic.^^ 


Without eocleatstic censti)^. In short, I see- so much of this sort 
of conscience, as to induce some doubts whether those people have 
not seared their consciences altogether, and to have arrived at that 
state whicli is called b^' an apostle "/ tut feeling.** If they have any 
qiudms of conscience, they are like the pulsations of a dying man, or 
the last throes of a sNughtered ox. 

But I find myself digressing from my subject, and shall have to 
postpone the further illustration of tlie proposition with whicli I set 
out, till my next Ed. 

THE following nan'atlve is in some respects illustrative of the pre- 
ceding remarks, and while it serves to shew that every man** reH- 
gioua experience corresponds vrith his religious education, it will 
serve as a corrective of a ^ood deal of what is felsely called 
**Christian experience" at this time. It deserves the serious at- 
tention of many who arc resting much upon their experiences, 
which, perhaps, are no belter than those from which the subject 
of this narrative was converted. 

THIS relation is taken from a book printed in Liverpool, in I8O69 
called the « Theological Repository," vol. 1, and the following is 
the note sent to the editor. 

« To the Editor of the " Theological Repository,** 

Si», — GLANCING some time ago upon the private note books 
4if my friend R. D. to which I have access, I was particularly struck 
with the account he has there noted down of his conversion. After 
much solicitation I obtained the liberty of transcribing it for your 
Repositon • I have only to say that the whole was matter of fact* 
and that it the private experience of many of God's people in their 
conversion were recorded, my friend, in my opinion, would be 
persuaded that no new thing had happened him. It was written 
somQ yean ago, but with no view of publication. 



"For a long time before I went to B — I was deeply 
concerned about the state of my soul, I was much con- 
versant with religious subjects, and had read many, very 
many religious books. I ia some measure knew the gos- 
pel in its plan, and could talk about it above many mine 
equals. 1 boldly maintained that no mnn could be justi* 
fied by the work of the law, and that justification came 
by the righteousnes of Christ, but my radical error lay 
in always lileuding faith with its effects. 1 supposed faith 
to include love, repentance, Sic. and so 1 had no comfort 
from the gospel, unless I saw something good about my- 
self— this I always laboured after. Wheci evidences ai 
good emotion appeared I waa eiJHio^t^^e^% "^Vwv >i!Ma 
r^aJshed my coxnx'ort weut wiftv tix^m. Tvxo:^^^- ^J^w^ ^ 


ceive that my confidence was not built simply on the 
righteousness of Christ without mine, but in something 
about myself as evidence that I w^s interested in that 
righteousness. For many years before this I was a very 
serious, thoughtful, religious character, and considered 
so by all the neighborhood, but I now see it was no bet- 
ter than legality, and that my seriousness could merit 
no better name than a serious rejection of the true grace 
of God, and a serious attempt to establish my own right-, 
eousness. After I went to R — my close labour began. 
My guilt poured in on me from all directions. Upon my 
own system I should have bepn growing better, but in- 
stead of this, I every day grew worse. In this state of 
soul distress where could I flee? Not to Jesus, for from 
him, upon my own principle, I could find no relief, but 
in so far as I had reason to believe my own interest in 
him. To obtain this I laboured yet more abundantly after 
evidences of my interest in Christ, until 1 was perfect- 
ly fatigued with the fruitless pursuit, and ready to 
give up all in despair. Again I would exert myself with 
all my strength to act the faith of my own interest in 
Christ For this purpose I wrought up my passions, un- 
til I felt such a pressure in my breast, as if I had been 
lying under a mountair, I was daily losing my good opinion 
of my5e*f, and eY&ry circumstance was an additional ev •? 
dence to confirm me in the btrlief that I was-an unbe!iev« 
er. Frantic with despair, I madly raved up and down my 
room for whole days together, in all the bitterness of 
my soul. I sometimes thought of leaving the country: 
but where could I go? I could not go out of myself, and 
go where I would, my guilty conscience would accom- 
pany me. Ten thousand times I wished I had never 
been born, or that God would annihilate me. Frefi'JeRt- 
ly I determined fo take away my own life — yea, I was 
once upon the very point of doing so, and certainly [ 
believe f would have done it, for ease tqmy vexed sou), 
had not God imp'anted in my breast a deep conviction of 
something beyond the grave, and that by this action, C 
would only the sooner bring myself lo hell. This labour 
conttmii^ about five months, and, strangf* as it m«iy ap- 
pear, / sihvays concealed the statt o£ m^ xv\\x\divom eve- 
rv many nichout exception. Th'iR vvas ^W \tv k «iciii^v&Vv. * 
^J" n-Uh '-\ other prix^ciples* Tbe \>T\«\fe «>l Tr\^ \\v«;w\. 


fiilways Inclined me to have others think me a Christian ^ 
and in order to deceive them, I concealed the truth and 
endeavoured io appear very devout and heavenly minded. 
But the time was at hand when an important change 
took place in my views of divinity. The various cir- 
cumstances were briefly as follows — 

** I long entertained that unscriptural idea that every 
man oiight to believe that Christ died for him in partic- 
ular. To believe this I supposed, was to believe the 
cosneli and that an endeavor to do so was the fight of 
laitb. In this I was corrected by reading a passage in the 
•Wew Tkeologieai Repository,^ The next important step 
of my progress was tbrougtv the instrumentality of three 
essays on grace, faith, and experience, by S. Ecking. 
In reading the introduction (if I mistake not for I have 
not the book by me) I found that the author was once a 
free grace preacher, in the popular sense, but never 
eould take comfort from the gospel itself, bul when 
some^inggood appeared about himsblf— At this inform- 
RtioB I was suddenly stopped short— could not take com- 
fort frtnik the gospel without seeing something good 
about hims^elf! 1 replied, why, neither can I — and who 
can? Thus I ivas ignorant of the saving truth. ''But 
when he perceived,** continues the writer, "the fulness, 
freeness, and suitableness of the atonement, to sinners of 
every description, beaming in the bare report of the 
gospel, a change took place in his manner of preaching;" 
and from these things I was deeply convinced that some- 
thing was radically wrong, either with him or me, for I 
knew that I was in that very state in which he was — and 
to hear of a capital change after that, in a very alarming 
manner increasingly aroused me. I tossed, 1 heaved, I 
raked up my former experience, good intentions, honest 
endeavors, sober life, holy dispositions, &c. &c. but ail 
in vain. My fabric had got a destructive blow at the 
foundation, and every endoavor to uphold it was made 
upon the same self-righteous disposition I formerly en- 
tertained, the fallacy of which being now discovered, 
was one of the causes of my soul distress. AH these 
circumstances were preparatory to the following notable 
and forever memorable change lumy views of the ^os^eL 
*■ Heading one daLYin a series o^ \%\.Vw^\i^Vs^^^'^^_? 
and S. P. I was wondepfuWv la\L^iiv?'vV\i^^<vv^^^^ 


former throughout, of the perfect sufficleacj of the work 
of Christ in itself to justify a sinner, but I did not like 
bis spirit, neither do I to this day. S. P. on the other 
hand was much more mild— The one appeared to me as 
an humble inquirer, the other as an important dictator. 
I well remember that in reading one of R S. replies, 
the idea of how a sinner might be justified without the 
law, first struck me. Upon the discovery my attention 
was involuntarily arresteo^I went on walking (for I was 
in the field) with the book drooping before me, and mj 
eyes fixed on that point, where to appearance the earth 
^d skies met, lost in contemplation. I then for the first 
time, saw evidently that a man was justified by wha^ 
he believeil, and not, as I had supposed, by the act, or 
manner of believing it. That that work which satisfied 
God was finished 1800 years ago, and all my strivings 
were self-righteous labours ; I then saw that the abstract 
righteousness of Christ simply considered in itself, was 
the cause of a sinners justification in the sight of 
God, and that a proper understanding of it would satisfy . 
the most jealous, purify the most guilty, and pacify 
the most awakened conscience. That it was not by any 
act of the mind, in acting faith on Christ, or laying hold 
of him, but simply on the testimony of God concerning 
his good pleasure in the sacrifice of Christ, which jus- 
tified any sinner who believed it 

^^ Previous to this I had all along been labouring after 
an unknown something about myself— which I could 
never find ; but the moment the simple truth first entered 
my understanding, my whole thoughts were engrossed in 
the contemplation of tLe person and work of Christ, I 
saw that a foundation of hope was declared to all, and 
jiot more free and suitable to one than another. In the first 
contemplation of this glorious object I was no more 
taken up with myself, or my own interest in it, than when 
a man is looking towards the heavens, and beholding the 
sun, either at that time thinks upon himself, or claims 
any peculiar right to his rays more than another who, 
like him, has eyes to perceive them. Immediately I felt 
an indescribable serenity and sweetness of mind arising 
from the new view I had got of that subject. My troub-^ 
Jed aouJ was immediately composed vtAo "^^"W.^^ ^& \£ a 
^^rmjrsea would instantaneuus^y «eVl\^ VoXo ^y^oIoxwA 


cmlm. This was Sudden, preventifig, sovereign, and un- 
expected grace.* 

^^ After this I for sonae time alternately lost and re- 
gained the Tiew of the atonement, until I o;rew more ac- 
quainted with the knowledge of the scriptures and wl.h 
their evidence for the truth of the gospel. When I lost 
the view of the atonement I returned again to my old la- 
bour, doing what I could for myself. But blessed be the 
Lord, these intervals were short, and I have now, t}irough 
grace, attained more sfabilitv ia the faith from that da/ 
to this— I have been growing in the kiiouledge of the 
awful wickedness, and deep carnality of my heart, but 
with the obedience and death of Christ in view, I can 
contemplate it with more composure and grea'er detesta- 
tion, while every new view of my personal un worthiness 
humbles towering self, and exalts the lowly Jesus in my 
estimation. — Considering myself no longer mine own, 
but bought with a price, for the future I desire to mani- 
fest my gratitude to him for the gift of eternal life by a 
constant and faithful adherance to the love and practice 
of every part of hi? divine will — Oh that I were filled 
with all the fulness of God.'^ 


Of Rtmm^hs on the Rise^ Use^ and UnlawfulnesB of 

Creeds and Confessions of Faith, in the church of God 

*— J?y John M. Duncan, Pastor of the Presbyterian 

churchy Tammany Street, Baltimore,^'* 

I sincerely lament the one sided zeal and squint eyed 

piety of our religious polemics on the subject of Mr. Dun- 

can^s book. Dr Miller, of Princeton notoriety, publish*- 

ed a short pamphlet in support of creeds, traditions, 

and clerical d >mination, which had for its passport into 

the hands of the laity, the combined influence of the 

whole theological school at Princeton, the heads of all 

Presbyterian departments, and the priestly presses of 

the religious editors of that denomination. It was ex- 

* These distinctions about grace are borrowed from scholastic 
theology, aiid savor much of the polemic divinity that reigned at 
the time of the synod of Uort, and the Remonstrants in Europe, 
and do not correspond with the s\mp\\c\l^' ^^ \X\^ ^'Ci^j^> ^^x nr^j^ 
tbepecuUsr strain of the statement. 


tolleil by the ambitious clergj, recommended by tbe 
i*i;ierants, extracted and euIoo:ized by the Prebyteriaa 
editors, sold by book-sellers, presidents of colleges and 
ruling elders, lent by all the superstitious, and bestowed 
hv the zealots of all the Presbyterian ranks; but Mr. 
DuDcan^s book, abounduag with good sense, dressed in 
an elegant style, replete with sound logic; clear, forci- 
ble, and all persuasive in argument; exhibiting a happy 
alliance of reason, history, and revelation in establish- 
ing his views, and breathing a spirit humble, aifection- 
atp and pious — finds its uay without one of D.^Miller's 
auxiliaries. Not an editor, not a priest, high or low, to 
recommend it, and in the Western country scarcely a 
book-seller to attempt to sell it. This i^, however, just 
what I would have expected. The same spirit that 
prompted my neis^hbour, the president of Canonsburgh, 
to cram one of Dr. Miller^s pamphlets into the pocket 
of every student that had room for it on any couditioiii 
prompts him and all the lovers of the reigning ecclesias- 
tics to be as silent as the grave on Mr. Diincan^s tman- 
szrera^/e performance. I sa)* unanswerable; for I hesi- 
tate not that amongst all the advocates of creeds on this 
coiitlnent, not one can fairly meet, and even plausibly 
answer the arguments in this book — It is consoling to 
,ob>)erve that, notwithstanding the well concerted opposi- 
tion of the lordly keepers of the keys of intelligence 
and consciences of the laity, this book is, by its own mer- 
it, and the majesty of its strength, commanding tbe at- 
tention and enlightening the minds of many. 1 have 
only to subtract one single item from an unrestricted 
recommendation of this book to all in the pulpit and out 
of it, as a book every way adapted to conciliate tbe at- 
tention, and to illuminate the mind of every reader; 
and that item is one in which few, if any, of the popuiars 
will agree with me — It is this;— a number of scriptures 
are quoted in it and applied in the popular sense. Tliis 
however, gives it more force with the popuiars, and 
will be regretted only by those who are labouring to af- 
fix the same ideas to the words and sentences in the New 
Testament, which the penman attached to them. Per- 
haps Mr. Duncan, in thus quoting them, Intended an 
^' argumenivm ad ^otntnem.'* 
Although the subject of this book isVo m^ lio^ ;«h\xvV^ 


one, and one which has become ^fale, the writer of it 
now Btandinsin the same predicament, and with the same 
view8, in which I found myself about a dozen of yer-rs 
ago, I read it with both profit and delight. It caused 
me to do what Paul did when he met with his brethren 
at Apii Forum and the Three Taverns ^ ''He thanked 
God and took courage.'* 

I am happy to find that Mr. Duncan is not the only 
Presbyterian who has the same views on the subject of 
his book. He is not the only one who teaches his hear- 
ers and his readers that creeds, confessions of faith, and 
ecclesiastical courts are all human institutions and unlaW' 
fat. That the Bible is perfectly adapted to all the ends 
and intentions of its author. He is not alone. There 
are several other members of the general assembly, 
who accord with his sentiments, and will unite with him 
in hi8 efforts to liberate the people from the iitfluenoeand 
thraldom of human creeds and church courts. Before 
giving a few extracts fiom this book I have only to ex- 
press my desires and my hopes that Mr. Duncan, aod all 
of the same views, may carry out their sentiments and 
arguments to their legitimate issue; and exhibit as ably 
in their lives, as he has in his views, that consistency 
which has in times past,' and ivjll in all time to come, be 
the greatest ornament o.f character, and the most con- 
vincing evidence that the disciples of Christ are all 
taught of God. 

We simply give n few cf the sentiments of the writer 
without entering into his proof, to give our readers an 
idea of the work. 

In page 4th he expresses a just view of this age. 
**' All the vorld is in commotion; or, if not roused, is waiting in 
awful suspense for what to-morrow may bring forth. The human 
mind is In search of something- which it has not yet learned to de- 
fine: — It is the simplicity of the gospel of CIirist.*' 

To the same purpose he says, page 23. 

«* That a change, and a very great change too, is coming, Dr. 
O himself believes; and so does c%'ery christian who has read his 
Bible. God forbid that we should be disappointed; for, really, 
ecclesiastical matters are, at present, most terribly distracted." 

The autborcharacterizes the times vej7 corectly and 
beautifully by telling what be bas^ be%n isoaA^ Ni^ 1^^ 
page 96^ ^ 



<< We feel, that we cannot disown the supreme authority of our 
fathers, and determine to think for ourselves, without provoking 
the displeasure of professing Christians. We feel, that we cannot 
furnish illustrations of evangelical truth, framed according to our 
own best conceptions ; and modified to meet the peculiarities of the 
day in which we live, as Ikr as we apprehend those peculiarities ; 
without incurring the heaviest censure, under a gratuitious assump- 
tion that we are not « walking in the footsteps w the flock.** We 
feel, that we cannot whisper a doubt as to the -theological views 
of divines of "the olden time," or review tlie crude notions of our 
youtli by the severer thought of maturer years, without finding 
our cliaiige to be our reproach, in the estimation of thousands 
whose pood opinion we value. We feel, that to abandon that 
mode of scriptural exposition, which makes every text to ut- 
ter some Calvinistic or Arminian dogma ; and to exchange it for 
that which brings up every conscience to the bar of divine reve- 
lation, to answer for itself; or which pours the full radiance of the 
liible over the the individual and social habits of men ; is to subject 
ourselves to be reviled for a breach of ordination vows. These thivgs 
\c€ have beeii made to feel: and we cannot reject the testimony of 
our senses. Tlie doctrines of our forefathers have been constituted, 
in practical life, the rules of our faith. We must have their ideas, 
their terms, their intellectual associations; every thing muBt be con- 
secrated by antiquity, or we are not orthodox. Once more we ask, 
who would not labour to redeem society from such mental servitude? 
Who can suppose that he has too much to sacrifice, to bring men 
back to God, and to induce tliem to think for themselves, as if they 
had a mind and conscience of tlieir own," 

Tn page ISth he acquaints us with bis design of writing^ 
*• I write for truth, not for victory; and to demonstrate to the pub- 
lic, that some good reasons exist for my scruples on the subject of 
creeds and confessions. No m,in, who has a good cause to manage, 
has any need to grow xiilgar, and descend to personalities ; or if he 
does, he is a feeble advocate, and his cause would succeed much 
better without him. At the same time, it would be carrying the 
rules of politeness too far, to require a writer to enfeeble his arg^i- 
ment, or not to give it all the force which the circumstances of his 
subject demanded. On these terms tlie principles of Dr. M's. 
lecture shall be fairly controverted in the following pages ; for I 
verily believe that he is erroneous, and very erroneous too, in what 
he hps advanced, und that the sentence of heresy is not due to those 
to whom he awards it." 

In page 25 he admits the views ascribed to him in the 
following words. 

••I do not deny the views which are ascribed to me; 'I'hat is to 

say, I am an undisguised advocate of I he follovinq^ truths.— That 

(ioil ahne is lord of conscience, and that his T/iblo is the on!u rule 

of failh und practice : 0:\ if liie reader pleases, tliut church courts 

ftnr/ human creeds cr confosSMMis, are not cntitlcii, in an^ shape 


la page 91 he pl&ce 8 himself under the banners of the 
motto which designates this paper. 

** We are to coil no man, or iMxly of men. Master on earth. One 
is our ^Haster, even ChrUt, His womn is the tole standard by 
which, as Christians, or as Churches, we must stand or fall. Hap- 
py will it be for us, if we can appeal to the great Searcher of hearts, 
that we have not followed the tradition* and inventions of men, but 
tJu! sure word of prophecy, which is g^ven to us to be a lig-ht to our 
feet, and a lamp to our path, to guide us in the way of peace" 

In page 1 1 we have the true philosophy of the differ- 
ence between primitive and modem Christianity. 

"We believe, that thus the primitive church did actually live in pu- 
rity and peace ; and that her purity was never corrupted, nor her 
peace destroyed, until the idea of ecclesiastical power had mad- 
dened and degraded her sons and daughters ; and led them to sub- 
stitute human for divine law. ^ We believe, that the whole world 
is^ at this present moment, aiming at a return to tlie principles 
and habits of original simplicity, in political, as well as ecclesia^i- 
cal, matters ; and that all the political and ecclesiastical powers on 
earth, cannot prevent the changes which have commenced their 
reforming and revolutionizing process.'* 

This is not more bold than true. 

From page 107 to page 112 he adduces ^oe facts that 
explode Dr. Miller^s theory of aocient human creeds — 
Of these I can adduce but one as a specimen, page 108. 

<< The second fact is, that synods and councils^ whose province 
it is to form these authoritative rules, did not appear in the chris- 
tian church until the middle of the second century ; were a pure 
human contrivance, when they did appear ; and did notliing Ijiit 
nuschief, by interiering with the immensely important, and grcai- 
ly chequered, interests of Christendom, wluchtliey were not qual- 
ified to manage." 

In opening the pages of Mosheim, which he does fu 
great f fleet against Dr. Miller^s views, he pays the foi- 
lowii^ pretty compliment, en passant y to such creeds as 
the Westminster, page 119. 

-* It is altogether a mistake to suppose, that these eccicsIasUc&l 
documents, are unsuspected, and untreacherous guardians of truth. 
They never protected truth, nor promoted unity ; they never gave 
health to the church's soul, nor grace and beauty to the ciiurch's 
form; they never hushed contention, nor reconciled conflicting 
opinions, since they were first introduced. They do none of tliesc 
things now ; but, as of old, they do at this day taniisli th(^ 
beauty, distract the peace, and cripple the efforts^ of the cliurcli 
of God. They did then, and t!iey do now, set brothers at variance-, 
and teach them to divide their inheritance on unfair principles, and 
in the midst of strife and discord. And these thin^ thev will al- 
ways do, while they are permitted to regulate ecclesiastical inattcrh^ 
and divide the church into voluntary aaM^'vvXvoiA?^ 

Id page 1 74 we have Ine l'oV\ow\iif, 9c^o%\xo^ti Va '^^» 


advocates of creeds — with which we shall close our ran^ 

dom extracts at present, promising a few more hereaf* 

ter on the superlative character of the Bihie. 

*'0 inhabitants of Jerusalem, and men of Judah, judge, I 
pray you, betwixt me and my vineyard. What could have been 
done more to my vineyard, that I have not done in it," saith Uie 
JLord. Come, ye ministers of Christ, accept the challenge, and 
reason with your master. Tell him of the insufficiency of his Bi- 
ble, and of your happier legislation in forming Creeds! Make it 
appear in his presence that there is a neces^ty for other tebts of 
^ Chnstlan character, than tlie one he has furnished. Tell him that 
'it is impossible for the church to get along in peace and love, unless 
the form in which he revealed truth be lutered, and a concise sum- 
mary of moral doctrines be framed, as a companion for the Bible* 
'I'ake your stand on the threshold of his holy temple, and proclaim 
aloud, ttiat men who will not listen to Moses and the Prophets, to 
Christ and his Apostles, will be persuaded by your creed; and that 
unless this demand is gratified, the church must ^crumble to 
pieces. — The whoie angelic host would frown at such presump* 
tion." Ed, 

— :^:— 


THERE is a g^eat deal said in this age upon the universal restora- 
tion of all demons and wicked men to the eternal happiness of saint$ 
and angels. It is true that the demons are yet in purgatory, and 
that those that die in tlieir sins are to go through a purgatorial 
punisliment proportioned to the number and magnitude of their sins 
at the allowance of — — — years f»r each transgression according 
to some systems: and according to others on the ratio of ■ 

hundreds of years. Satan and his colleagues have been out of the 
presence of God now for 6000 years, and how far they have got 
through this purgatorial punishment is not yet settled. We have 
hud for the last year, so many questions proposed to us from corres- 
pondents on this system, that a little volume would be requisite to 
give them suitable answers. We are not at leisure, nor have we 
so much energy of mind, or body, as would be sufficient to £»ive 
Ihem even a respectful answer. We can only in a summary way 
acknowledge the receipt of them. Some, indeed, speak with as 
much certainty upon this subject as if they had just finished and 
gone throu.'jh this purgatorial chastisement and visited our world 
fraught with intelligence fron Hades, Tliey have discovered that 
all the caveats and tircats in the New Testament are like the bug- 
bears, and stories of ghosts and vitches, which nurses tell to iheii* 
peevish children when they wouU scare them to sleep. They tell 
lies; but it is with a good intention. They know there are no 
ghosts nop witches to disturb the children, but it would not be safe 
to tell them so. It is necessary to lie. Just so, when the apostles 
and the Savi'>uP spoke of afonion, or everlasting oinishment, and of 
£//a/u'oif or everlasting destruction, they knew there was no such 
thing": but they found t/iaf men could nov V»e ^o^tTwed w vsv^wa^ed 
without those bu^-besi^B »"<! were under xYie i\c^^^^\V^ ^\ Oniwv^Tjj^ 


^^e. nurses aroresald. They were under the necessity of telling' lies 
from a good intention. They used such words and phrases in r'^- 
presenting the duration of the punishment of the wicked, as llu y 
used in representing" the continuance of the happiness of the ri sili- 
cons; yet they knew that the one was to terminate some fifty thoiis- 
and years hence, while the other would never end 1 have somf^ 
times thought that it was exceedingly ungrateful in those knowing 
ones to disclose the secret. For if God was so kind to them as to 
afford them sl special revelation for their own comfort, while he evi- 
dently holds out treniendous prospects to the wicked in te7'rovef'\ 
it is unkind on their part, to blab out the secret, and thus divest the 
governor of the world, of the most puissant means of keeping it 
safe for the righteous to live in it. They seem to act the part ot an 
intruder into the family of a matron who was succeeding pretty 
well in managing her restive children, by the ten-ors of ghosts and 
wizzards, but the intruder tells them their mother is deceiving tlien; 
and thus the little pests scream out afresh, and bid defiance to all the 
ghosts and demons in the nation. — I say there is such a similtirity 
in the cases, that we cannot avoid associating tlicm in our mind, 
and we think it not unreasonable to inscribe ihem on paper. 

I know the mighty war of words that can be paraded on any sub- 
ject. Since Peter lie' Alvo wrote 40 volumes on the nativity of 
the Messiah, I am afraid to enter the list with those wcrdv cham- 
pions, if it were only on one of Horntook*s ifs. The Univonilists 
htive a pretty theme too — the benevolence of God, and the ulti- 
mate felicity of every creature, and thousands will hear them glacU 
ly.* When a few weeks ago 1 visited the Baltimore pcnitentiaiy, 
and saw more than 350 convicts suffering for their evil deeds, it 
struck me what a fine popular topic it would have been there to 
hare announced to the sufiewng miscreants, that while the lawyers, 

"* And yet tlie hencvolevce of Cotly omvhich Ujiix^rrffcIJits .?o ofien 

tnlk is a lame benevolence on their o-wn principles. — Thtv are mvc\ 

can cerned for t?ie character of the diidne benexwlence, end the fttand- 

erd by lohich they adjnH it condemns t/teir orjn system. They min*\ 

and they ouq-ht to banish from this n'orld and from the next any snr\ 

an idea of God, as that of ven^ennce and teach that ndilier ven^cdvc? 

nor pvHishment belong unto the Lord. J^or so long as they teach a pV' 

gatorial punishment of ten or ffty thousand years r'>??fi 711/0:1 ce cftc v 

de^ath, so long they destroy their oroji arguments dra^vn from the dizu?*c 

benevolence. For if God can, on theiy' theory , be *o he?ievfjlent innah-. 

ing men unhappy so long, it iviU be dij^cidi to the-,-.' r.'hy he cnrvit. It* 

benevolent in lengtheiiing it on i for another age . or for agr* of <::{ ••? ad 

infinitum. In s'ho'^t, tvhile they talk so nwrh about the crvelty nf othrr 

j^vstemty they ov Hit to f.'ur^e thr.'r o\cn ."''i^.V;,-/'h mvch nvl 

deny future punishment altogether; and even then their ry^temruH he 

imperf'ct: for to he eonsiitent, they mntt fihav fhnt all the pain f^ ^J/t/r- 

ti'jnSf andmiseties of this -."orld cotutltutepeife'rt hupf^nei*,' m'd'fhct 

-iC'ill be a hard tar h — f^r the testir.innv f,r onr s^ir-'^-a-ifl in if.t'r 

■7vdy. But until they reconcile fj?*^f:en( cvi's to their ffystcm o|" oi'ci\v\ 

"benevolcw^e ifis in 7'ai?r ffi object arr(iiii*t Utem\xi^\fi ra'<' ihoi ^^cv\. -jiV-V 

ptmifh the rcfcksd, andblesn the vi^nU^'jV.^ Iicvr.nfn v. " 



judges, and their keepers, made them beliere tliat the guvernup 
and the laws of the state required their continuance there for life, 
it was all craft and policy; that neither the moral character of 
the governor, nor the just exposition of the laws would authorize 
any such long and cruel treatment. No, no. His character and hi^ 
promulgations require if you only feel sorr> fpr } cu have 
done and promise to do better, you will be set at liberty in a few 
days or hours. I say, something hke this, would have been a pop- 
ular topic in such a place, and I am sure if I could have harangued 
them thus umler specious circumstances, I would have had many 
to hear me gladly, and to wish that it were true. 

1 do not, however, think that the Universalists are sinners above 
all others, in that they have run to one extreme, because some sec- 
taries have run into the opposite. When I hear one man talk about 
his elect and reprobate infants, about little ones in hell not a span 
long, and hear another describinp^ the flight of the demons from 
Stygi&n darkness; and representing the Uevil and his messengers 
ascending to that heaven whence they were once excluded; I view 
them both alike — Each mounted on his winged horse, and attempt- 
ing to soar beyond the regions of revelation. Because A. disproves 
the theory of B. on any subject, I am not convinced that A*s. theo- 
ry is correct. It is a bad way to correct one extreme by running 
into another. One may as well be -wrecked on Scylla as on Charib- 

Bat to change my voice, I would earnestly request those preach- 
ers of universal deUverance from hell, to stop and think how far 
tlie drift and scope of their ^flbits correspond with the obvioUs 
drifl and scope of tjie preachings found in the New Testament. 
As Mr. Knee land will liave it, aionion life and aionion death or aio- 
}:-on destruction are the mighty and majestic sanctions of the gospel 
of Jesus the Messiah. Now without saying one word upon nis 
translation, if such it might be called, (and I have it now on the 
iuble before me and Griesbach l}ing under it) it must be admitted 
that the Bible always holds out something terrible to the wicked, 
to them ^) ho disbelieve and disobey Jesus the King, at his coming 
to judge the world. This I say must be, ard, I believe is, admit- 
ted by dl Universalists. Now if it be admitted, as it must be, and 
as it most jsrenerally is, that the wicked shall be cast off from the 
presence of God, and his holy messengers, into inconceivable anj 
inexpressible anguish and miser}, in the judgment; it is all idle to 
talk ar:d contend about the termination of it. Ther* is neither 
da}5,» weeks, nor months, in that state. There is no standard con- 
ceivab^, nor revealed, by which the length or continuance can be 
.mea$ure'4* If thev are dunuied or codemned at all; it is in Tain, 
on rational principlts, to attempt to date it in a world where there 
is no calendar; and we are very sure that all the Universalists on 
earth cannot produce one sentence in all the revelation of Cod that 
s;i\ sany thin;y about the termination of the punishment of the wicked^ 
'Vhc JiiUle ofien tells ut of its commmceiiient, but not once of its eitff, 
Jt /9 \v)se iorua.not to live upon conjectures, nor to build S3steina 
vpon fIreaniH Hud visions, \(l.ich may cover us and our childi'tn in 
^hc: rums, :ind one 'lay cau^t US *o excYaici— *A. "^«\:^A.\vv:<i \»!ywk 


better for us that we had never been born.—I am content to be as- 
sured that whosoever hears the gospel and believes it ihaU be tavetlf 
and that whosoever hears it, and disbelieves it, shall be damned. — 
I know no gospel in proclaiming to sinnert on earth that after they 
are damned in judgment, they may by a long series of awful 
punishment be brought to repentance, and be delivered from hell. 
This I am sure is no gospel in this world, and what it might be if 
announced in Hades or Gehenna or by whom it could be preached 
there, I will not, I dare not, conjecture— But one thing we are as* 
suredthatit is a fearful tiling to fall into the hands of the living 
God; and an awful experiment to attempt to relax or weaken the 
glorious and tremendous sanctions of the gospel of bis grace. 



THE scrap doctors or text expositors have, not only, very gen- 
erally obscured the words they proposed to illustrate, but they 
have made their office accessible to everjr novice, and introduced a 
band of " pui^lic preachers" that are a disg^ce to the age in which 
we live. Any body with, or without common sense, car; become a 
scrap doctor. A man that can neither read nor spell can " preach 
a sermon on a text or preach from a text." I am authorized to state, 
as a.well attested fact, that not long since, in the District of Colum- 
bia, hard by the capi<!fi of the United States, where all tlie heads 
of departments live, and all foreigners resort, a certain textuary did 
take for his text the words of a wicked man, found in Matthew 25: 
the false acusation of the wicked servant who told his lord — " I'hou 
art an austere man.** This was the text. The preacher could not 
spell well, and he made it — " Thou art an oyster-mnxx** But the 
misfortune was, " he raised his whole doctrine'* on tlie word Oys- 
ter, In his exordium, for he too was an orator, he told his audience 
that his object was to shew how fitly the saviour was compared to 
«n oyster-man, or an oyster-catcher r- Accordingly his method was 
1st. To shew the numerous points of coincidence or resemblance 
between his Saviour and an oyster-man. 2d. To point out how 
suitably oysters represented sinners. 3d. To demonstrate how 
^eautiiuliy the torigs which the oyster-man uses to take up oysters 
represented " ministers of the gospel.*' 4th. To prove that the 
oyster-man's boat is a fit emblem of the gospel, and of a "gospel 
ciiurch** into which the oysters or sinners are put when caught or 
converted. His fifth head 1 have forgotten, but perhaps ?;• was lo 
shew how the cooking and eating of oysters represented the man- 
agement and discipline of those sinners caught by those ministers 
of the gospel. He concluded witli a few practical hints according; 
to custom. 

What a happy mistake ^'as this, and how fortunate for the auc'i- 
ence ! And yet he was called and sent of God to presch his gcT-^ 

I once heard, with my own ears, a \>\Q\3a It'xX.w^'rj $i«?v\x\tx •wtvw-, 
froduciortf 9€Tmon to i|i) awe?ib\y i.i <3aVu«» It^ixsi >Qafc Nwst^'^ ^*\^ "^^^ 


devil, OT from what was equivalent — the words of a damsel speaTc- 
ingfrom the impulse of a spirit of divination. The soothsayer siud 
of the apostles — "These are the servants of the most biph God 
which shew unto us the way of salyation." He did not "stick so 
well to his text* as the aforesaid textuir}*; for while the divining dam- 
sel applied her words to the apostles, the divine pr?acher appro- 
priated them to himself and such folks as the oyster expositor. 

A pious divine, who may, for aught I know, be yet dubbed D. I>. 
whose spirit within him was vehementjy moved at the knots of rib- 
bon on the ladies' bonnets, ransacked from Genesis to Jude for a 
text to afford a pretextTor g^iving* scope to the fervor of his soul against 
those obnoxious knots, found the following words — "Let him that 
is on he house top not come dorwn.** Not being a perfect speller, 
though a good preacher, and wishing to have a text just to the 
point he selected these four words — "Top not come down." Pro- 
causa enphoniae he prefixed a A? to the negative particle and con- 
verted it into a noun theological. His method was natural and .easy — 
Tst. He proposed, to explain the top knots. 2d. To give a divine 
command for their demolition. 3d. To expatiate on the reasonable- 
TiesB of the* injunction — come doion, 4th. To denounce the eternal 
perdition of the disobedient. He too, was a preacher who appro- 
priated the words of Isaiah — "How beautiful are the feet of them 
that publish the gospel of peace, that bring glad tidings of good. 
thins:s." He was sent of. God, if we could believe him. 

Now, courteous reader, will you allow me to say what I am sure is - 
a fact ; that I have heard hundreds of sermons and read volumes of 
them, on texts and from the learned too, which, though not so evi- 
dently ridiculous to every bodVf were really as absurd as the above. 



Jlespected and respectable fiiemls, 

YOU have, as a society, long contended against water bap- 
tism, on the supposition that it once was, but is now done away. 
The spirit that moves you has moved me to address you, not, indeed, 
to provoke you to a controversy with me, nor to speak to you as 
some sectaries speak to. you. I am not about to use the same argu- 
ments against your views which you have often heard, and as often 
considered. But for .some time past, that spirit which has suggest- 
ed so many good thing's to yon, has suggested one consideration"to 
me which I am. constrained by it to make known to you, believing 
it to be enough to settle all doubts on the subject of baptism. 
This consideration will appear the more weighty to you, inasmuch, 
51s it is predicated upon your own acknowledgn^ents. I. have never 
seen it presented to you by any of those who would slander you in- 
to a complian'ie with their clerical schen>e«?. I intreat you to pay 
it a due attention* It is this. You believe that there is one Lord, 
ope faith, and one bapi:s?r. But the fooleries of your opponents 
drove ran to sayilmt tbifi one baptism, Is the baptism .^f the Spirit. 
^eif^jflcjin shew that ihh one baptism cannot ir.ew\\\\t\>vv^V\«ai^ 


the Spirit, you will no doubt, Bdmit that while there it but one bap- 
tism you ought to submit to it. In the first place> then, I offer ^ou 
this proposition; that no gif^, operation, or influence of the Spirit, 
vras eyer, by any inspired writer,' called the baptism of the Holy 
Spirit, save what happened on Pentecost, and in the ftrst calling of 
the gentiles in the house of Cornelius. If this be true, then this 
one baptism, of which Paul speaks, is an immersion in water. 

Now that this proposition may evidently appear to be true, it 
will be necessary to notice two points; first, that no man who was 
the subject of any gift, impression, influence, or operation of the 
Spirit of God, other tiian the Pentecostian, is said to have been 
baptized in the Holy Spirit. And, in the second place, that the 
promise of being baptized in the Holy Spirit, and its accomplish- 
ment, are by the New Testament writers exclusively applied to the 
times and places above specified. In illustration of the 1st point, it 
is only necessary to observe, that it is confessed that many of the 
Old Testameiit saints were the subjects of influences, gifts, and ope- 
rations of the Spirit. By it the prophets spake, and by it the ora- 
cles were composed. Yet not one of these are said to have been 
baptized by the Holy Spirit. Ag^n during the ministry of John 
and labors of theLord on earth, many persoiis,and especially' the apos- 
tiesy were the subjects of gifts, impressions, operations, or influences 
of the Spirit, yet those persons were not said to be, and, in fact, 
were not baptized,in the Spirit. For this plain reason, with all thei): 
gifts I hey v^ere the subjects of the promise, "he shall baptze yoii in 
the Holy Spirit and in fire." To them was the spiritual baptism 
promised by the Saviour. The demonstration of the second point 
will confirm and estabhsh tht' first. 

Acts i. 5, The Saviour, after he rose from the dead, and just 
before his ascension in'o heaven, promised his disriples that they 
would soon be baptized in the Holy Spirit. His words are, — "ye shall 
b»* baptized in the Holy Spirit not many days hence." iMow, my 
dear friends, obsferve this baiprism >*as ihen futuref consequently 
all the spiritual influences ihcy had hitherto experienced did not 
constitute this baptism, for wliy tlien should it be a matter of 
promise? — Please (>b8cr>'e aga'n, the time for its acco:nplishmcnt 
IS fixed and defiued— "./\o^ munif days A'^nce**— Pentecost was not 
many days hence. Not munj diy? .'-i'ter 'no Lonl's ascension they 
were baptized in the Holy Spirit .Tid in fire, Acts 2. Peter there 
and then demonstrated that tlMs oiitpcurinj: of the spirit which put 
all the apostles and othvrs fu^ly uriir its i.iflucnce, called on this 
account H baptism, or imiiiersion. v is the uccompl'shment of form- 
er promises. —This baptism was nt vtr i* p»*ated till God called the 
Cientiles. And in onler to i.-iew h's impartiality he made no difler- 
eiice between them and rhc Jt» • s Peter shews that there was no 
oiher outpouring of (ne Spirit t>o:n Ptntccost till the calling of the 
Gentiles. *God' .says he, *j^a\ e the (ioni Ics the same gift that he did 
unto us Jews at the beginnmg* of the reign of his Son, or of the 
Christian age. There hud been no oiitpoiir-nr^ from Pentecost till 
that time, to which he could compare that on the Gentiks.^ Pente- 
c »8t wiis the only dav, and Jerusalem \\vt^ otA^ \A^ct,'NN^.M'^'^>ifl»'^^ 
thi5. From zU » Wch il is apparent WwiX tvo ovVk« ^>^^^% v^^^^^vs^i^^ 


or influences'of the spirit from the beginninjg' of the world till Pen- 
tecost are called the baptism of the Holy Spirit; and that no similar 
outj)ouring had intervened from the first calling of the Jews till the 
first calling of the Gentiles, and that the various graces called the 
fruits of the Spirit, neither are nor can be called the baptism of the 

Once more obserre that the baptism of the Holy Spirit was to be 
a vinble bapiitm. This the promise of it implied. Now we aO know 
that the two occauons called the baptism of the Spirit were vinble 
and brilliant — But, my friends, is your baptism of the Spirit vinble 
or invisible? They were enveloped in fire and covered with tongues 
— And it is worthy of note that all the subjects of this baptism 
could instantaneously speak foreign languages which they never 
learned — Can the subjects of your spiritual baptism do this also? 

Now the one baptism of which Paul speaks in the present time, 
when writing to the Epheslans^ was not that past on Pentecost, nor 
can it, by any argument deduced from scripture, be applied to any 
influences in our day, whether "ordinary or extraordinary." While 
then you admit that there IS one baptism, and as you see it is not 
the baptism of the Holy Spirit, for which there is now no use nor 
promise — and which we have never seen as exhibited on those oc- 
casions; this one baptism is that in -water; and you will no doubt 
remember that when Cornelius and his friends had received the 
baptism of tlie Holy Spirit, the great apostle Peter commanded 
them to be immersed in the name of the Lord. And I know you 
would rather say, that it is more probable that George Fox might 

have erred than the apostle Peter, Accept these hints from youi^ 

friend, THE EDITOR. 

•Hany letters, like the following', arc9ti file and remain to he an^vttr* 
ed. TfUs is one of the oldest date, andpnority in this retpect ought to 
be regarded, 

V s, August 29, 1825. 

Dear Brother, 

FOIi the last year past, I have been both a subscriber and ft 
reader of your C.B. I think I have, upon many subjects, been 
much interested and benefited; and am of the opinion that the 
principles which you advocate, will prove more and more interesting 
to the Christian who inquires after the truth. You have, in some 
one of your numbers, suggested a plan for reading and understand- 
ing more easily the word of God. I have thought it a good one, 
and immediately determined to pursue it. I have progressed as far 
as the Acts of tiic apostles — And find some scriptures, in the mean- 
ing of wliich I cannot satisfy myself; and from vour disposition to 
make known the truth, I take the liberty of asking from you your 
views upon some verses which I shall put[to you for explanation, 
believing that you will communicate your views of them to the pub- 
lic through your useful paper. — Matthew v. 32, 39, ch. vi« %S^ 
ell. xix. 12.- The only wa^ to serve God acceptably, according to 
m^ views of his character, it to do his' will, and in order to do that 
Kv/^ we should understand wha\\i«Te^^iUS«&ot >tt m his written 
«fwy/, Jie.fpe€tfuly, i^c. 



Dear Brother, 

A partial answer to your request is all I can give you at this 
time. A correct translation of Matthew v. 22, renders'it more in- 
telligible. — "Whosoever is vainly incensed agiiinst his brother shall 
be obnoxious to the judges; whosoever him fool shall be ob- 
noxious to the sanhedrim, but whosoever shall call liim miscreant 
(or apostate wretch) shall be obnoxious to a Gelienna of fire," (or 
to burning alive i/. the vale of Hinnom.) The Saviour informs his 
disciples that, while the Jews then only brought those guilty of 
actual murder before the judges, under his reign, the least degree 
of anger would subject a person to a punishment analogous to that 
which was usually inflicted by the inferior courts; that the expres- 
sion of anger in the way of contempt of a brother should render 
the persons obnoxious to the punishment analogous to that inflicted 
by the sandedrim, which was stoning to death; and thut the highest 
expression of anger with the tongue should expose the trans^rrepsor 
to a punishment analogous to being burned a]i\e in the vale of Hiu- 
nom. He, in this instance, as his method was, conmnmicat.^s the 
doctrine of his reign tlirjugh the medium of existing customs, in- 
stitutions, and .ivocations of men. He, thn>u«*^h these alhjsions 
teaches his disciples that every abeiTation from brotherly love Mould 
be taken cognizance of by him. Ang-er in the heart, anger ex- 
pressed in the uay of contempt, and anger expressed M'ith marked 
hatred. All laws human and divine axvard punishment proportion- 
ed to the crime or offence. His des.'jr/j \n the context rendei-s his 
meaning apparent, and teachcH all the disciples that M'hile he mtr- 
cifully forgives the offences of those who confess their faults an4 
forsake them,- he severely scrutinizes their thoughts and words — 
with even more severity than men are wont to exhibit to the overt 
acts of iniquity. 

Matthew vi. 25, becomes perfectly plain when fairly translated. 
Thus — **Ye cannot serve God and Riches. Therefore J charge you, 
be not anxious about your life, what ye shall eat, or wliat }e shall 
drink, nor about your body what ye shall wear." 

The context gives the following as the s])irit and design of Matth^ 
XIX. 12 — The question was — whether it were not better in some 
conditions to live unmarried. The Saviour answered, **'l'hey, alone 
are capable of living thus on whom the power is conferred. For 
there are some persons who never had any de.sire to enter into the 
nnptial bonds. Others have been prevented by violence, and others. 
from their zeal to publish the reign of heaven, have divested them- 
selves of any sucii desire. Let him act this part who can act it." 
This is the sj)irii of the reply and the reasons for his answer. — ^My 
limits will not permit me to be more particular at this time. — Wish- 
ing vou God speed in your enquiries, — I am your brotlier in the 
seai'ch of truth, EDITOR. 

The following ode, we understand was written by an Rmigpunt^o 
this country, who, in the midst of misfortunes, in a foreign land, 
was brought to remember the blessings he enjoyed when under 
the pious tutelage of his cimstltn parents. " To vfli^l ^T.<fcvvVN3^^ 
tuition and example of the parents vaa a.VAe«a\T\^\.Q>?^^;i^'cv.» ^«i 
hare not yet /earned. But one thing is ceH^J^iv, \.\\^X. Vj- \%'&^^^'«^- 
in rain. ^V. m 



How painfully pleasing' the fond recollection 

Of youthful coi|nexion, and innocent joy. 
While' bless'd with parental advice and affection, 

Surrounded with mercies, and peace from on h\g;h, 
I still view the chairs of mv father and mother. 

The seats of their offspnng-, as ranged on each hand. 
And the richest of books, that excels every other. 

The family llible thai lay on the stand. 

The 6ld-/a8hion'd Bibie; the dear blessed Biblej 
The family Bible that lay on the stand. 

The Bible, the volume of God's inspiration, 

At morning and evening could yield us delight; 
And the prayers, of our sVre was a sueet invocation. 

For mercies by day, and protection by night. 
Our hymn of thanksgiving with harmony swelling. 

All warm from the hearts of a family band. 
Hath rais'd us from earth to the rapturous dwelling' 

Described in the Bible that lay on the stand. 
The old-fashion'd Bible,- the dear blessed Bible; 
The family Bible that lay on the stand. 

Ye scenes of tranquility, long have we parted. 

My hopes almost gone, and my parents no more; 
In sorrow and sighing I live broken hearted. 

And wander unknown on a far distant shore. 
But how can I doubt a bless'd Saviour's protection^ 

Forgetful of gifts from his bountifid hand; 
Then let me with patience receive the correction. 

And tliink on the Bibie that lay on the stand. 
The old fashioned Bible; the dear blessed BMe; 
The family Bible that lay on the stand, 

•^•TUF. interruption of the regular series of essays in this paper 
will be pardoned by the reader, when he is informed that we have 
just returned honje from an absence of several weeks; and the ma- 
ny items of business which accumulate on such occasions, together 
with the extra attention we have to pay to the New Testament, 
just now' put to press, prevented our bestowinj^ that attention re- 
quisite to our former course — In lieu of these, a few thougts on sun- 
dry topics, which we liave always at hand, are presented. £d, 

OC/'THERFi has been, within a short time, a great mortality 
amongst the Doctoi*8 of divinity in the Baptist denomination — Dr. 
Kogers, and Dr. Holcome, of Philadelphia; Dr. Furman, of South 
Carolina, and Dr. Baldwin, of Boston, are dead. <'Blcssed are 
the dead that die in the Lord — for they rest from their labours; 
and their works,** but not their titles, **do follow them." £d. 

»^^ents omitted on the cover -^ Elder Loyal Fairman, Trenton, BuU 
^^caun^0 Okio; Baniel 2Vatw, iiwthcr/ord, Tomctsee. 

JVo, 6— Ko/. Ill] BUPFALOE, Jan. 2, 1826. [ JV/uUe ^o. 30 

Style no man on earth yintr Fathers for he alone U your father •who 
28 in heaven; and all ye are brethren. Asrume not tfie title of liabbi/ 
for ye have only one teacher: — JVeither assume the title of Jjeader; for 
ye have only one /eacfer— the Messiah. 

[Mat. xxiii. 8 — 10. Campbeirs Translation.] 

JProve all things: hold fast that toluch is good. 

[Paul the Apostle.] 
— " -- --■ — — , 


Of '^Remarks on the Rise, Use, and Xrnlawfuloess of 
Creeds and Confessions of Faith, in the Church of 
God — Bj John BI. Duncan, Pastor of I he Presbyte- 
rian Church, Tammany-street, Baltimore.'* 
THE more deeply we drink into the spirit of the JSTtw 
Testament^ the less we relish the dry and lifeltss dog' 
mas of human creeds, j3» we ascend in clear and com- 
preheiisivi' views of the Holy Oracles Jiuman formularies 
descend in our estimation. Htrce w- invariably find 
an ardent zeal for human syfttems accompanied with 
glaring vj^norance of the revelation of God; and true 
veneration for the records of God'^s grace^ is always 
attended with intelUgence and liberality. 
The following extracts from Mr. Duncan''s ipork, so fully 
confirm these sentiments; so exactly cor-respo^id with 
many pieces published vn this loork^ thai wc cannot deny 
ourselves the pleasure of presenting them to our readers. 
Their value will apologize for their length; and. indeed^ 
we have dene violence to the author in garbling his 
pages, and have rather detracted from the force and 
beauty of his remarks, by selecting only a few sentences 
of many which ought to appear together in the order he 
has '-iv-n them. IVe wish, our readers to have some 
tolerable, idea of the work, and hope that muny nf them 
may be tnduced to add this book of Mr Duncan's to 
their librarif. These selections are inadefrom page 184 

to page "208. Ed. 

*'-Our seconil principle is-^Tluit the Bible being thji 
word of God, it must neeessanly be precisely suited to 
human beings as sinful and fallen; ^'^'^ ^ W'^'^*^ ^ 
braces in its provisions all that is peculiar, txMuT x-^^ V.\>«^'^ 

r^rac/er or condttionJ^'' 



''And what is the JBIi/e, for which we plead so ardent* 
Ij? It is not merely a high- wrought eulogy upon the 
character of JehoTfdi; but it is his condescension to men 
upon earth. It is not a stem display of abstract righte- 
ousness; but it is the mingling together of justice and 
peace, of mercy and truth. It is not the impracticable 
Requisition of absolute purity, made with an unpitying 
eye and an oppressive hand; but it is the proclamation 
of 'the righteousness of faith," that glorious principle, 
of which angels and the redeemed shall talk together 
throughout eternity. It is not the statute of an inde- 
icribaole sovereignty, which no prayer can relax, and 
which no tears can soften; but it is the opening of the 
prison doors, it is a universal call, it is an indiscrimi- 
nate overture;— whosoever will, may come; and whoso- 
ever cometh shall in no wise be cast out; and all its 
agents act upon its own liberal commission —''The Spirit 
and the bride say, come. And let him that heareth,. 
say, come. And let him that is athirst, come. And 
whosoever will, let him take of the water of life freely.'* 
None of our Galvinistic brethren, as they may be pleas-- 
ed to denominate themselves, will halt at the foregoing 
statement. If they do, let them pause and reflect, 
whether, under the guise of Calvinism, they have not 
sunk into a system of the most haughty, joyless, aud 
chilling fatalism? 
^ Again, the Bible is intended to be a system of prac- 
tieal moi^ah. It reveals not doctrines for the sake of 
doctrine^ but as they may serve to fulfil practical pur- 
poses: or, it never was designed to establish theory 
independent of practice. God did not send his only 
begotten Son into our world, merely to display the 
brightness of his glory; he veiled all that glory, that 
men might look at it; and sent his Son '^in the likeness 
of sinful flesh:'' that men, whose moral perceptions 
were very low by reason of "the weakness of the llesh," 
might have an "express image of his person,^' which 
they could adore with a degree of intelligence, con- 
sistent with their infirmities. The Holy Spirit Las not 
come down merely to astonish by bis own mysterious 
movements; his official work is to build up a temple on 
■earth for the habitation of God*. — ^ spiritual house^ 
rej^Iag on Jesus as a Uving|itone, an.d vciVo \<i\sAR)tw\t^ 


tnserts, as Ymng stones, all whom he sanctifies. The 
gospel, even when angels have tuned their harps to its 
lofty strains, is not simply glory to Grod in the highest; 
but it is peace on earth, and good will towards men^' — 
^-The simplicity of the Bible, or its happy adaptation 
to the circumstances of mankind, is one of the most 
striking proofs of its divine original. That the blind 
should receive their sight and the lame walk, that the 
lepers should be cleansed and the deaf hear, and that 
the dead should be raised up, form an irresistible de^^ 

*inonstration in favor of any thing they can be brought 
to prove; but when the Redeemer stated all the^^e things 
in testimony of his own pretensions, he did not think 
the train of evidence complete, and added — the poor 
have the gospel preached tothem. The heavenly visions 
which he had seen with his Father, and the particulars 
of which he came down from heaven to reveal on earth, 

. are made plain and distinct to the human mind; — level 
to the comprehension, not only of the divine, the phi>- 
losopher^ and the scholar, but to the poor. They are 
like Habakkuk's message, made plain upon tables, so 
that he who runs may read. It is this very-thing which 
reveals the author of the Bible with peculiar glory: for, 
infinite wisdom is ever displayed by the perfect adapta- 
tion of means to an end. Instead then of needing any 
of those perplexing summaries, which different religious 
denominations have given us,^ as the product of their 
own wisdom, the Bible, by its own plainness, evinces 
its own perfection, and recommends itself to the most 
uninformed, as a sure guide to everlasting life. If in it 
^there are depths where an elephant might swim," there 
are in it also, ^^shoais where a lamb may wade." If it 
administers strong meat to those who are of full age, it 
serves the babe with milk. If it prescribes perfection 
to its reader, it begins by communicating first princi- 
ples; and he who has learned rightly to divide it, has 
learned how to give to each his portion of meat in due 

"And what, we ask, would become of the mass of 
mankind; what of the majority of professing Christians; 
what of our children, whose very praise ml^^^rt^'^^^iR.^ 
of the Redeemer may be, ibal itom i^A^V^^^ '^'^ 

inefv the holy scriptures whicVi w^ ciV^i^^^ ^'^ ^"^ 


iven them ivise unlo sahaiion, if the Bible was not thur 
motJi^ed to meet the imbecility of human powers P''-^—^-* 
'*lt is manifest that the scriptures must be plain to 
the human mind, or they can be of no use to the poor^ 
and the mass of mankind could have no divine book 
trhich they can profitably read. It must be a volume 
Suited to the illiterate and the busy, the bond and the 
free; fitted to the tottering old man, bowed down with 
jears^ who has no time to waste on our speculations, 
and to the young child that cannot comprehend them. 
It must be a book which the mother can explain to her 
little ones, and from which the father can read (o them, 
under the sanctions of divine authority, a morning and 
evening lesson. Ssgr it is otherwise, and then the fact, 
that to the poor the gospel is preached, is no longer a " 
proof of the divine authenticity of the scriptures, seeing 
they cannot be put to that use as a system of moral 
truths. To them its page is unintelligible; its very 
doctrines mysterious; its propositions unformed; its 
promises irrelevant; and, by a reference to a human 
creed, imposed upon them as the meaning of the scrip- 
tures, iheir faith mtut stand in the wisdom of mon.'^— -— 

"If then we are right in saying, that God has In the ' 
Bible given us moral truth in the best form it could 
wear, considering the character of the being for whom 
it has been prepared, — and who can say we are not 
right? — then, under what principle have synods and 
councils undertaken to alter that form? For our creeds 
and confessions of faith do take the truth tMch God has 
revealed out of its scriptural connexions; and they do 
modify it according to the conceptions of the -men toho 
make them,, or the prejudices and feelings of ihe age 
wkiph creates and enforces them. And why do they this? 
It certainly becomes them to give the best of all reasons 
for so eccentric an adventure. Can they make truth 
more tangible? Have they the promise of the Spirit to 
superintend their deliberations, when they undertake 
to revise and correct God's institutions? Have they any 
divine promise to guarantee a good result? Or do they 
auppose, that they have a sufficient warrant to take 
»acb a stepf from the fact that they have a sectarian 
object to SLCComp\is\i^ or that tV\e \nlet^^l ol «l ♦oolu-aiav^ 
^so^atio*^ ire it? TheulVia^uvu^lxww^tc^^x^ 


Ibat tbej have (be very same argument to meet in appli- 
cation to these voluntary associations; and to justify 
themselves for so dividing Ihe church of the living God, 
and altering her external form. And ue really do not 
wonder that these two things are put together; for as 
Paul argues with the Hebrews — "The priesthood being 
clianged, there is of neceasily acliange also of the law.'' 
''But perhaps it may be denied, diat our creeds do 
alter the form in which truth is brought to bear upon 
ihe conscience. We must then make our assertion 
^ood. Are not our creeds professed sianmaries'? And 
fl'hat is a summary? Is it the same thing %vith that which 
it abridges, or is itadiflTereht thing? If the original and 
the abstract be drawn out by different bands, will they 
present the same intellectual imaged Is this summary 
needed? Did the master give us one, or empower us to 
make one, because his Bible was a deficient instrument 
of operation upon the human spirit? £very man at a 
glance may perceive that he has not framed the sciip- 
t\ires upoK the same principle on which our theological 
systems are constructed. The Bible is not a collection 
of abstract propositions, systematized into regular or- 
der, nor is it a schedule of di^cult, metaphysical sub- 
jects, arranged imder general titles, such as, the attri- 
1>ulcs of God; the dh'ine decrees; the perseverance of 
Ihe saints, kc. On ll?e contrary, it is a transcript of 
f^ocial transactions; it is an exhibition of human hfe; it 
is that species of composition which, all the world knows, 
is most interesting to the mass of mankind. It is true, 
tiome lofty speculators, some profound thinkers, who 
arf- capable to reason both matter and spirit out of 
God's c?eation, might prefer a volume of mental ob- 
fitractions; but then the reader must remember, that 
the llible was written for the poor; that it was intended 
to throw a beam o( the life that shall never rndupon the 
infant miu'l^ to cheer the humble, the lowly, and the 
< ontrite spirit; and, while the dews of its blessing arc 
falling upon tlie dying o!d man, to stretch the bow of 
tlie covenant of grace across the firmament of truth, 
that his closing eyes may be opened upon the cloudiest 
lisht of an eternal day. Had sue\\ «liv ^^xVft^Kv^ <Js^ ^^\ss?- 
peiifl of mora] truths, as ovr ^.tte.^^ )J^^^A^'«^^»^^^^^^'' 
Ihe best form of revdatvou \iN Vit\c>Ck &i^ V\^>Si»». \s>a2 


could be spiritually eHlightened, douHiiless God himseH* 
^ould have adopted that form; for he declares, he has 
done for man, all that he could do for him; and, indeed, 
he has too much pity and compassion for this fallen 
child of his love, to leave any thing undone which could 
have been done. If he had intended to write a book for 
a race of philosophers, instead of rejecting such for 
being wise in their own conceits; and if philosophers 
really know how to make systems, or are themselves 
best instructed in that waj. doubtless he would have 
given them his revelation in a more logical form. Most 
certainly, however, he has not done it; and the inference 
fairly Is, that our systems are constructed on false 
views of human nature, or that our creeds are not at all 
fitted for man in bis present state. There Is a better 
way of teaching mankind the science of morals: for 
Jehovah himself, who needs not that any should tell 
him what is in man, has adopted another way. Surely 
we may safely follow where /God leads, and to imitate 
his ezamplet never can jeopard the prosperity or peace 
of histhurcb '* , 

"The practical result of our creeds confirms our argu- 
10 eut. Can children understand the abstract propositions 
contained in the shorter catechism? Have not scientific 
men long since learned that every thing must be simpli- 
tied, ^and if possible illustrated by example^ in order to 
interest, impress, and benefit the infantile mind? Are 
they not descending from their own lofty eminence, and, 
taking these little immortals by the hand, leading them 
up !>t«p by step? And shall we leave their moral nature 
uncultivated, or fatigue their tender spirits by the inces- 
sant repetition of things which they do not understand? 
Ar« our grown up Christians better treated by this sys- 
tem of perplexed legislation? Do not these creeds drag 
awav^'ihe Christian mind from scriptural exposition to 
dwell upon polemic propositions? Do they not make it 
necessary for us to contend with those whom we ought 
- 4o love; and even to dtvide families, as if the husband 
and the wife, the parent and the child, worshipped dif- 
iereni Gods? Do they not present truth in philosophical 
foraas^ about nbich men are every wVi^i^ «A. Vvb^it^ to 
rea&oB according to ibeir own appreV\eii^\^^Ti^^. ^^ v^^l 
^ot ieach men i^ '^ * '*oiiipaKaU\e\y i-nrtspowbU ^^v*. 



religions things, because they consider tbemseWes to b& 
reasoning with man about his notiona. and not with God 
against his imtituti&ns9 Let the reader judge for himself^ 
whether we do not recite facts :— As Caivinists we almost 
intuitively shrink away from being thought Arminians; 
and as Arminians we are equally frightened by a charge 
of Calvinism. The past age has made a controversy 
between these two sets of opinions exceedingly popular, 
and our creeds have served to perpetuate the strife! He 
]s thought to be a clergyman of secondary coiisidera- 
tion, and to possess talents of a very inferior order, who 
cannot perspicuously arrange, and skilfully discuss, the 
five points: — while on the other hand, Whitby and the 
JLime-street lectures have obtained imniiortal honour. 
Neither party seems to }cnow that if they would cease 
to contend, and declare what they are honestly con- 
vinced is in the Bible, they would blend in most perfect 
harmony, as soon as long established habits, running 
throughout society, could admit so happy a revolution* 
But they have formed their opinions ^ they have chosen 
their theological system; they have entered into their 
ecclesiastical connexions; and of all things that are 
inimical to harmony, these voluntary associations are 
the worst — because by them all society is thrown into 
commotion. It is really admirable to hear how contro- 
versialists, belonging to different voluntary associations, 
will treat a scripture text which they have abstracted 
from its own relations, and how clearly they will de-^ 
monstrate it to utter their own opinions. Who does not 
feel some concern, when he hears a minister of the 
gospel endeavoring to establish a doctrine, which, every 
one knows, is employed to evolve a sectarian, rather 
than a scriptural principle? And who, that has even 
thought dispassionately upon the subject, would not pre- 
fer to have the Bible explained to him as other ikings are 
explained, than hear the most eloquent discussion on a 
sectarian tenet? Surely the study of the scriptures, and 
an effort to make men feel truth as spoken by divine 
wisdom, and enforced by divine authority, would en- 
tirely change the complexion of such mimatra.t.lo^v^ 
and impel the human mind iuto ItaAii^ ol >iwv\iNMNx^^'Mx^ 
habits of appUcation much mote %v^t\W^^^^^?^^'^^ 
We sajr again, let the readw ju^S^ fe^ >Q:\xa%'i^v^ x^ 


whole subject is pre^entfd (o.bim in real life; it ie 
ptf-ssed out to its very extreme; and he may even hear, 
as an aigument in favor of theological strife, that divi- 
sion is necessary fo unity.— A lovely paradox! An un- 
exprcted, but happy union of contraries! Its framers 
are fairly entitled to all the credit of its ingenuity. Wc 
dare not envj tbeni their happy talent at invention ." 

Tlie S If nod of Baltimore nave a^ainpranoed that they make and hold the 
confession and fo^vniilary a» authoritative rules of fuiih and 
practice, and tia tei^ms of cojiimmnon betuceen CftHst and hit disciplet 
— 7%tf fallowing- is positive proof thereof. 

From the *Tittsburgh Mercury,^' Nov. SO. 

"The Rev. Jhhn M. Duncan^ of Baltimore, and the Rev. Charles 
■^M^Jjcan, of Gelt} sbiirg-li, in tl)is state, have both declined the ju- ^ 
nsdiction of the Presbjlerian church in the United States, on the 
4;round tliat they object to creeds and confessions, as terms of 
Christian or ministeral fellowsliip; and the synod of Baltimore, have 
accordingfly declared their congregations vacant and have put them 
Hnder the care of the respective presbyteries of Baltimore and Car- 

So Messrs. Duncan and M*Lean are to be viewed and treated as 
heathen men and publicans, because they aver that there is hit one 
nnthoritative i-vle of Christian faith and practice, and that this is 
the Bible. But, behold, they have declared their congregations "* 
racavtf This is another acceptation of the word vacant — They 
have vacant territories in their church, with only 200,000 inhabit- 
ants on them. Vacant churches, because the pulpit is sometimes 
empty, and vacant congregations when their pulpit is ever}' da}- 
iilled with a pood man, who liappens not to be ortliodox in tliis arti- 
cle of the fallible rule of faith and practice. - 
**Thetf can create and thev can ilestrot/.'* 

They have annihilated Messrs. Duncan and M*Lcan, as Vv'cll "aS 
■paganized them — Great ai^ their tender mercies for those transgress- 
ors- -and inexpressible their sympathies for their ^Ze«7r and precious ^ 
/•onprregtitions. M'c have it from good authority in Baltimore, thut 
Mr. Dunc:in's congrc gation was as unanimously determined to ad- 
here to the scntiinints in his bopk as any congregation of orthodox 
<'hristlans in the country is determined to hold fast its form of 
sound words imported fi»m Scotland on board the ship Entcrprize 
and giiarded by two frigates ladened with soldiers and rnxmitlonx of 
wyr. J'^d. 


^^^^;t oraVionfor Christian JUisstons^ delivered (btit read) 
/y appointment of Ike Bonvd oj Mmtous., m \ht Firti 
J^rtsbi/ferifin f't^ttrch or Plnladelpli\as hejore \U«^ li«v- 


States^ on Monday Eveningj May iS, 1835. £y Wilfc 
J.IA3I Craig Brownlee, D* D. of Basking Ridge, 

The text was 1st Corinthians, i. SI. 
^^ HO Ware the mighty fallen^ and the weapons offoa^ 
perishedr^ The time has been that a Presbyterian D. D. 
was a scholar, a man of respectable literary attainments, 
nrho could either speak or write good sense for one 
hour. But this was the golden a^e of Presbjterianism. 
The present age is an age of newmvention, and of rap- 
id growth. D. D's. spring up as b j a magic rod; and 
more especially in this warm climate where gourds, 
camp-meetings, theological schools, and pumpkins flour- 
ish with uncommon rapidity. But really if we advance 
one step farther in our profusion of literary honours we 
shall baTe D; D's like the popes of olden time, who 
can neither read nor write. We are just on the vei^ 
of such an era, now in the year of grace '35 

This oration was handed to us some months since, and 
aAer a hasty perusal was filed amongst the non^degcripU 
of the day. But after seeing it posted in awful capitals 
on large labels in some of our cities, and hearing it ex- 
tolled in some circles, who would be thought critics in 
such matters, I resolred to read it a second time. But 
instead of rising in our estimation it sank below endu- 
rance. It seemed to hav^ attracted notice from the time 
And place in which it was first read. 

There is a sinful vanity in some authors, which naus- 
eates both saints and sinners. When a person appears 
in an apparel which neither his profession nor his cir- 
cumstances approve, he sins against Crodand man; and 
when a writer, on any Christian theme, arrays his sen- 
timents in the gorgeous apparel of comedy and romance, 
he ranks himself amongst religious fnps and pedants. 
There is a species of pulpit dandyism which is mim- 
icked by many of the would be-pop ulars, which if 
not laughed or scorned out of countenancp, will both 
corrupt our mother tonguis, and vitiate public taste. 

But this sermonizer appears like an Indian quecn# 
He would be fine; but bis paint, heeds, and trinkets 
betray that he has not been civilized — Nor is he one of 
those ''gems of purest ray serene" which "dark unfaltv- 
onied caves of ocean bear,'' but a'^^\i\i\fe VcaOk^ w\\>» 
ffot jfoJhbed. But we shall let torn *\^iSi^ V>x Xivo^'^^ 


We shall give a specimen of his exordium, in which he 
kihours most to be correct; and a specimen of his divin* 
ity from his peroration, in which he struggles most to be 

^t affords us a lesson, full of interesting' iostnietion, to mark the 
progress of the principles of action in the unrenewed mind: and 
the misguided zeal put forth over the bustling activity of our spet 

^ Over the wide field of human existence, we perceive these prior 
ciples (tistinctly in active operation. There are no exceptions in 
the different classefi of character. In the minds and in the actions 
of the learned and the polished; of the plain and the iUiterate; of 
civilized pagan, and the rude savage — we discover a zealous rival- 
ship in selecting plans; a studious caution^ and wisdom in forming 
its schemes; a profound policy in manoeuvring; and in seizing on ev- 
ery advantage; an eagerness of disposition to outstrip every rival 
who enters the list wi3i them; and a restlessness of ambition, hxm^ 
ly'iQg them forward in the enterprises of human life; and an unsub- 
dued ardour and perseverence, in struggling up the heights of 
earthly glory — and happiness. Our eyes see all this every where. 
—Go where you will, you will meet it: and you mingle in it;— over 
all lands, and over all seas: in the town, and in the country; in the 
noisy waJks and bustles of a city life: and in the stillness and re- 
tiredness of our vallies and mountains: and, (notwithstanding all 
the high wrought sentimentalism of the poets,} even among the 
cottages of shepherds; and the haunts of the peasantry! 

''And the human mind does persuade itself that there is a real 
happiness to be tasted— and enjoyed in these objects of its restless 
ambition. And there are cong^tulations and applauses motuallv 
given and received. And they are pronounced honourable; and al» 
so happy; and also wise; and also great, and even good, in propor« 
tion to the superiority of a cautious wisdom, and a calculating pru- 
dence called forth, and successfully exerted by them in gaining the • 
anxious object of its earthly enterprize. — And thus in the race for 
human honours and bliss, there is the constant application of a stim- 
ulant; which never fails to keep up the rivalship, and persevering 
industry of restless ambition. And the succsrful candidate for 
honours and pleasures is lauded and envied by the multitude as the 
happy man! And in the cloud of that factitious glory >^hich he 
contrives to throw around him and his guilty prosperity; — the 
^[rosness of his motives; and his execrable deeds are strangely lost 
sight of— and forgotten.^* 

Now, let us ponder upon (his display of words- la 

his £rst period, which engrosses one whole paragraph, 

and a part of a second, he talks about marking the pro« 

gress of principles of action in a person's mind — Sure 

this requires more than an angels eye to pry into the pro* 

gress of principles in the mind. \ivdt.o see ""^a misguid- 

ed zeal put forth over bustling aciivMv^^^ \% ^o ^i^a.^^ xvan 


inrinciples dUtinefly in acHve operationj^^ strnnge prospec^t 
indeed! It requires strong eyes to look over so wide a 
field— and how*principles are disiinctly in active opera- 
tion, is too metaphysical'— ''C/asse« of diaracter^ are 
with him, ^4eamed and polished minds — plain and illit- 
terate men," ^c. ^^We observe^ too, he says, ^^profound 
policy and wisdom in all classes of character, illiterate, 
plain, and learned, in struggling up the heights of earth- 
ly glory and happiness." — This is all arrant pedantry, 
and unmeaning bombast. IVI} patience would fail me to 
exhaust these few lines, to notice his twenty two ands in 
the last sixteen lines — and to classify the outrages com- 
mitted against our dictionaries and grammers, under 
their proper genera and species, would be a work of su- 
per- errogation. I cannot, however, dismiss this part of 
Sie subject, without specifying the Doctors peculiar 
attachment to fields and hills. We find him, in almost 
every page, in a field of some rare production, or on a 
hill of astonishing magnitude. Page 3J. He looks over 
*Hhe wide field of human existence, and sees some strug- 
sling up the heights of earthly glory,'* Page 4th, he is in 
^the /and of perfect intelligences," In page 5th, he ar- 
rives '^<m the fields of science^'*^ and stands awhile upon 
^'the imposing heights of human wisdom." In page 6th. 
He descends to a *^land of Bibles." In page 7th. lie 
^^cafU reach the entiresnes of his orgwmcnt," but sees, 
"fairyoArics melting away like gay illusions of a summer 
morning's dream." Page 8th He finds himself ''on the 
shore of an uninhabited island" lost ^'on t!-ie heights of 
infinite mind." In page 9th. He travels from ''the dark- 
est lands and deepest shades, to the classic lands oi 
ancient Egypt, Greece, and Rome." In page lOth. He 
surveys 'Hhe wide fields of Paganism," and turns again 
to "the c/assic fields of Greece and Rome." Page llth. 
He mounts to 'the heaven of the prince of poets," but 
will not "/ei down one single concession in favour of 
their morality." From this to the end of his flight, he 
is alternately in heaven, earth, or hell, and finds them 
all abounding with hills, and vallies, and all sorts of 
fields, particularly ''fields of glory, and fields of wretch* 

We shall now request the teaiAw Vo Vvxrci on^^ SaV^ 
peroration. Where his elo^^nxencc and. dWmxV^^ 'a:^^ 
jnost to advantage. 


**You whose eyes have» from your infancy, Msted on the lort- 
ly lamU — the duelling' of liberty and reIigoii;Vhe assylutn of tite 
oppressed of all nations — think, this evenin2» on the trodden 
down and oppressed heathen— and lend your aid in a liberal cou- 

"And you, natives of that fair portion of our union, over whose 
hills and dales science and religion have long shed their sweetest 
influence; natives of tlte land of steady liaDits rich in charities 
and good \iorks — to )ou I know I make not my appeal in vain! 
^Vho ever needed tvice to appeal to tlie heart of a native of New 
England in such a case as tliis? And you, sojourners from far dist- 
ant land»— think this evening — tliink on the lai.ds that gave you 
birth — think on the light and glory which the Christian religion has 
sent ov«r the lovely vales and Uionn rains and duellings of your 
f;* — ar.d Utink o n the miserable heathen who wart all these 
blessings — and lend us, I be^*ech you, your aid, and shew us tliat 
yeu stiu Iiave the generous heart of an Englishman, the generous 
heart of a Scotchman, the generous heart cf an Irishman. 

**Andyou,who have in your bosom the heart of thcPhiladelphian 
— a nanie pronounced with kindness and veneration at kome and 
abroad — as standing foremost in brotherly love; and kindest hos'- 
pitaliTv, and all the active charities of life — to you — honoured 
ChrisMans! we never appealed in vain in behalf of the missionaries 
— and the missionary cause! and this eveninj:^ there will be record- 
ed in the "book of remembrance" a fresh instance ^ >our chaiity 
and beneficence! 

"And you, honoured fellow-citizens, and honourable magistrate!^ 
and officers in this great republic, — who lately sent forth, before 
the astonished world, such a display of rf^publican welcome, and 
republican gratitude, to that venerable and dearly beloved friend of 
our country — who sacrificed, in}outh, hisease, his wealth, his hon- 
ours, to help in building up our national indepeiKlenoe — ^}-ou, lov- 
ers and admirers of JLa Fa)ftte! there is a greater tlian he now 
passing before you — it is the Saviour of the world! who descended 
from heaven; who veiled his glory in his humanity; who became 
poor that we might be made rich — who died a substitute for Ihe 
sins of his church! This mighty one condescends to appeal to 3'our 
hearts in behalf of the heathen— and to ask of you, honoured fel- 
low-citizens! a portion out of those treasures which his beneficence 
has given you, to aid in sending salvation, and liberty and hap- 
piness to these heathen. Oh! surely he will not appeal to \'our 
loyalty in vain. 

"-Vnd, above all, to you. Christian females! not more distin- 
guished by the channs of earthly accomplishments, tlian the beau- 
ty of the Christian character — who stand foremost in the enter- 
prises to spread the gospel, and the happiness of xivilized life — 
to you, 1 feel that 1 make my most confident appeal! The heart of 
man may be avaricious, and cold and unmoved! they may say to the 
missionary, Uctire from your fruitless attempts; say to the half-in- 
Mtructed, jiiid/iaifkuviJized Indian — go, return into your forests, and 
tovour tomsJiAwka, and bloody deeda o£ viw; ^» Viv^^i^ ovet ^l^e 
^<y^Jcssue9§ of • drcarv etferiuiyl v^e b»N^ ivo ^\^ wvst ^^^tv^ 


spare!— \e8, hard-hearted man may look at his treasXires, and com- 
pare his county's liberty, and Christian glory, with the wretcheil- 
ness of paganism— and yet say all this. But never — ^iiever did we 
meet with such a repulse from lovely woman! the sensibility of lier 
heart — the intelligence of her mind, the unaffected benevolence 
of her nature — all sanctified by the love which she beHi*s to her 
God — have constrained this most honoured poi-tion of the speciea 
to throw all their influence and authority into tiie cause of miss- 
ions.— ^ 

*»Oh! Lord teach us, we implore thee, this cveninir, to wc'gh 
the souls of these perishing and helpless pagans, » gainst our gold, 
and our silver, and our luxuries, and to act on the calls of iJhristiau 
charity, as God has enjoined \\s: and as we shall wish that Mr had 
done when we shall sttmd on the fields of eteniity, amid the com- 
pany of the redeemed.** 

Having passed from th« "lovp'y lands" of Pennsylva- 
nia to the "hills and dales" of New Eng^an<l, an<l thenfft 

^ to "the more lovely vales and mountains" of England, 
Scotland, and Ireland, he arrives on the^'flelds of Eter- 
nity," accompanied by the smiles of the ladies, and ftir- 
rounded with the generous hearts of English, Scotch, 
and Irishmen. The bosoms of Philadelphians, havinu; 
each a benevolent heart within; th«» Marqijis I^a Fay- 
ette, and hJs rival the Saviour of the world, completft 
his sublime group. There we shall leave them all, eack 

.. one having a pair of balances in his hand; one scale is 
filled with human sou^s, the othi»r with golden eagles, 
Spanish dollars, puncheons of wine, F^astern spires, 
oysters and clams; and the whole crowd in so'emn con- 
templation to ascertain which shall prep )nderate-^The 
balances being so far from the centre of gravity wpic? 
not trijo, for that in the preacher's hands had one biuiic 
bill which ontweighed nine hundred millions of souls. 
Christian reader, whether was the oyster-expositor 

- or this D. D. the greater saint and divine? And what 
shall we think of the state of learning In that assembly 
which appointed Dr. Brownlee to address them on such 
an occasion? I have one.apoloi;y for thfjm, they did not 
order his sermon to be published, but the preacher 
thought it cost too much labour to remain in maauscnpt. 


FOR more than hiilf a centniy past, no theme has been more 
popular, no topic has been more iully discusaed^ tXvAXv xVvs. '«\>f^^'*' 
' of men. ne'tcsult has been, tl\al\er^ ^^w\iv^\>| /vvv \v\^ «^"^** 


World at least, it it eoneeded, that all men art bom to equaXrlglag. 
But out theme it not Uie rights of men, but the rights of laymen. 

Some, no doubt, will inquire. What is a layman? We answer, 
A man is the creature of God, but a toy-man is the creature of 
priests. God made men; but priests made laymen. In the reli^-^ 
otts world we often bear of eUrgy and laity. These are terms of 
Grecian extraction. The term elergy denotes the Lord's fot, or 
people; the term taity denotes the common herd of mankind* or 
the clergy's lot or people. We shall attend first to the inalienable 
rights (if the huty, and secondly, X.Q the inalienable rights of the 
brethren in Christ, 

In the first place, a layman has a right to con^der himself a» 
possessed of Jive senses, viz. Seeing, Hearing, Tasting, Smelling, 
and Feeling. If misfortune or vice bas not deprivetf him of the 
use of any of them, he is always to bear in mind that his Creator 
gave him eyes^ ears^ a mouth, nose, and hands;; and that he 
designed he should use them all. These five senses complete- 
ly adapt man to this present worldr As an animal, he has no use 
for a sixth sense. Ilis; eye feasta upon light; his ear upon sound;- 
his mouth, tongue, and palate upon tastes; his nose upon odours, 
and his handa mfbrm him of the heat and cold, roughness and 
smoothness, hardness and softness, and all sueb properties - of the 
bodies around him: These all serve him as guards and defences, 
as well as minister to his enjoyments. As in a world of matter his 
whole body" is liable to many meonveniencies, his Creator has 
transfused throug^h his whole system the sense of feeling, which 
exists most exquintely in his handSb in one sentence, there is 
not a single proper!}' in any material thing of any use tO' man, that 
is not distinguishable by some one, or all of these senses. * Now a 
layman is endowed with all these senses as well as a priest. 
Therefore he is to use them, and believe their testimony in prefer- 
ence to any thing a priest tells him. For examples If a priest tell 
him tltat he -can turn wine into blood, and bread ir\,to flesh, the 
layman must ta^te them, and if this blood have still the taste of 
wine, and this flesh of bread, he must believe his senses in prefer- 
ence to the priest^j tongue. Por God gave him those senses, and 
they are to be relied on more firmly than the words of any man. 
Again, when a priest tells him that he immerses or washes a'persorv 
in water, when he only besprinkles his face or his hands, he must 
believe the testimony of his eyes, and not the lips of the priest; 
for his eyes are more to be trusted than the lips of a thousand 
priests. Now it is the ini^enable right of every layman to exer- 
cise his five senses, and never to be argued out of them^ or to be- 
lieve any thing contrary to them. 

But let it be remembered, that those five senses give a man no- 
other intelligence than what concerns the material world around 
him. They cannot introduce him to an acquaintance with a world 
of spirits^ or a future atate. But in order to fit him for this, God 
has given him another class of faculties which exist in his spirit, a!i 
those senses exist in his body^. These faculties are all comprised 
in one sentence^ which affirms* man tcxl>e s^ reasonable being. But 


«ach of the fsculties which constituteiA reuonable being, are u 
distinct from one another, as are his five senses, llie eye and the 
«ar are not more distinct than perception and reflection, than 
memory and judgment. These heing vdtkin the man, are not so 
easily apprehended as his senses which are vfithout. The spirit of 
A man dwells within him, and as through windows, views, through 
the five senses, the objects around him. What it cannot perceive 
through one of those windows, it can discern through another. 
Besides this, it can look upon itself and become conscious of its 
own actions. But these are not so obvious to all mankind. The 
inass of men attend much more to what is passing without than 
to what is passing within them, and therefoi'e know more of the 
former than -of the latter. 

But of all the faculties with which the spartt of man is endowed, 
none exalt him so high^ none put him in possession of intelhgence 
so important, as the fctculUf of ■Oeiievuig'. Whether this faculty be 
a combination of mother iactiltios, or one disttnct from all others, is 
not worthy wof. a moment's investigation, as ewfsry mun knows that 
be can beliexre, and does believe human testimony .when it possesses 
certain attributes, indeed, all tliat we do know, and all that we 
are assured 'of, beyond the narrow sphere of our^wn expeiience 
and observatior, adi that we know of the past, the present, and 
the future, bcvyoud the limits of our horizon, we have acquired by 
this faculty of believing. . 

As men gpoke befoce they -arote^ and as intelligence respecting 
fiictsis reported hefore it can be roritten, the ear isJLiie first medium 
through which testimony reaches tl>e spirit of man. Consequent- 
ly o»ir convictitMi, .or .assurance ©f things reported, comntunly 
called faiffh ** comet bjf hewing^** lor by tlie ear. 'J:i»rou^h this 
window of the ear, ttJie spirit q£ man jaees incomparably more 
objects, and acquires incalculably tmore information, than by tlie 
other §wxT windows, or avenues of infor^naticm. 

Beading what is written is a sort <Si hearing *>>• the eye. If the 
assurance of thmgs unseen, ^be ac/^uired from reading, it denigates 
uothing from the rational and bibhcal truth, that **iaith comes by 
hearing:" for writing is a substitute for speakin|H^, and reafling la 
hut a substitute for hearing. 1 would not epeud time in ilhistrHf ing 
a matter so plain, were it not that some .of tskt priests, in ord<'r to 
iMiiince tlieir services, have boasted that faith comes by h^untig, 
Sd not by reading. By hearing them too, ravher tlian by rtudiiCf 


But as the eye of man would be of no use ts him if there W2u» iu> 
sun or no light, so the faculty or power of believing testimony 
would be of no consequence, if there was no testimony to be be- 
lieved. And although he may have testimony concerning tilings 
Ijresent and visible, which is of much importance in the present 
life; yet, if the exercise and use of this faculty is to be confined 

• *'God'* (says the Catechism of this meridian) "mahtth tfte 
reading, but etpeciaUy the prcLching of tfu: v/ord, t.n efectm^' 


to hum in test'im my respecting? present objects, still he 19 cam- 
])letely in tlie dark as respecu the unseen and future world, and 
but lit tie elevated above a bee, a beaver, or an elephant. Now of 
me unseen and future world he can have no human testimony, 
properly su calle.i; for no man has returned from the unseen 
world and testified any thinjc about it; and if we have no testimony 
Trom God concerning the unseen and future state, the faculty of 
believing is of no more consequence than the sense of seeing, as 
i-egards the world of spirits. 

And if, upon the hypothesis of the truth of 'Hiatural theology,", 
a man could arrive at the knowledge of the being, and of some of 
''he peH'ectioDB of God, yet still every thing concerning his will 
Mnd the future destinies of men is unknown and unknowable. But 
toe Bible is to man the sun and light of the world of spirits, or of 
t he unseen and future state. The testimony of God is addressed to 
and titled for this faculty of believing with which he has endowed 
man, and of which he cannot be divested so long as he is rational, 
<*xcept by his own depravity — As by an abandoned course a man 
may destroy, or sear his own conscience until it is past feeling, so 
)ie may abuiie his faculty of believing so far as to believe a lie and 
reject the truth. 

But in making the Bible, the author of it has indirectly given ua 
some oi' the best les!M>ns in the world upon this faculty of believing. 
xiy attachiikg to it, and stamping upon it, and working into it cer- 
tain evidences of its origin, he has taught us what a being like 
man requires in order to giving full credence to testimony, human 
or divine. In adapting this book to fallen men, he has shewn us 
what his faculty of believing now is, and not what it once was. 
And he has ^iven so much of this sort of evidence as to render 
Lvery man inexcusable who continues in unbelief. 

To conclude this item, we would add, that by our reasoning 
fHCiiUies we are to try and determine whether the book called tlie 
Hible came from heaven or from men; and having determined 
that God is its author, we are then to receive its instructions and 
implicitly to follow them. It is, then, in the second place, the 
inalienable ri^ht of all laymen to examine the sacred writings for 
themselves and to exercise this faculty with which God has en- 
dowed them, and not to believe what the church believes, nqy 
liow the church believes, because the church believes it; buMfc 
judge and act for, and from themselves. ^^ 




No. X, 


.« KoflKWice, koinoma. ti'anslated fellowship, communion, commti' 
fiication, couti-ibution, and distribution, occurs frequently in the 
apostohc writings* King James' translalOY^ Vvvftt Tewdered this 
HiK'd bv all those terms, A few speciiaeiv* *\\%W 'V*^ ^^ln^^x, \\.\a 


tran^ated by them feliowhip. Acts ii. 42, ««niey continued sted- 
ftisdy in the ftlUnoBhip** 1st Cor. i. 9, •*The fellowship of his 
Son Jesus Christ.** 2d Cor. vi. 14, ««What felh-wa/dp hath light 
with darkness." Gal. ii. 9, "The rieht hand of fclloxoalupr Pliilp. 
iii. 10, «»The Mlowfap of his 8uflferings.'» 1st John i. 5, **Fei~ 
iBwship with the Father." 2d Cor. viiE 4, "The fellowJdp of the 
ministring to the saints." 

They hare sometimes translated it by the word communion, Ist 

Cor. X. 16, •'The eommunion of his blood" **The communion 

of his body." 2d Cor. xUi. 14^ <'The communion of the Holy 

They have also used the term communicate or communication^ 
Heb. xiu. 16, To communicates** or *^f the eonmunicaUon be not 
forgetful, for with sudi sacrifices God is well pleased." 

Where it evidenUy means alms^giviag in other places, they have 
chosen the term distridution, 2d Cor, ix. 13, •Tor your liberal «/««- 
tribution unto them, and unto all." 

They have also selected the term contribution as an appropiate 
translation. Uom. xv. 26, *Tor it hath pleased tliem of Mace- 
<loma and Achua to make a certain contjibution for the poor saints 
at Jerusalem. 

It is most evident, from the above specimens, that the term MAtronut 
imports a joint participation in giving or receiving; and tliat a 
great deal depends on the selection of an English term in any p:u*- 
ticular passage, to give a particular turn to tlie meaning of that 
passage. For instance, '^The right hand of contribution^* would be 
Ii very uncouth and unintelligible phrase. **The contribution of the 
Jloly Spirit,** would not be ""much better." Again, had they used 
the word contribution when tlie sense required it, it would have 
^Teatly uded the English reader. For example — Acts ii. 42, "They 
continued stedfastly in the apostles doctrine, in the breaking of 
bread, in the contribution^ and in prayers,*' is cjuite appropriate :uid 
intelligible, and there is no reason which would justify their render- 
ing Rom. 15. 26 as they have done^ tliat would not equally justify 
tUeir liaving rendered Acts 2, 42, as we have done. In Horn. 13 
tiie context obliged them to select the word coninbution, and this 
I A the reason wlty they should have chosen the san^e term in Acts 
^1^ The term feUowship is too vague in thia passage, and, in- 
deed, altogether improper: for tiie Jerusalem congreg:ition had 
fellowship m breaking bread, and in prayers, as well as in contri- 
buting; and as the historian contra-oistinguishes tiie koi7ioiiia{or 
•♦fellowship" as they have it) from prayer and breahing bread, it is 
t:vidcnt he did not simply mean either communion or fellowship as 
a distinct part of the-CiirisLian practice or of their social worship. 

Thompson has chosen the word commumey. Tliis, though better 
than the t*^nufi4lowiibipf\3 too vague, and does not coincide with tli£ 
r:ont<-.xt, for Uie community of goods which existed in this congrc- 
i^ation is {dlerwaids mentioned by tlie historian apart from what he 
has ^ old us in the 42d verse — There can be ivo <>Vk^'tcXkw\> was^t ns* 
Hljc l*^;2i cQMibutlon^ either as an appxo\\iaw\.Vi msi^wS^'^^ >iw:.'v*isaw 


t.ii¥V7ta, or as bcingf suitable in this passap^e, which would require 
an elaborate rot\it:ition, and we shall, therefore, unhesitatingly 
adopt it as thoug^h king James' ti-anslators had given it here as tlic/ 
have elsfwli'-i-e. 

A» Christians, in tlieir individual and social capacity, are fre- 
qtiently exhorted by the apostles to contribute to the wants of the 
i>oor, to distribute to the necessities of the sunts: as the congrega- 
tion at Jerusalem continued stcdfastly in this institution; and as 
other congregations elsewhere were commended for these accepts 
able sacrilices, it in easy to see and feel, that it is incumbent on all 
<:hristians as tlicy have ability, and as circumstances require, to 
ti)llow their example in this benevolent institution of him who be- 
came poor, that the poor might be made rich by him. 

That every Christian congregation should follow the examples- 
ot those v/hich were set in order by the apostles, is, I trust, a 
pi*oi)0!>ition which few of those who love the Founder of the 
Christian institution, will question. And that the apostles did give 
orders to the congregations in Galatia, and to the Corinthians to 
Liakc a weekly contribution, for the poor saints, is a matter that 
cannot be disuutcd, see 1st Cor. xvi. 1. That the Christian con- 
^i ^"utions did then keep a treasury for those contributions, is, I 
conceive, evident from tne original of 1st Cor. xvi. 1 — which Mack- 
riight correctly renders in t*ie following words: — ^*«On the first day 
*jf evert' v/eet, let each of you lay somewhat by itself, according^ 
:;S lie may have prospered, putting it into the treasury: that when 
1 come there may be then no collections." 

Some who profess to follow the institutions of Jesus Christ «8 
tbund in the New Testament, do not feel it incumbant on them to 
make a w eekly contribution for the poor, and urge in their justifi- 
.. ation ?mong other excuses the two tollowing; 1st "In these UrSted 
States v.'c have no poor," and, in the seeona place; "It was only to 
i^ome churches, and with a reference to some exingenciesihat those 
irjimctions were published." The Saviour said, "The poor ye 
.have always with you," but, it seems, we have lived to see the (Uy 
v/Iicu this is not tnie, in the bounds of the new world. "But, says 
another, the poor clergy exact from us all that we can contnbutei 
aad all the cents which our mourning bags every week collect, are 
lost in this vast abyss! !" •''-/wo viroiitrs will not make one right** 

That some churches, on some pat-ticular occasions, were peeiir 
liarly ciilled upon to contribute every week for one definite object 
is no doubitnie, add that similar contingencies may require similar 
fxcitions now, as formerly, is equally true. 'But still tills docs not 
i-av thai it is only' on sucli occasions tliat the charities of Christians 
must be ktpt awake, and that they may slumber at all other times. 
Nor does it prove thut it is lio part of the Christian relig-ion to make 
conJtiint provision for the poor. Tliis would be to contradict the 
lete ,r und spirit of almost ;.ll the New Testament. For, in truth, 
God never did institute a religion on earlli, that did not look, with 
the kindest aspect, towards the pour, which did not embrace, as 
its beat gvod works, acts of Immunity and compassion.r—Iiv the- 
€lfit' of jadffment the worlds particu\avV/.<it\. aa o^ \ml^c%\. itxoAw^Tvc^v 


houses~~Ye hare founded colleges and endowed professorships--^ 
Ye huve educated poor pious youths and made them priests—- Ye 
gave your parsons good livings; but, Yc visited the sick, ye wkited 
on the prisoner, ye fed the hungT}'^, ye clotlicd the naked chris* 

But some excuse themselves by shewing their zeal for sound 
doctrine. "We," say they, "do not build colleges nor give fat liv* 
ings to priests.** No, indeed, you nciilier contribute to rich or pooiv. 
you do not g^ie to things sacred, or profane; you conununicate not- 
to the things of God, nor the. tilings of men. You keep all to your- 
selves^ Your dear wives and children engross all your charities. 
Yes, indeed, you are sound in faith, and ortliodox in opinion. But 
your good works are not legistercdin the book of God's remem-* 
berance, and there will be none of them read in the day of re- 

But this is not my desij^'n. The continbution^ the weekly contri- 
bution; the distribution to tlie poor saints, we contend, is a part' 
of the religion of Jesus Clirist. Dont be startled at this use of the 
term religion. We have the authority of an apostle for it, James 
says, "Pure and undefiled religion in the presence of God, even 
the Father, is tliis,-— viz. to visit (and relieve) the orphans and 
widows in their afflictions, and to keep unspotted by the vices of 
the world.** There is a sacrifice with wiiich God is well preased 
even now, when victims bleed no more. James has told it here, 
and Paul reminded the Hebrew christians of it. And when any 
one undertakes to shew that our present circumstances forbid our 
attending to a weekly contribution for the poor, whether in the 
congregation or out of it, wc shall undertake to shew that either 
we ourselves are proper objects of Christian charity, or we are 
placed in circumstances which deprive us of that reward mentioned 
in l^Iathew 25. And if there is need for private and individual act« 
of charily, there is more need for a systematic and social prepar- 
ation for, and exhibition of congregational contributions. But let 
it be remembered, that it is always <^uccepted according to what a 
man hatli, and not ajscording to what he hath not.'* 

1 shall close these remarks with an extract from one of the best 
fragitients of antiquity, yet extant, which was first publislied when 
Christians were under the persecutions of pagan Rome. It is from 
an apology of one of the nrst bishops, which being addressed to a 
Kofiian Emperor, shews the order of the Christian church before 
it was greatly corrupted. It is equally interesting as respects the 
weekly breaking of bread, and the w.eekly contribution. Justin 
Martyrs second apolog}', page 96 — **0n Sunday all Christians in the 
olty or country meet together, because that is the day of our Lord's 
lU surrection, and then we read the writings of the prophets and 
apObtles; this being done, the president makes an oration to the 
asienibly, to exhort them to imitate, and do the things they heard) 
'i'hen we uU join in prayer and after that we celebrate the suppcrl 
Then they that are able and willing give what they think 11:; and 
what is thus collected is laid up in the hands of iK^ v^t'^NjiK.v*.^ h;Vcv^ 
distributes it to orphaus and widova> ai^Oi Q>^t^ Ois^'^'ia^s^ 4.-^""^^^. 
wants require, '^ 


Would to licaTcn that all the congregatior.s in these United 
SUtef, approximated as nearly to th<; ancient order of things as 
^lid tliosc m behalf of u horn Justin M;iriyr addressed the Uuman 
i*.mperor not more tiian fifty years after tlie death of John the apos- 
Ucl Ed. 

BiBBOP A. Caxpbeli^ 

Dear Sir — IN reading" your "Christian Baptist" of October last, on 
"'Christian Union, No. 3," my attention ^ as particularly arrested and 
chrawn to a few statements on the doctrine of the '*Son of God.** 
The author, after having given us the liistory of the dispute be- 
tween Alexander and Anus, and the unhappy result of that dispute^ 
proceeds to state one of the most uncharitable sentiments I ever 
haw or heard. This appears to me the more strange, as proceed- 
in&p from the pen of one profeMing such liberal principles, and so 
kbly advocating the doctrine of Christian Union. 1 am heartily 
sorry that this, and a few other remarks of the writer ever found a 
place in your pages. The sentiments to which I allude is as fol- 

» **It is impossible for those, who entertain a reverential regard for 
the great God, not to be struck with the presumption of sinful, 
ignorant, erring mortals, who would dare to investigate a subject 
of such awful import, as the modue of the divine existence, and 
who would presume to go farther in the discovery of God, than 
he has revealed himself." p. 66, Have not tlie Presbyterians — 
have not the Hegular Baptists—rhave not most of the different 
iiects — have they not "dared to investigate the modus of the divine 
existence?" Have thev not "presumed to go further into tlie 
discovery of God than he has revealed himself?" Must certunly 
it is acknowledgecL For they assert in their creeds, that "*God 
exists in three persons, the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost; that 
the Father is of none, neither begotten nor proceeding; the Son 
is eternally begotten of the Father, and the Holy Gljost eternally 
proceeding from the Father arid the Son." 1 his is not merely an 
attempt to invetiigale, but to explain the modtia of divine exifrt- 
ence. This is certainly ^oing further into *'the discovery of God 
than he has revealed himself.*' But for this, must they all be 

. considered as having no revesential legard for God? If they had, 
Ihey would not dare— they would not presume to do it! Nay, more: 
1 hey would be struck to see another dure or presume to do it. 
The attempt to investigate the modiiM of divine existence, and to 
go beyond revelation, 1 cordially disap probate; but feel unwilling 
to proscribe all who have diired it. Your writer tells us, p. 67^ 
tiiat "in the western siates a very improfitable conti'oversy has 
«:xisted on this subject. If men could be content with tlie scrip- 
ture statement* o^ the nature and character of Christ, and could 
realize the fact that he was worshipped as God by inspired Apos- 
tles, and Christians, for which they sufiered death, and which was 
i.idee4 the first cause of their persecution; it would end all con- 
fj'oversy, und we should soon see a UT\\on oV^t\\Vvti.\t\\t Without 

tl/4e Ji^rceiucm thjit ChrLut is reaUv au (-bitc\. <ji \,v:ix^\iv^v ^\sl\Sk^t 


tOi\rs€ divine, there can never be Christian union between them.*** 
And is this, sir, ii;e end of all your labors to destroy authorita-. 
live ci'eeds and confessions, and anite Christians on the broad, un- 
erring base, of the Bible? Must we adopt this writer's creed, an 
authoritative creed tooj for without it, "there can never be Chris- 
tian union?" Permit me, sir, to take ft vitw of ifda creed, and 
make a few stricures on it. 

1. Men must be content with the scripture statements of the 
nature and character of Christ. 

2. They must realize the fact that he was worshipped as God by 
inspired Apostles and Christians. 

3. That the Apostles and Christians for worshipping^ Christ as 
God, suffered death. 

4. That their worshipping him as God was the first cause of 
their persecution. 

5 That believing these things would end all controversy, and 
produce union of sentiment. 

6. That without the agreement that Christ is really an object of 
worship, and is of course ivine, there can never be Christian 

Article 1. Men must be content with the scriptviral statements of 
the nature and character of Christ. 

Mlth this I agree; but your writer has in the following articles, 
fixed the doctrine of his nature and character, as being God and 
divine; and this in the supreme sense; for on the same page he 
says, "The worship of Christ always supposes and includes his 
godhead, in which the eternal, original, and essential dignity of 
bis person consists, lie also informs us on the same page, that 
this divine person, this person of eternal, original, and essential 
<li^ity, called the Logos, was made flesh, or conceived in the 
Virgin Maiy, and therefore called the Son of God; by which name 
he was never called till bom of Mary. p. 67. Now, sir, who can 
subscribe this article. Unitarians of every class reject it. Trini- 
tarians will never receive it; for they never will admit the soul- 
revolting, the heart-chilling idea of tho God Supreme being* con- 
ceived and born of a woman. Can men, thinking men, with the 
liiblc in their liand, be "content with your writer's statement of the 
natui*e and character of Christ." Impossible. '•It is presuming to 
go further in the discovery of God than he has revealed himself." 

^rt. 2. They must realize the fact that he (Christ] was worship- 
ped as God by inspired Apostles and Christians. 

This, though stated as a fact, we think needs proof; and until 
this can be brought from tlie Bible, we humbly deny it as a fact. 
We admit that he Was worshipped by inspired Apostles and Chris- 
tians, not as the only true God, but as the Son of the only true 
and living God. Ilim, who was obedient to the death of tlie cros^ 
lias God highly exalted, and given a name above every name, that 
every knee should bow, of things in heaven, in earth, and under 
thr earth; and every tongue confess him Lord to the glory of God 
the Father. PhU. ii. 6. Here is an obi^cl oS ^Qt^\C\v, ^^^ "^^"^"^^n 
worshipped, not only by inspired \\>oa\\e* uiv^ AiVxvaNx^^^ ^. 
mIso by sdl in heaven. Can any one; V5e\lC^'<i ^^^?^ ^i^^ '^'^'^ 


AFTEU almost all ihe poJiricul papers in the Western cotiTifnr 
had noticed the witlidrawil of the^4e g-entlemen from the Presbyte- 
rian Hi'.cu the editor of the Pittsburgh Recorder, '*the oniy reUgi- 
nn9 piipar in nint* s'a'es aiid /Artj^Memtories," n?inoini red the f^ct. 
And by wiy of comment, added the followinpf very sensible ana- 
thema: **lt IS said those mlnislers disown and oppose the Confes- 
sion of Faith and Form of Government of tlie Presbyterian Church 
in llie United States, and are actini^ on a disorg-anizlnfc plan, tend- 
ing to anarchy, and to open a wuy for the corruption of the church 
by the iu-jress of the most pernicions errors. '* 

Faithful centinel ! True to thyself and to thy cause! Hut tell me 
how Cometh it to pass, that when any one affirms that there is but 
one inf.illihle rule of faith antV practice, and that ther? is no use 
in adding to it ik fallihfe one, that in so doing he becomes an heretic, 
a disoru^anizer, an anarchist, a demon? And how is it, tell me, 
sage divine and sagacious watchman! that when any one affirms 
that we otight to have a fallible and imperfect rule of faith and 
j)ractice, he then becomes orthodox, sound, a friend of order and 
good rule, a saintP Does every one \vho says the scriptures are o^ 
divine authority, a revelation of God, and like their author perfect, 
and complete-— does every such one open the way for the corrup- 
tion of the church, and introduction of the most pernicious errors? 
But if your fallible rules are your wall of fire, your bulwark, and 
strong tower, why did they not keep such monsters as Messrs. 
Duncan and M*Clean from invading your dominions and drawing 
away so many disciples after them. Men who are so wicked as to 

day that the Bible is from Heaven, and your Confession from 

Fidinburgh. Men who are so impious as to affiim even within your 
sacred w»lls, and before your aM'ful tribunal, that' it is worse than 
farcical trifling to add to a perfect and infallible rule, an intperfect 
and fallible one. Men who are so obdurate as to say that your 
creeds began in error, were consummated by ignorance anr! super- 
stition, and ternunated in discord, division, hypocrisy, and perse- 
cutioti. Tell me these things, or rather tell the world, that they 
may see how wise, and good, and just you are, in consig^iing to 
infamy and perdition those unfortuuaie malefactors who had reso- 
lution to tliink correctly, and honesty and firmness to avow their 
convictions. When you have done these things, be assured we 
will join you in holding up to public scorn and contumely the above 
named gentlemen and all who espouse their sentiments. Till tJien 
you will have to pardon us for viewing your eflbrts as exactly in 
the spirit, and up to the model of the Romaniats ai^ainsi the 7'ro-. 
testants^ or of the Jewish Sanhedrim against the first promulgers 
of the Christian faith. Ed, 

•^,*WE earnestly request all our subscribers who know themselves 
to be in arrears, to make immediate payment to our agents, and 
that those agents from whom we have not heard since the com- 
mencement of the present volume, would, as soon as possible, remit 
to us, by msul, if no other opj>OT>\\n\ty offtT%. fecaAlerliv^ subscri- 
bers who live fnr from an agent, */U\p\caBe» «^ao^^w«itK^V^OKN- 
<^/e/ remit to up ' *h 

jV-«. r— Fo/. Ill] BUFFALOE, Feb. 6, 1826. [frhole A«. 3i 

Stifle no man on earth yo-ur Father; fw he alone t> yottr father -who 
t9 in heaven;- a7id all ye are brethren. Aseume not the title of Babln; 
for ye /uive only one teacher: — JSTeitJier atnttne the title of Leader; for 
ye have only one leader — the Messiah. 

[Mat. xxiii. 8 — 10. Campbell's Translaticn.] 

JProve all thing's: hold fast that xchich is good. 

[Paul the Apostle.] 

THIS is a time of relijjious and political earthquakes. The re- 
ligious communities of the new world, and the political states of 
the old world are in circumstances essentially the same. A great 
political earthquake threatens to bury in its ruins tyrants and their 
systems of oppression. The ecclesiastical systems of the clergy 
appear destined to a similar fate. It is to be hoped that as the new 

- world took the lead in, and first experienced the blessings of, u 
political regeneration; so they will be foremost in the work, and 
first in participating the fruits, of an ecclesiastical renovation. 

All sects, new and old, seem like a reed shaken by the wind. 
FiVen the authority and infallibility of his Roman Holiness has been 
questioned by his own children in the new world. And who 
that has eyes to see, does not know, that, nothing but the sove- 
reign charms of a monarch's smiles, and the strong chains foi*ged 
from 800 millions of dollars in real estate* keep up the forms of 
pope Eliza, in the church of saint Harry. The solemn league and 
covenant too, with the awful dogmas of the long parliament divin- 

' ty; the test-oaths, and the sacred subscriptions to the saving 
canons of the kings of saint Andrew, have failed to preserve, 
hale, and uncorrupted, the pale of Presbyterian '-communion. 
The veteran chiefs, and the sanctified magi of the cause of »iit- 

'formity fear a volcanic eruption, alike ominous to themselves and 
their systems. Their religious Almanacs portend comets, falling 
stars, and strange signs in the heavens, accompanied with eclipses 
of the greater and lesser lights that rule the titght. Their conaiitu- 
tion is moth eaten; and the tinsel upon their frame of discipline 
has become dim. 

And not less strange, the Reformation of John Wesley isalreatly 
in need of reform. His people . had scarce tested his system of 
government by the light, not of the bible, but of our political in- 
•titutions, until they ibund it would eventuate in diocesan episco- 
^^■"""^ ■ ^ 

•**Wealth of the Church of England.—// is stated in alatepapevj 
that the fee simple of the establisfied Church of England, is in value 
equal to 200,000,000/. or 888,888,888 dollars; which, allovnng 16 tlol- 
lars to a pound, would make 24,S0l toiu of .silver. With the iiicome 

■ of such a fund no -wonder the church is powerful and has its votartes, 
and can keep up ito existence ioithout possessing any true reUgivn, 



pacy; as tyrannical and as crael as that which exiled Whitefieldand 
the two Wesleys from the cloisters of "CArirt'» college" for read- 
ing the scriptures and praying. 

The motto of the spirit of this age seems to be taken from the 
gigantic Youngs — 

**FUivs in the best; full many Jlawwall o*er** 

The Methodists, in the greatness of their strength are rising to 
break the chains which threaten to bind them in the house of the 
Philistines. A host of reformers are about to refo*'m this reformed 
system. We have seen their eflTorts and rejoice. Though we are 
assured that when they shall have completed their projected re- 
formation, they will then need a reform more thorough than 
yet they have attempted, we do not despise **their day of small 
things " 

The following sensible remarks do honour to a work entitled 
**The Mutual Rights of Ministers and People," published in Balti- 
more by a Reforming Methodist Committee. We have onl}/ to 
add, that we have lamented that none seem to regret the evils of 
bigotry^ partiality f and persecution , vntil they- feel their dire effect9s 
and that, sometimes, those toho have once plead against perse cutidn^ 
•when themselves were the objects, plead for it -w/ien they had the 
sword by Jl heir side. 

But we give place to the following pertinent remarks. They 
are extracted from number XIV. Page 28— -31. £«/. 

"SERIOUS reflection may convince us all, that re- 
formation is highly necessary, not only in matters of 
church government, but even in our general views of 
experimentai and practical religion. Let us instance 
one or two particulars. 

"While the ministers of religion have been crying 
aloud, and very justly, agamst pride, and eovtatunestj 
and sensuality^ and many other evils; how is it that the 
great evil of bigotry has been nourished in the heart of 
the Christian church, as though it were an innocent or 
an indifferent thing? By bigotry^ is meant Aman^s oS* 
stinate attachment to an opinion^ or set of opinions^ tohich 
indisposes him to give a candid hearing to any thing the^ 
and makes him unwilling that his brother should have 
the same liberty of judgment which he claims for him" 
self This is one of the deepest and most violent roots 
of moral evil. It is a great and seemingly insurmount* 
able obstruction to the progress of truth and righteous* 
ness over the whole earth. In affords nourishment and 
defence for Infidelity^ Mahometanism^ Paganism^ Juda^ 


isMy and for every other erroneous system under the 
sun Its practical fruits also are abundant. It may be 
doubted whether covetousnesSj or sehstMLlity^ or the love 
cf power ^ or the love of praise^ have produced a more 
plentiful harvest of internal and external ungodlines.% 
than this bitter enemj/ sf ail rigkitownesSj which Zion^s 
Watchmen appear almost to have overlooked. For let 
it be considered that this same bigotry is the parent of 
almost all the evil surmisings, heart-burnings, rash 
judgments, hard speeches, oppressions, and persecu- 
tions that can be found in the Christian -^vorld. It not 
only makes null and void the argumtnts of an opponent, 
but, alas! it boldly impeaches his motives, and assails 
his moral character. Not only talents to go for 
nothing, — not only are his labours to be despised; — but 
his virtue and piety, —his zeai and heavenly mindedness, 
though supported by an unblameable life- — all, all 
must be disposed of with indifference or contempt, by 
the high, and bitter, and sovereign dictates of bigotry! 
And yet this dark and dreadful evil is not only winked 
• at, but nourished in* the hearts of all the churches in 
Christendom! Would to heaven this were a mistake! 
but alas! the evidence is too manifest, that every 
cnurch^ipon' earxh greatly needs a reformation in this 
particular. Infidels, and Mahometans, and Heathens, 
and sinners of every description, may look on with as- 
tonishment, and see Christians of every name, through 
the influence of this evil principle, animated with a 
more constant und flaming zeal against each other, than 
against the spirit of hell, and all the works of darkness! 
And yet many seem not to be aware, that it is to be re- 
garded as a moral evil! Some perhaps, may be.f('und 
making high professions of justification and sanctiflca- 
tion, and at the same time habitually nourishing this 
rcot of bitterness in their hearts! This is a mystery of 
mysteries; andean only be accounted for by supposing 
that a thick cloud of intellectual darkness has been 
overspreading the t^hristian world, especially upon this 
subject For a candid and faithful examination of the 
matter must surely convince every intelligent mind, that 
it is as perfectly vain for a confirmed bigot to make 
professions of holiness^ as for a coufit\Ki^41lv.\tJ Vi \siS!Jij^ 
B profession of Aanestjf, 


'•Whcfhcr partialiiy must be regarded as the daughter, 
or as the sister of bi<^otrjr, may perhaps bear a dis- 
pute; but as they hare the' striking and ideQtical like* 
nes« of twins J we may safely call tliem sisters. The 
just definition of partiality, is: 7%e confined affection 
nnd confidence which a man has Jhr his ojtn porty^ and 
irhich produces a corresponding dtsaffectiou and distrust 
Imvards all others. How lovely, in the estimation of 
surh a man, are all the peculiarities comprehended 
•indcr the particular ww, by which he and his party are 
riistinguished! ' And how dark and doubtful is all beside! 
IVhile his mind is amusing itself in surreying the vast 
beauties of his party, and inimitable excellencies of its 
plan, the rioud which obscures the horizon of every 
other, appears to grow darker every hour? His feelings 
are sublime and inexpressible; and perhaps advance 
almost to that state of devotion which is due alone to 
the Deity, who«e only plan is unexceptionable, and 
vbo has no parly under the sun. Now as God has no 
party^ and as his ministers are to do nothing by partial' 
itrj^ and, a^ the wisdom which is from above is without 
parllatity^ as well as without hypocrisy^ we might almost 
i*s WkiU ijouui ivbfthor hypocrisy be amoral evil, as to 
doubt whether parliality be such. And yet, alas! how 
has this great evil been spared in- the Christian world! 
And not only spared, but the presumption is, that both 
it and bigotry have been protected and encouraged, as 
the c;reat champions and defenders of each sectarian 
oause. They make a man zealous and decided; they 
make him resolute and courageous! Yes, and let it be 
added, Ihey make him uncandid, fierce, dop;matical 
and blind. They are as fine and acceptable allies for a 
Jew or a Twrk — for a Pagan or an Atheist— as they 
arc for a sectarian Christian. 

'•Let us survey, a little farther, these evil disppsitions 
in human nature, that we may judge of them by their 

"Frst, consider ^heir effects within any religious de- 
nomination. They say to the soul of every member, 
Fo far shall you go in jour meditatiofts, and no farther: 
^our business 5^ not fo enquire what is /rwe, but merely 
to eLquire frhaf are the senUm^ivU ol o\ix ^.Vvwtch.^ that 

^ BAPTIST. ui 

you may defend them to the end of the world. You 
are not only to avoid contradicting them, but you are 
to make no addition to them; because our lovely plan 
is not only (Vee from errors, but also contains the whole 
body of truth completely. Vou must silence every 
heretical thought of improvemmt^ and merely walk ia 
the good old way^ as we have pointed it out to you. 
Thus, whatever error may be ia the' church, it seems, 
it must be held fast to eternity. The intellectual facul« 
ties of the members must be hampered, and their hearts 
corrupted, by doing violence to honest conviction, and 
by warping both reason and revelation into the pale of 
tbeir. sectarian boundaries. And even the truth itself is 
hindered by these evils from producing its nUtive and 
salutarv effects: for truth, when b&lieved merely with the 
faith of bigotry, is liitle better than error. Its evidence 
IS not examined, and its value, as truth, is not appre- 
ciated;, but merely its stibaerviency to the support of our 
beloved cause. For if we made our cause subservient 
to the truths instead of making the tnuth subservient to 
it^ we should be willing for our churches to follow the 
truth wheresoever it might lead the way. 

' Secondly, consider their effects upon the djffer<>nt 
denominations, in their relation to each other. We 
stand with surprize and wonder, to behold the errors 
and absurdities of other denominations: they stand 
-with equal surprize and wonder, to behold the errors 
aud absurdities of ours: while the true cause of won- 
der is, that each party cannot see that they are ail 
iiolding fast the same identical error, namely, thein/a/- 
libility of our own party. One party enjoins on all its 
members, to defend every thing here, and to oppose 
every thing there; the other party does the same : thus 
the enquiry, What is truth'? is neglected and laid aside* 
Cue says there is no religion with you\ and another, 
tUtre is no religion with you. One says, that is a 
dumnable heresy; and the other says, that is a damna- 
ble heresy. One wonders at the blindness and obsti- 
nacy of />ts people; the other wonders at the blindness 
and obstinacy of that people: while all heaven pities 
the scitibh vanity of man, aud all hell is pleased with 
our destructive and ridiculous coiidacL" 



AMIDST the indiscriminate .usage and application oi 
the term bigotry it is not uncommon to find it Tery un* 
warrantabij applied. It is used to excite public odium 
where the thing which it is used to represent is no way 
disgusting. Hebce some are called bigots, and accu* 
Bed «T bigotry, for rt^jecting all written creeds except 
the Bible, for being strict in worshipping God accord* 
to his commaudmeuts; for requiring the i&embers of a 
Christian community to obey God rather than men. 
Anil I have known infidels accuse a Christian church 
of bigotry because they would not retain in their fellow- 
ship immoral persons-^or persons who denied the Iior4 
that bo'jght them, and those who, in the apostles esti- 
matioa, denied the faith and were worse than an infidel. 
Those who dislike the institutions of the Messiah are 
often found reproaching those with bigotry y who lore 
and obey them. Indeed, there is no term, whether re- 
ceived in a good or a bad sense, tiiat may not be most 
•gregiously misapplied. Ed. 

mmioio: — 


IN the Long Run Association, Kentucky, reporting 
90t)4 members, at the last annual meeting, the 1st Friday 
in September last, in Bullit county; a circular letter 
written by P. S Fall, Bishop of the church in Louis* 
vilie, in said state, advocating; the Scriptures as the 
one only suffiK-Unt^ perfect, and infallible rule of Christian 
faith and manners^ was rejected by the casting vote of 
Elder George Wail r, moderator of said meeting. It 
is nut a little remarkable that the moderator, a descend- 
ant of the Wallers of Virginia, once persecuted by the 
friends of an orthodox creed, should have saved this 
little relic of Papal Rome from the sepulchre of human 
traditions, ju&t m the same manner as his prototype, Dr* 
Lightfoot, saved infant sprinkling in the Westminster 
Assembly. The house was equally divided on both oc- 
^jts/onsj and the moderalors uv Vh^ ^«m^ isx^imer^ and 


fbr the same reasons, sayed their faTorite relics. A 
haadsome way, indeed, of establishing orthodoxy! 
Might aol only makes wri>ng right^ but changes error 
into inUk, The minority had the proscribed letter pub- 
lished; and we are happy in being able to lay before our 
readers a few sketches of it We are sorry that our 
limits fort^id more lengthy extracts. 

Hi is not unfrequently said, by word of mouth, as 
well as in creeds, that ^^the word of God is the anly^ 
and the $ufficient and per/isc^ rule of faith and practice.'' 
While this is admitted in word by all religious denomina* 
tions, it is to be feared that but few feel the force, or 
understand the import of their own declaration. Let 
them but critically examine every part of this sentencef 
and while it appears m direct accordance with the word 
itself; it is in complete violation of the practice of almost 
ail; for if the declaration be true, that the *^word of 
God" is the only^ tufficient. and. perfnct rule in ali, 
things pertaining to belief or conduct, why are creeds^ 
confessions, and human formulas of doctrine, practice, 
government, and experience established as the exclu* 
sive tests of all, to the manifest deterioration of the 
Bible, while churches rest contented with the bare do* 
claration of its sufficiency.'' 

^'In illustration of the importance of the Holy Bible^ 
permit us to examine the position that ^Hhe word of 
God^* is the only sufficient and perfect rule of our faith 
and practice J*^ 

"We observe, first: It is "/Ac rule effaith.'^ When 
we speak of ^'faith," we do not allude to a system of 
doctrine, in the common acceptation of the term, but 
to the very facts and truths which must be believed in 
order to salvation. It is supposed to be of very little 
importance, whether a man be a Calvinist or Arminian ; 
whether he adopt the Gillite, Fullerite, Hopkinsian, or 
Triangular system of Calvinism; or whether he reject 
all, (these systems themselves being judges:) so that be 
believe the ^^record God has given ot his Son,'' and 
move in obedience to the truth ; so that his ^'experience'' 
coincides with the Bible: all is then supposed to be 
right, whatever system he adopts. No'w vV^^x^'x-^^ xs^^^y- 
fest inconsistency between the Iyto ^^VAol^xaViV*"^^ 


sis; for all these sjsteois propose tfaemselres to us as 
true, yet they are all contrary, the one to the other; 
and if really thus at ?ariance, and persons^ of equal 
iotelli3:ence, and supposed piety be found among their 
advocates —how can ail believe the record God^ has 
siven of bis Son. when all believe things so different? 
flow can ail move in obedience to the truth, when. all 
move different ways? How can all have experiences co- 
incident with the Bible, when all have experiences co- 
incident with the systems they maintain, thus at variance 
with each other^ Tn fact, it is absurd to distinguish 
between a man'i Jaith^ and what he believes^ between a 
man's experience, and what he knows — ^for faith is be- 
lief, experience is knowledge.** 

*'Sdly. They are the only rule of both. As our faith 
and conduct are so intimately connected, that if the 
former be defective, the latter must be so of conse- 
quence—it is of vast importance to us that there be 
some definite standardj by which to measure both, and 
ascertain their character. If there were more rules 
than one, and all agreed, all but onef would be unneces- 
sary; and if they disagreed, no one could ascertain 
which had the highest claim on our attention; we there- 
fore should be left without any. There can, therefore, 
be but one only, infallible standard of faith and practice; 
and this must be supported by evidence, internal and 
external, sufficient to prove its truth. It is not for us 
now to enter upon the consideration of the evideLces 
of the inspiration of the Holy Bible; but there is one 
which demonstrates it to be that one only, and infallib'e 
rule. It is the plainest book in the world. It is better 
adapted to all capacities ih&n a;>y other; and^ as the 
Confession of F li h says, ''anyone with ordinary sense 
can understand it." When we read the Bible, we are 
often apt to look for some dark hidden meanirii^, which 
n jne but the preach»^rs are supposed capable of under- 
standing; ^and hence the necessity of a special call and 
tho conimunlcatloo of p^jculiar powers from on high:) 
but il is abundantly clear that the mccnm^ of every part 
of the JVhw Tistanunt is to bi osartain-d by an attentive 
study not (tily of what is wrilicn, but wiiv it vas unit- 
/tf/ij and that the literal and oOinous mt cuing (ff words 


and phrases is the fa*tie meaning of ihose, employed in the 
c4)mmunication of divine truths?^ 

''We observe, .4thly, that the word of God is the on/y 
stFFiciENT rule of faith and practice. 

'4f we were to suppose that ft were Id sufficient, 
should we not ar^ign the wisdom and benerolence of 
heaven? If Jehovah could have given a sufficient rule 
of faith and practice, and would not do it — what ideas 
could we form of his benevolence? If his benevolence 
would have prompted him to give a sufficient rule, and 
he could not do it, he is of necessity deficient in wisdom; 
but he has given \X9 the holj volume and ha« declared it 
to be sufficient — "able to make us wise unto salvation," . 
to give us "an inheritance among all them which are 
sanctified," and "to save our souls." James i 21. Now 
every attempt to attach impurtaiice to any other rule 
than this, is evidently a blow aimed both at the wisdom 
and benevolence of God; since these have furnished us 
with the Holy Bible^ and we lay it aside, to examine our- 
selves, our brethren and christian churches, by the 
works of men^s hands; creeds and confessions of faith, 
and by these determine who is orthodox or the contrary. 
These things may palatable, brethren, but they 
aire lamentably true, and require our most serious con- 

'Lastly,. the word of God is the only suffieient and 
FEBFECT rule of faith and obedience. 

'^ 1 o suppose that God would communicate to bis 
creatures any revelation tiiat is imperfect, would shock 
all common sense. The denunciations against those 
who add to, or take from the holy volume, demonstrate 
that it needs neither increase nor diminution. All that 
God intends to reveal to the children, of men, is to be 
found in the Bible. No new revelation need be expect- 
ed, nor is one requisite, since all things necessary to 
know, to believe, and to do, in order to salvatioO) are 
given us already.*'— — 


We are happy to discover in the minutes of said asso- 
ciation, the progress of principles which augur a growing^ 
regard for, and investigation of, the infallible rule of' 
faith and pvActice^ as the foUowiug\\.^ta^ ^Yw^v^" 


"' Q*/«ry fr&m Elk Creek^U it for the honor of the 
cause of Clirist, that all ordained Baptist preachers be 
called Bishops? If not, who are to be so named? 

In reply to this querj we state: that it was evidently 
the practice in the first churches to denominate the 
pastor of one congregation a Bishop. It is also clear 
that the terms elder, shepherd, teacher, and overseer, 
all^efer to the same persons, 

It is therefore accordirg to the word of God, and for 
the honor of the cause of Christy that the teacher of 
one. congregation be called a Bishop. 

The following Queries from the church at Louisville 
were referred to the churches for their investigation^ 
with the request that they will express their seutiments 
upjott them in their next letters. 

1. Is there any authority id the New Testament for 
religious bodies to make kumtu/^creeds and confessitma of 
^ ffLtth the constitutions or directorits of such bodies ia 
matters of faith or practice? 

2 Is there any authority in the New Testament for 
Associations? If so, what is it? If not, why are they 

The following Query from the church at Shelbyviile 
is also referred as above, namely: Are our Associa- 
tions, as annually attended, of general utilityT^ 


AFTER all that has been said on this subject, there 
is not* a sect in this country, of which we have heard, 
that has a confession of faith, properly so called. They 
have books and pamphlets, which th^y call by this 
name, and by which they impose upon themselves, and 
upon one another. If it be not too late, we would 
give them a true^ and proper name, a name which we 
are assured every man of good sense, and of common 
.education must apprtive, as well as agree to discard the 
common name as a misnomer, as incorrect, and as ab« 
8urd. The proper name (-^f those instruments, is| 
doubtless, according to the English language — A don* 
fs89ion of Opinions; or Confessions of (pinions. If 
ihere be any oifTerence between faith and opinion, (and 
Aat there % ail langu^|^e« 8lu& &£M\Q!ii^^^ ^^^V^x^V 


(hen the name we haye given them is perfectly appropos, 
and their common name perfectly incongruous. 

Titers i 

le hf.lie 

Dpininn..^ ^ _, , 

tht mind forms of ativ thing " For example, I bel' 
tbo testimony which God ha« gveu to Jesus of Nazareth, 
or I bp.'i-^ve that J e^' us of Nazareth is the Messiah, the 
Sofl of the Living God This is ii'weil attested fact, in 
proof of which the Father, the Word, and the Holy 
Spirit have given, or asjrpe in, one testimony. Conccru- 
ing this person, his mission, and character, varioos 
opinions ma^ ,be fornied -—AD things testified of him 
are aiticlesor ifems of belief: and all iriel^w, judgme its, 
or notions formed of the things testified, are mH?tpp8 
of opinion. Now all the abstract views of God and 
man, of things present and -future^ with which, these 
confessions are replf-te, are matters of opinion,* and as 
ihe general charactrr of these books should ^x upon 
them their name, they should be styled ('onfe^^loiis of 
Opinions— To speak philosophically / btlieve what is tps- 
tified« / know what I have observed or experienced, and / 
am of opiniop in all things speculative. It is true in one 
tense, f may be said to knoio what T have believiid, 
when my faith has been proved by observation and ex- 
perience. But the terms faitk^'^^ knowledge, and /]|miivn» 
should never be onfounded. I btlieve that .f«'sus 
Christ died for our sins, I knaw that the sun givits us 
light, and. I am of opinion that all infants dying shall be 

A person's faith is always bounded by testimony- 
his knowledge by observation and experience, und 
his opinions commence where both these terminnte, 
and may be boundless as^God^s creation, or as hijii.:in 
invention. Perfect freedom and liberty should b« 
granted to all opinions— The faith of Christian«i should 
be guarded and circuni<cribed"by the* revelati«m of l^od, 
and every man's knowledge admitted to beco-exfenifve 
with his observation and experience. In matter* tS 
this world those distinctions are realised and act'^d iip«n 
every day.— A. killtd B.— C. bejievct it, D. Wiw* \i\ 
UndE. is of opinion ihatA. luUeAtt.— Vi. \HeXw«VK\N.N«^ 


,be true, because three credible persons hare sworn tbit* 
ihej, saw him do it. D. one of the three witnessei^, .. 
knows it to he true, because he saw it done. And £. 
who Beither heard the testimony, nor saw the deed, but 
from some circumstances detailed to him, is of opinion 
that it is true. These distinctions are, we presume, 
.evidently correct A superficial reader may object that 
Thomas is said to have believed what he saw. But those 
who attend to all the circumstances will see that he be- 
lieved the testimony which he had before heard, when 
certain evidences were presented to bis pyes. fn this 
sense the term may, by even correct speakers, be often 
used. But enough is said to suggest a trai^n of reflect- 
ions which must issue in the conviction that our confess- 
ions of faith are confessions of opinions,and as such ought 
to have nothing to do with the union, communion, and 
harmony of Christians. — There is one faith, says tbe 
apostle, but no where, in the volume, is It said, there is 
one opinion. Every new religious establishment, found- 
ed upon one opinionj will come to ruin, as all the past 
have done, and as all the present are doing. But the 
^ates of Hadps shall not prevail against those who build 
-on the onefaithj which is beautifully and properly called 
^ihe Rock. Ed. 

THE following Epistle is from a brother who happened to be in 
Baltimore when the Synod sat that decided the case of Messrs. 
Duncan and McLean, We had requested him to forward us an 
account of the proceedings, upon the hypothesis of his being 
there at that time:— 

Saturday mormn^, lOtA December. 
iMy Dear Brother^ 

I SUPPOSE you feel as if I liad forgotten you and my own 
promise beside. I hate apologisings, whether offered rr demand- 
ed, for reasons various and plain. The "Synod" had hardly closed 
their proceedings, when the prominent features of their acts and 
decrees were visible in every news-letter, sacred and profane, that 
. circulates over this vasty continent. These sources of inftmnation 
I knew were open to you in a variety and to an extent far exceeding 
any means I possessed, of even jud^ng as to the matter before tbe 
public. Enaless disputes have arisen as to the ecclesiastical con- 
stitutionality of the mode of proceeding against Messrs. D — and 
'M*L — ; and in fact any means and measures have l>een thought 
useful by the clergy, that might divert the public attention and 
mve the priesthood from the necessity of argumg out the qtiestion 


of creeds and confessions in an open and iiitellig-ible fashion. They 
dare not touch it at all. Any attempt to defend the standards, 
implies some necessity for the effort — it mig*ht lead somebody or 
other to inquire what had been said ag-ainst the **holy thing"*' — 
Whenit was touched and fingered by profane laymen, it would" be- 
come "common," and that is but one step from being* "unclean" — 
and thus, from one thing to another, until the people might reject 
creeds and standards as allied to old vnvea' fables. O, flear sir! it 
will never do to permit the people to read the Bible for them- 
selves, with the iaea in their mmds that they are able to understand 
the things written in the Book. It is awfully dangerous to both 
soul andbody — to both clergj* and laity — ^to both church and Htatc. 
For example, who does not know that unless a roan is perfectly 
indoctrinated and established in the orthodox faith by a familiar and 
reverential acquaintance w^ith the standards of his churcli, that by 
reading* the Sacred Oracles, he is almost certain to form opinions 
and imbibe principles adverse to the order and sentiments of his 
church. Of course he endang-ers his own soul in the esthiiution of 
Christ's ambassadors, while he endang^ers the body of his priost by 
ceasing* to bring his offering into God's house. He is by this lime 
fit for the lesser excommunication. By and bye, his eyes wliic'i 
have too curiously presumed to look within the veil of "mystery," 
have become so dim that he cannot see the "consecrated line of 
ordination" which dist]ng*uishe8 lietween the private members of 
the church and the successors of the Apostles, lie begins to talk 
as if all the saints were God's clergy or "heritage," and through a 
zeal for the Bible, without a knowledge of the doctrines of his 
church, he destroys the venerableness and sacredness of almost 
every thing belonging to the kingdom of the clergy. Alas! how 
fallen from his first estate. He begins to disbelieve v/hat even 
Doctors in Divinity publicly preacli, and prove too by itxts and 
parallel passages. He doubts the efficacy of holy water, whether 
used in sprinkling bells or babes. He throws on the authority of 
reformers and confessors. The piotu and experimental of ull de* 
uomlaations think him a sort of Deist. The clergy are sure he is 
either crazy, or has committed the '^unpardonable sin." The 
•*world" consider him an oddity, only fit to be laughed at and de- 
spised, and every body is ashamed to be of his acquaintance. 

It is now high time to subject him to the greater excommur.icii- 
tion. It is fit and proper to deliver such an one to tlie Devil, seeing 
he is in league witji the Devi!; a circumstance which admits of fuU 
proof, froTi) the fact that he understands so much Scripture and 
can quote it so readily, and yet all of it is against Uie roinistej and 
the sealing ordinances, and against missions and the god of missions. 
It would tire you, did I follow tliis reprobate any farther in his 
downwanl course. "Enough has been said to show even you your 
imminent danger, and to prove the danger arising from the princi- 
ple that the laity should read, and may understand the Bible for 
themselves. No, no, sir, the religious sects and establishments of 
our day cannot subsist without creeds and confessions. It v& <v^\Vi 
and madness to think of being a 'Pres\i^'XfeT«siN«\S>i^vi\iX^\^^^^'^* 

14 ^ 


minster Confession, or of being an Episcopalian without the Prayer 
Book, Every sect must have its platform — and if human legisla- 
tion be suspended in any society, there will remain but one alter- 
native. They either will be selfndestroyed by carnal agitations and 
disappear; or they must adopt the order, form, institutions, and 
similitude of the primitive apostolic church of Christ. 

Before I close, it is required by mercy to you and such as you, 
tliat I add — You see how the reprobate descrioed above, falls from 
grace into the unpardonable sin, that cannot be forgiven either in 
this world or the world to come — and yet there is hope^ If such a 
one repent of his opinions, renounce his conscience, conceal his 
sentiments, and return unto the clergy, they will abundantly 
pardon. These are, or ought to be, glad tidings to ifon, whose uns 
(as proven by your Christian BapHtt) are in number as the hairs of 
your head. Let me repeat it, even foryow, upon the forementioned 
terms, there is hope. Bat if you persevere in your opposition to 
the ecclesiastical policy of the day, rest assured that your sin will 
not be forgiven, neither by the clergy of this generation nor of 
t^hat which is to come. Your doom is wofiil to anticipate, if there 
be any virtue in the anathemas of the priesthood, who have been 
so long praying that the "wandering Star" might fall from its 
orbit, and be baptized af^er his own mode in the blackness of 
darkness for ever. 

"But fare you weel, auld J^ickie-benf 

*-0 wad ye tak' a thought and ment 

**Ye aibUns might — I dinna ken— 
"Still hae a atakef 

"I'm wae to think upon yon den, 

**E'en for your sake." 

R, B. 

BooNK CorjTTT, MissotjRT, Novcmber 23d, 1825. 
To the Editor of the Christian Baptist, 
J^ear Sir — I take my pen m hand to inform you that your influ- 
e>ce is much injured in this country among the United Baptists, 
throug'h a report that you belong to the Unitarians, and that you 
yourself are one. This report has been circulated by the Unitarians 
in this country. Feeling tolerably well satisfied that you are not, 
T have laboured considerably to prevent a belief of this kind. But 
not having seen any thing in your writings decisive on that topic, 
liave not been able to keep the people from harbouring a suspicion 
that you may be an Arian or Unitarian. 

You will please do yourself the justice, and me the pleasure, of 
informing me of your standing; that is, what society you are iiv 
and your belief of our glorious Redeemer. 
■ I remain yours in gospel bonds, 

T- T. 

Dear Brother, 

YOUH favour of the 23d November was duly received; but 
-wjp- tiumcroua and multiform engageTOettVa\iv\Xi^tv» prevented my 

BAPTIST. ' 159 

replying to it; and I now do it through a medium tliat may prevent 
the necessity of my having frequently to furnish such replies. Many 
heresies and errors are ascribed to me by those wlio are interested 
in keeping the people in ignorance and bondage. Tiieonly favour 
that I ask of tl^c public is, lo accept my own statements and avow- . 
als of my sentiments, instead of the raihngs of my opponent!*, 
who, because of their own imbecihty, or that of tlicir cause, tind 
it more easy to defame than to reftite. And of all calumniators, 
they do it with the most effect, and are consequently most obnox- 
ious to reproof, who commend that they may defamt;' wlio say *sucli 
a sentiment is true, and in this he is undoubtedly right, but* ((.)! 
the tremendous wct) *he is a Socinian, br an Ariun.' 

None of these pulpit defamcrs cr fireside ti*aducers dure, tlirough 
the same medUun through wliich I publish my scntinunts> pubhsli 
their shmders and defamations. But by their more private inuen- 
docs and reproaches, and by uliole phalanxe«of omnipotent buU^ 
like moles, work under gi-ownd, and bury themsel\ cs and their 
followrra in the heaps they raise. 

In different rej/ions in thia vast country tlicy use different 
slanders. Their ^^enernl rule appeors to be this; whatever seems 
to be the most odious heresy in t!»e neighbourhood Is placed to my 
credit. Thus, in one place 1 am a Socinian; in another, an Arian; 
in i third, a Trinitarian; in some places I am all at once an A:mi- 
iiian; in others, a Calvinist. Here a Pclaj^iun; and there an A:;ti- 
nomian. Yonder I aman Univtrsalist, and elsewliere a Sabellian. 
If t^i'^so calumnies were drawn from what I have spoken <^r writicn, 
I »' oiild at oi.ce compliment myself aa a very close follower of 
Paul. For as all these sectaries conteml t)»at Paul favours his 
heresy, if any one teaches a// Paul taught he will bti as likely to be 
represented as favouring these heresies as Paul himself is. Thus 
with the Methodist, Paul is a Methodist; wit]» the Calvinist, he is a 
Calvinist; with the UniversaiisT, he is an Univers-dist; and with the 
Socinian, Paul is said to have been a Socinian, &c &c. But if 
none but Calvinists approved my course, or if none but Arminians 
censured me, I would conclude that I had disowned Paul. For tu 
me it is certain, if any man teach all that Paul taught he will 
sometimes be approved by all, and sometimes blamed by all. There 
is no sect that does not contend for some things Paul taught. It is 
therefore, most apparent, that he who is appro\ed bv one sect 
only, is, ipiofuctOy proved to be a setter forth of somt' new doc- 
trine, or a retailer of some aniiqua.ted error. 

But the misfortune is that I cannot enjov the a])ove compliment 
in full, because I know that the rule of slander most generally ap- 
proved is, to accuse me of holding that error or heresy which is 
most damnable in the estimation of those amongst whom it is 
circulated. And wlien tlils will not sen-e tlie purpose, even mv 
moral character is assuded. In Kentucky, some time after mv 
debate with Mr. ^d'Callu, it was reported that I had stolen u home.- 
and not long since, in Illinois, it was said that [ was excommtinicatcd 
for drunkenness. Not far from Lake Erie I was «4\viVvi\viM^\N2ctvvv.'\ 
Deist, and by those loo, whobougV.*, \>Ae\i ^ttvv\v>xvE.\\\\iVis\.^w., 'i^^v 


t'endtUtm in Ohio; and in many places, that I was known to be an 
"f-zYrfWif/r/ immoral man** in my own vicinity. In feet, as a Doctor 
fft Divinity told his people near Lexineton, I am a very bad man in 
t)ic estimation of many, and it would afford them a satisfaction 
which 1 trust they will never enjoy (and yet it is eruel on my part 
to deprive them of Jt) to be able to publish my fall and ruin to the 
utmost bounds of thisurion. I am sure of it. They would rejoice 
to be able, with some decree of plausibility, to accuse me of some 
hi^h misdemeanor. For their own deeds and lispings avow it. 
I'hat I am not a Socinian you may see by tuminp;' over to No. 8, 1st 
volume C. E, And as you know I have no faith in the Divine nght 
of Associations; yet, to shield me from such far-off and wder' 
hand attac!:s, as well as for other important purposes, that I may 
he under the inspection and subject to merited reprehension, 1 and 
tlie cliurch with which I am connected are in **fuU comtnunton" 
with the Mahoning" Baptist Association, Ohio; and through them, 
with tlic whole Baptist Society in the United States; and I do 
intend to continue in connexion with this people so long as they 
will permit me to say what I believe, to teach what I am assured of, 
ftiul to censure what is amiss in their views or practices. I have no 
idea of adding tu the catalogue of new sects. This game has been 
]iJayed too long". I labour to see sectarianism aboushed, and all 
rhrisiiaiis of every name united upon the One. foundation on which 
f I'.e ApciLiOiic church was founded. To brii)g Baptists and Paido- 
H:iptists to this is my s;i]>rcme aim. But to connect myself witb 
uir: people who would require me to sacrifice one item of revealed 
truth, to subscribe any creed of human device, or restrain me 
<rom publisliing my sentiments asiliscretion and conscience direct, 
is now, and I hope ever shall be, the farthest from my desires, and 
llio most incompatible with my views. And I hope I will not be* 
nccuaftd of sectarian pai'tiality when I avow my conviction that tho^ 
Jhiptist Society have as muLii i:i^»'s'«i»y in their views, as muok of 
tl'.e' ancient simplicity c-f the Christian religion, as nmcU cf the 
sjiirit of Christianity amonf>st them, as is to be found amongst any 
other people. Tosuy nothing of the things in which they excel, 
this may be siiid of them without prejudice to any. An^ thut they 
have always been us eminent friends of civil ana religious liberty 
usanv sect in Christendom, will not, 1 presume, be denied by any. 
Biit tliat there avc amongst them some mighty Jfe^^tlura, who are 
as int(Pera)U ns the great FontifT of regularity and good order, no 
pvrsdu will deny. Ai.d that there is \n the views and practices of 
this large and widely extended community, a g^cat need of refor- 
maticM, and of a restoration cf the ancient onler of things, few 
V. ill contradict. In one thing, perhaps, they may appear in time 
to come, ])roudlv singular, and pre-emmently disting^iishcd, 
Mark it well. Their historian in the year 1900, may s:iy, "We are the 
only people who wouM tolerate, or who ei^er did toUrrate, any per- 
son to continue as a Reformer or a Restorer amongst us. While 
other sects excluded all who woidd have enlarged their views 
and exalted their virtues; while every Jerusalem in Christendom 
atoned its own prophets, andeuledlts own beat friends, and com- 
pclJcd them to set uf for themselves, w^ cou?AA\^\.<i MXvt qv\^ ^^ 


<ef>tion of thh) kind in the annals of Christianity; nay, in the annals 
of the world." I think it is not a very precarious perhapty that 
this may yet be said of this ancient and singular people. But 
should it come to pass, that neither tliey nor any other people cao 
say this of themselves, then most assuredly, if ever there be a 
united and a happy state of the church upon this earth, if ever 
there be a millenium, the Baptist Society, as well as every other, 
will have to be immersed in that general catastrophe which awaits 
every sect who holds a principle incompatible witli this millenial 
btatc of the church. 

Rest assured, my dear sir, that when I become a heretic, a 
deist, or profane, it will be officially annotmced in the ^'Pittsburgh 
Itecorder,** or in the Lexington "Luminary," or ia all those 
^tneaiis of grace" which are every day multiplying in this country.^ 

Vour brother, in the hope of the resurrection of tlie dead, 

January 17th, 1826. 

P. S. There wasa JoAn Campbell in Pittsburgh who was said to 
liave been a Socinian. He is no longer one. He has gone to 
Jfaddty where tliere is not a Socinian, an Arian, nor a Trinitarian. 
Perhaps I may, in Missouri, have been identified with, ormistake^ 
for this person. I need not cause you to pay the postage for the 
minutes of our association, or any other documents, as l presume 
the above will be satisfactory. Ed, 

CONSClENCE.-.Vo. // 

IN i\ former No. we set out with this position, viz. 'Tliroughout 
Christendom every man's religious experience corresponds with 
his religious education.' 'I'his was partially illustrated in that 
number. We will make some additions in the present. 

As there are some things similar and «ome things different in the. 
education of most persons; so there are some things alike and 
some things unlike in their religious experience. In our last 
number on this subject we took notice of the influence which con- 
science has upon the religious CKperiencc of all; and that consei- 
once was framed by those 'who first had access to the infant mind. 
This was proved by observing the varieties which appear in the 
consciences of diflTcrent individuals. 

What is called *^ike vfoi4c of conversiim*' is, in many instances, 
but the revival of early impressions. And what a poor progress 
the teachers of religion, as they are called, would make in con- 
verting persons, were it^not for the early impressions made by 
parents and guardians, may be easily ascertained by comparing their 
success amongst Pagans and amongst the descendants of Christian 
parents. And even amongst the latter, tlieir success is propor- 
tioned to the degrees of cure bestowed upon some, iu comparison 
of others. i. 

Amongst the. numerous accounts of "ChrlsSan ex^evl^i^-cA:' 
wliich we have heard from the Upa of t\\e coi\^e"s\fc^^ik\\Ci'Ccv<e.\\\^vs:>. 
rics of their conversion, we do not TemtiBbfc ^.^ \»:^^\\j:;5K^fsw^ 



which "«':*? not to be traced to, or resolved into parentat tnfhicnce, 
or its iqiiivahnt. This appears to be the JireacL'Tig' which is most 
comnioiily instrumental in bringing s'nners into the fold of God. 
1 h'.iw sometimes thoiipfht that not one preaclier in these United 
Sla'es has had the honor of being" the entire and exclusii'e means of 
i onverting" one of tlie descendants of th(»se who made any preten- 
^io:H to Christianity, except in tho case of his own faqnily. 
'i'licir hearers and attendants, in public assemblies, have lieard 
that xXwvc is a (iod, a lu^aven, a hell, a Saviour, bclure they heat 
it frf)m tlu^ir I'ps. They predicate their pler»s, arguments, cxhor*- 
tuitions, and addresies to tlieir hearers, upon the liypothesis that 
the} are in possession of these first principles. When any one is 
moved to fear or hope from their addresses, it is from comparing 
whut he has heard, or from associating it with his form^T 
rjiv.luct and convictions. 


'I'his person was awakened on hearing" a preacher res.d for his 
/'•r/, these words, **How shall -we escape if we neglect so great salva- 
tionV **0!i hearing these words lie was struck m ith fear; his whole 
soul was harrowed up; he was almost driven to despain but in the 
conclusion he was made to hope in iiod and to trust in his salra' 
tiou." Ask him -what he fej>rtd, and -why he feared, and he will 
toll you, that he feared the wrath of heaven for having neglected 
this salvation. Hut had he not previously bclieve<l that there w*as 
a future punishment awaiting the disobedieftt, how could his feacs 
have been excited? 

*I{;it,*' adds he, "I was not only afrawl of the wrath of heaven on 
accouutof my neglect, but I would rather than all the world that I 
could have believed in the Saviour and shared in his salvation.'* 
AVell, wl^' did you desire to believe in t!)e Saviour if you had 
i»ot previously believed there was a Saviour? Why did you wish to 
sliare in his salvation, if you had not before believed that you were 
a sinner, and that there was salvation? Vour doubts and fears, 
then, were all predicated upon your former con^ ictions. And had 
ic not been for these, neither the reading of these morels, nor the 
preacljer's remarks, would have produced one emotion. Nay, his 
strongest appeals to your conscience were predicated upon the 
supposition that you were in possession of these convictions. If 
he have been instnnnental in any respect^ it was in causing you to 
hope that, notwithstanding you had long sinned against the light 
\ou had since an infant, tlui-e was room in the Divine mercy for 
your pardon and acceptance, in* believing and obeying the truths 
) oil had once received and acknowledged, and had been taught, 
w.iether your father was Protestant or Papist, High Churchman or 
Disjienter. He may have revived those impressions, and been 
instrumental in. leading you to repentance, for having lived in op- 
position to your own acknowledgments; but the seeds were aoAvn 

In the same manner, the inftuences of heaven take hold of these 
truths, however, iirstconmitmicated to the mind; and persons are 
sio: un frequently, without a preacher, w^uetxced to act accowling 
lo the fg^it fonncvlv received, and t^en\\\^xs^.rAX^^^\v<ivc^\s<i,^-->'V\% 

BAPTIST. - li& 

trae, not without a preacher, in the scripture sense, but in the 
popular sense. For parents, g^uardi&ns, or whosoever pronounces 
the words of the preachers specially called and sent of God, onjy 
o>ive3 extension, or sound to words long since announced. 

But the seeds are sown, in *'a land of Bibles," always in inftnc^ 
or childhood, which, under tlie Divine blessing-, in riper years, 
bring forth fruit to everlasting life?. Conscience is then formed^ 
and without this a man might as rationally expect to be instrumen- 
tal in converting fish as men. Hut it niost commonly haj>peiis that 
tares are so vn with tlie tv'ieat in the mind, though not in the sense 
of the parable; or, in other words, improper views are communica* 
ted with the truth of God, which, m after life, give ris. to that 
mental pertui-bation and those varied feelings of which many are 
conscioiis. The catt-chisms and little manuals, put into the hands 
of children, together with the old wives' fables which they are 
wont to hear, lay the foundation for many a doubt and reverie of 
Avhich, oUivTv^ise, they never would have known any thing. 

Every person who will reflect, and who can reflect upon the 
working's of his own mind, will readily perceive how much trouble 
he has experienced from mistakes. Nay, much of his present 
oomfort is derived from the correction of formefr mistakes and 
mibapprehensions. Who that has read John Bunyau's conversion. 
John Newton's, or Halyburton's, or any of those celebrated standi 
ards of true conversion, has not observed, that glaring mistake^ 
and erroneous views, were amongst the chief causes of their long 
and gloomy trials; and that their after peace, and joy, an4 hope 
arose from the correction of mistakes, M'hich the errors of educa' 
tion had thrown in their way^ 

For example, tlie numerous speculations on the different kinds 
of taitli has pierced with many sorrows innumerable hearts. In all 
the varied exhibitions of Christianity, much stress is laid on fait/k. 
And as soon as it is affirmed that he that believeth shall be saved, 
and that care should be taken that faith be of "the right ktndy" the 
attention of the thoughtful is turned from the truth to be believed 
to **the nature of faith" The fears and agonies which are experi- 
enced, are not unfrequently about "believing ri^ht." The great 
conceim is about true faith. This person is lookmg in himself for 
what he has been taught are the true signs of regeneration, or of 
tlie fiuth of regeneration. He is distressed to know whether his 
faith is the fniit of regeneration, or whether it is mere *'hittoric 
befi'f* Unable to find ^uch evidences as he is in quest of, he is 
distracted, he despairs, he agonizes. lie tells his case. He is 
comforted by being told that these are "the pang-s of the new 
birth." He draws some comfort from this consideration, which 
increases or dccreaaes as these pangs are Supposed to be genuine, 
©r the reverse. Thus he is tossed to and fro m awfiil uncertainties, 
wiiich are more or less acute according to his moral sensibilities. 
By and bye, he hopes he is regenerate, and a calm ensues, and he 
is joyous because he fancies he has been regenerated; thus his 
oomforts spring not from the gospel, buXftornVvv^ q\<\\ ^>^\\\\^^ ^\ 


Another, iinder the same system, receives no comfort, because 
be bafl not found the infallible sif^ns in himself of being a true bt' 
Ttever, lie despairs; lie is to nnehted. He concludes he is one of 
the reprobates. lie is about to kill himself What about!! Not 
because there is no Saviour, no forgiveness, no mercy. Not be- 
cause the Gospel is not trtie. Hut became it it true, and because 
be cannot find in himself the tnie signs of genuine conversion. 
'J housanfls have been nimcd — have 1)een shipwrecked here Thi* 
the Uible nc\er taught. This case never occurred under the 
Apostles' teaching. It is the genuine offspring of theological 
schools. It is t/te exptiience of a bad education. A few drops of 
ncid sour a puncheon of the sweetest wine. And thus a few wrong 
notions convert the love of the Saviour into wrath divine*^ make 
tlic (iohpel of non-cilect— embittev life — and make it better not to 
bave been bom. 

I well remember what pains and conflicts I endured under a 
fbarful apprehension that my convictions and my sorrows for sin 
were not deep enough. I even envied Newton of his long agony{ 
I envied Bunyan of his despair. I could tiave wislied, and didtoiih^ 
that the Spirit of God would bring me down to the very vej-ge of 
suffering the pains of the damned, that 1 might be raised to share 
the joys of the genuine cor.verts. I feared that I had not suffici- 
<'ntiy found the depravity of my heart, and had not yet proved 
that'l was utterly without strength. Sometimes I tliought that I 
felt as sensibly, as the ground under my feet, that I had gone just 
:i9 fai' as human nature could go without supernatural aid, and that 
one step more would place me safe among the regenerated of the 
Lord; and yet heaven refused its aid. This too 1 concealed from 
all the living. I found no comfort in all the declarations of the 
iiospel, bcciuise 1 wanted one thing to enable me to appropriate 
thcni to myself- Lacking this, 1 could only en\y the happy favor- 
ites of Heaven who enjoyed it, and all my refuge was in a faint 
hope that I one day might receive that aid \\hich would place my 
R-et upon the rock. 

Ht.'re this 8} stem ends, and enthusiasm begins. The first Chris- 
tians derived their joys from an assurance tliat the Gospel was true. 
Metaphysical Christians derive theirs not from the truth of the 
Gospel, but because tlwy have been regenerated^ or discover something 
in themselves that entitles them to tliank God tluit tlie\ are not as 
the publican. The ancienis cheered therosclvei^ and one another, 
by conversing on the cataintu of the good things reported by the 
Apostles; the moilerns by telling one another wliat ''Uhe L^rd ha* 
dove for their tonU in particular." Their aqvtaee were the opposition 
made by the world, tlie flesh, and the devil, to their obeying the 
truth. Our agonies are a deep and &clemn concern for our own 
conversion. Their doubts were first whether the Gospel were 
true, and after they were assured of this, whetlier tht\ rni^lit 
persevere through all triids in obeying the truth. Ours, 
our conversion is genuiiie. More evidence of the truth rtihcvcd 
ihe'ir first doubt?, and the promises of tlie Gospel, witli the cxtim- 
/>Jc':/ MToimd tliCTii, overcame the lasl. A V^w^x o^wa^^u di ^^\- 


selves removes oui<s. In a woitl, the philanthropy of God w«t the 
fountain of all their joys; an assurance that roe arc safe ia the source 
of ours. 

The experience of the Moravians differs from the experience of 
almost every other sect. They teach their children tliat God is 
love, and througli his Son loves all who obey him. This principle 
is instilled from the cradle. Their hittory doe* not furtUMh an m- 
stance ef a work op coirVBRSioir nmilar to thote vhich JIU the 
fnemoira andmagazine» of all the different bodiet of Calvinistt, Per- 
haps en mg^h is said to prove our position, that **throughout chiii- 
tendom every man'o religiotit experience coiTespondo with hia religivue 
education." If not, a volume of evidence s can be adduced,— —jRrf; 


Tn some eastern papers ^'tbe Rev. Spencer H. Cone, 
a Baptist clergyman," was reported as recently dubbed 
D. D. But this was a mistake. It was the Rev. Samuel 
U. Cox who was dubbed, and refused the honor. We 
are sorry to observe a hankering after titles amongst 
some Baptists, every way incompatible with their pro- 
fession; and to see the remarks lately made in the 
**Columblan Star" censuring Mr. Cox for declining the 
honor. Those who deserve honorary titles are the least 
covetous of them. We have not met with any Baptist 
Bishop who is more worthy of a title of honor, if such 
thosfft double D^$ be esteemed, than Robert B Semple of 
Virginia; and when the degree was conferred on him, 
he, like a Christian, declined it. 

The following remarks are worthy of a place in this 
work: — 

"IN the New York Observer of the 26th ult. we find 
an article, occupying nearly two closely printed col- 
timns, with the signature of Samuil H. Cox^ Pastor of 
tije Laight-streft Presbyterian Church, N. Y. in which 
the writer, after stating that he had seen a newspaper 
paragraph, from which he learned that the Trustees 
of Williams College, Mass. had taken with hi*! name 
the very customary liberty of attaching D. D. to it, 
says, '•! ask the privilege of announcing that Iioill not 
accept of that appendageP^ And after some other ob- 
servations, he adds, ''It is high time — <Aa «^trt( of t/i« a^« 
demands iV— that this mania ot gc^^^3A^:^sy%^«^^^^^^^^ 


be graduated, and that vrithout favour in the enligbtenr 
ed estimation of the public. Ilaque illud Cassianum, 
Cui bono fuerit, in kia personis valeat The cut bono 
question, in reference to those academico-theological 
degrees, anJ^ for the best possible reason, has never 
been answered. It is an aflair that belongs to another 
category; it has nothing to do with good, but only with 
— honour!" Having disavowed any disrespect to Wil- 
liams College, or to his clerical brethren — especially the 
order from which he repudiates himself, he makes the 
followir»g remarks; — '' The purely academic and literary 
or professional degrees, such as A. B. or .\. M. or M. 
D. or L, L. D. and such as merely indicate ofRce or 
station, and whieh colleges do not confer, as V U. M. 
or S. T. P, are out of the argument, and '*ao;ainbt 
such there is no law." If doctorates in divinity moant 
any thing, they would sometimes be libellous; thf*reare 
those, it is too notorious, who need a great deal mort 
than collegia! or colloquial doctor^tion. to impart to them 
intellectual, or literary, or theological, or — I blush to 
write it — even moral respectability; and whose doctora- 
tion, while it is the acrimonious laugh of the njiJiion, 
becomes a solid reason, were there none better, to 
tho?e who prize good company, for abdicaiing the emi- 
nence of being classed with them in the associations of 
the community. '"Unto their assembly, mine honouri 
be not thou united.*' 

In a«:signing reasons for refusing the honourary title 
of 1). D. Mr. Cox makes the following remarks: — '*! 
believe that the principle of minishrial party is both 
evangelical and important, and that the system in ques- 
tion is very inimical to it; that there is no higher earthly 
honour in the relations of life, than that of a minister of 
Jeiius Christ, who loves bis master, and understands the 
truths and magnifies his office; and consequently, I dis- 
like a system that so evidently and popularly implies 
something unintelligibly morey and arrays one ministerial 
brother in an adventitious superiority over his peers; 
and that it is anomalous for a secular and literary insti- 
tution, without any faculty of theology, to come into 
the church universal of Jesus Christ, and diversify his 
oJScers^ and confer permaneii^« Oie^xft%^ ol v:^^\^V^TiQ\^T^ 



which neither deposition nor excommunication^ shoul j 
they succeed, has power to annul; and all this wher^ He 
hath said, ^^Be not ye called Rabbi; for one is your mas'* 
ter, even Christ; and all ye are brethren.^ It is also a" 
grand reason that I think it a -'scarlet" relic of the 
papacy, and that demands retrenchment; but the 
greatest reason is, tb^t it is earthy ^ and at variance with 
the spirit^ if not with the very letter of the Gesptl. The 
passage in Mat. xxiii. 5 — 12. appears incapable of a 
fair solution in coincidence with the innocency of docto- 
rial honours in the church —Many other scriptural refer- 
ences might be made. Take a few more. Mat. xviii. 
I — 6 J V. 19. Luke xxii. 24—27. xx. 45—47. John 
xvii. 18. xii. 25, 4S, 4$. v. 4\. 1 Cor. 1-5. Rev. iii. 
21. xii. 4. xvi. 15. xvii. 12 The Old Testament con« 
tains much to the same purport. 

"To conclude; I believe that the usefulness, the moral 
worthy the genuine respectability of the sacred profess- 
ion, and of course the honour of our common Master, 
require the abjuration of Doctorates " 

P. Recorder. 

Unity of Opinion. 

("From ths J^ational Gazette. J 
TTNITY of opinion, abstractedly cons'dered, is neitlier desira- 
ble nor a gwxi; although considered not in itselfy but with refer- 
ence to something' else, it may be both. For men may be all : greed 
in error; and in that case unanimity is an evil. Truth lies within 
the Holy of Holies, in the temple of knowledge; but doubt in the 
vestibulethat leads unto it. Luther began by having his doubts, 
as to the assumed infallibility of the Pope; and he finished, by 
making himself the comer stone of the reformation. Copernicus 
and Newton doubted the truth of the false systems of others, be- 
fore they iestablished a true one of their own. Columbus differed 
in opinion with aU the old world, before he discovered a new one; 
and Galileo's terrestrial body was confined in a dungeon, for having 
asserted the motion of those bodies that were celestial. In fact, 
we owe almost all our 'knowledge, not to those who have agreed, 
but to those who have differed: and those who have finished by 
making aU others think with them, have usually been those who 
began by daring to think for themselves; as he that leads a crowd, 
must begin by separating himself some little distance from it. If 
the great Harvey, who discovered the circulation of the blood, 
had not differed from all the physicians of his own day, all the phy- 
sicians of the present day would not have agreed with him. These 
reaections ought to teach us thai e^ciy V\tv^ q^ ^j^^t^^^v^j^wv Vst 


«pinioD« if incoiDprntible with sound philosophy. It is kment^jfile, 
SBdecd, to think how much misery has been incurred from the 
intemperate zeal and big'oted officiousness of those who would 
rather that mankind should not think at all, than not think as they 
do. Charles V. when he abdicated a throne, and retired to th*e 
monastery of St. Juste, amused himself with the mechanical arts, 
and particularly with that of a watch-maker: he one day exclaimed, 
'*lYhatan cere^rusfool must I haye been, to have squandered so 
much blood and treasure in an absurd attempt to make all men 
think alike, when I cannot even make a few watches Iceep time 
together.*^ We should remember also, that assent or dissent is not 
an act of the will, but of the understanding. No man can will to 
believe that 2 and 2 make 5, nor can I force upon myself the con- 
viction that this ink is white, or this paper black. 

Mutual Rights^ 6fc. 

[This is all very good; but in the Christian religion there are no 
new discoveries, no new improvements to be made. It is already 
revsaled, and long since developed in the apostolic writings. M'e 
may discover that there are many new errors and old traditions 
which are alike condemned in those sacred writings. But truth is 
at least one day older than error; and what many now call **the 
good old way,'* was two or three hundred years ago denominated 
a wicked innovation or a chimerical new project. Old things be- 
come new when long lost sig-ht o^ and new things become old in 
one generation. But truth is eternal and unchangeable.] 

'* French Clergy in the 17th Century — The historian, Boisard, who 
wrote in the ITth century, states, in describing the revenues of 
the French clergy in his time, that they possessed 3000 lordsliips, 
in which they had the chief power in exercising political justice; 
that they had also 240,000 country villages; 7000 acres of viney ar^ls^ 
besides the tithes they received from other vineyards; 125,000 fiah 
ponds, and 90,000 acres of meadow ground. The same author 
writes, that the ecclesiastical men of France, in his time, did an- 
nually cosumc 4,500,000 measures of pure wheat, (each measure 
conUining 600 lbs.) 900,000 measures of oals, 800,000 of barley 
860.000 of pease, 180,000 fat capo/ls, 560,000 hen« , 600,000 pju-'- 
tr.dges, 12,500 fat oxen, 12,000 fat weathers, and 7,000,000 ^^i. 


Xey Methcdiitt — A number of Methodists in Kew York, becom* 
ing dissatisfied with the management of their priests and bishops, 
refused in 1820, to submit to their unequal and i igorous discipline, 
and organized themselves into a "Methodist Society ," leaving out 
the word 'JEpiscopal." Since that time, they have progressed won- 
derfully, and can now, in the Rochester and New York Conference^ 
boast of having seventy preachers. /^, 

^BIirTBJt ASJi PrBlISHED BY 1.. C\T«l»l\-ftU.~T\vvVT. ftl PCIl i.2CKi:jr, 

^4m!^^9i^iS»tki^^i>^^s^^^ 'Mt^^t^^kUek^ 

,^•0. .8— Vol. I II] BUFFALOE, March 0, 1826. [ mole A 0. 32 

Style no man on eartM^yoitr Father; for he ahfie is your father Wi» 
M in heaven; and all i,e are brethren. Assume ndi the title ttf Habbi; 
for ye hate only one teacher: — JVeither assume the title of Leader; for 
ye have only one leader — the Messiail. 

[Mat. xxiii. 8—10. Campbell's Translation.] 

Prove ay, thi-^s: ^lold fast that ^hich is good. 

[I'aul the Apostle.] 


On the Duty of the Church to prepare Pious Youth m her 
bosom for the GospelMiniatry,-^ By the liei' Gideon 
Blackburn, D, D, Faetoi' of the Church in Louiaville^ 

Text— Eph. iv. 11. 12. 

"And he gave some apostles; and some, pro.j)hcts; and some, 
evangelists; and some, pastors and tcachci*s; for the pei-tectinj.' of 
the saints, for the woi'k of the ministry, ibr the ediiVimr '.a U*r 
body of Christ" 

THIS 18 that Rev. G. Blackburn, D. D wlio boasted 
that he had ^'swept from the arena*' a di«t;ourse of tnine 
before the le^slature of ICentucky, in 1824, od (he sub- 
J4ict of what ne calls "the gospel ministry;" and whom 
1 had invited to do in my presence ivhathe had so easily 
done in my absence. This he has since declined, and 
begs to be excused. But as a substitute he has offered 
this sermon on that subject, frfliA^ght with all the logic 
and rhetoric for which he has been honored with the 
title of U. D. We may then expect to find in it all 
those arguments which ^'swept from the arena" my cob- 
webs; which dissipated to the four winds of hraven the 
dust of mj reasonings, arguments and proofs. As a 
fair and full specimen of what the Doctor can advance 
in support of his views, we are bound to consider it. 
This is his cool, deliberate, studied, and, no doubt, best* 
effort, against what some "wiseacres" have said 'do;ainst 
modern clergymen as the successors of the apostlos, && 
the ambassadors of Christ, as the called and sent of the 
Holy Spirit. We phall therefore bestow a little, atltu- 
tion upon it For as the autiaot oi \\.\^ ^V V^^V^"^^ ^^ 
ihe priesthood of Ins state, and ab\ie '\% ou«; ^S.Vifi.ViVviv.'^^^^ 



called ones, whom the Uolj Spirit has sent to Eentuckji 
and in attestation of which, and to shew how far the 
men of this world iiave approved of the H0I7 Spirit^i 
choice and work, they have honored him with two capi- 
tals of mighty power and awful import; and as he is a 
father in Israel, his sayings and reasonings are entitled 
to great respect. It is but seldom the patrons of the 
science of this world approve of the appointments of the 
Holy Spirit. For of the thousands wnom he calls and 
senas, not more than one in ten is recognized by 
colleges and their trustees, as worthy of an honorary 
title. When therefore the Holy Spirit, the presbytery, 
and the patrons of science, infidels and all, concur in 
arttestlng an ambassador of Christ, most assuredly we 
ought, with due submission, to sit at his feet But this 
rebellious heart of mine wants something more than all 
the presbytery, and the board of trustees, can confer in 
proof that Gideon Blackburn, D. D. pastor of the church 
of Louisville, is sent by the Holy Spirit, and a true 
ambassador of Jesus Christ. It is true that this sermon 
exhibits him very much in the true character of an 
ambassador, for soon as an ambassador has proved his 
mission, his mere assertions ax^d aayso^s are equal to all 
the logic and rhetoric of Demosthenes and Cicero united 
in one head. Consequently the Doctor, laying infinite 
stress upon his own infallibility, has not adduced one 
single scrap from Moses to John, to prove the subject 
of his discourse. This is indeed ambassador-like. The 
Holy Spirit, the college, and the presbytery, having 
chosen, and called, and sent, and honored him, it 
would have been beneath the dignity of them all, that he 
should have to prove what he says. This would be 
placing him upon a level with a Methodist or Baptist 
elder. This would destroy all his high pretensions. It 
is necessary for a Methodist or Baptist teacher to prove 
all that he advances, but entirely unnecessary for Gideon 
.Blackburn, D. D.— Right well he knows this, and, con- 
sequently, in the true style of an ambassador, he deigns 
no proof. 

His sermon is intended to proclaim that it is the duty 

of the church to prepare in her bosom nous youth for 

the gospel ministry. Now this is really a neio message 

from the skie%'^ for there is not ou^ vfOT^itom d^\x^^\% 

ioJohDy which saitb, that it la tVie ^wty ol \Xx^ OaMtOtxVc^ 


prepare pious youth for the gospel miBistry. This 
point could not be proven from the words of any previ* 
ous ambassador, ahd it is unnecessary for an ambassador' 
to prove bis own Communications to be true.' But now 
this Rev. ambassador informs the world that it is the 
duty of the church to train yovng men for the gospel 
ministry, and of these young men to make presbyters 
or elders 

His text, to have been pertinent to his purpose, ought 
to have read —'-When Jesus ascended to his throne, he 
gave apostles, prophets, evangelists, pastors, and teach- 
ers supernaturallv qualified for the work, and in a mo- 
ment prepared to discharge the duties of their calling — 
and then gave orders to the churches to train up young 
men, artiilcially and mechanically, to be their succes- 
sors in the manner hereinafter speciUbd.^' This text 
would have suited his subject. But I am wrong. An 
ambassador, prophet, or evangelist, &c. ought to take 
no text at all; but make a text for himself. The taking 
nf a text implies inferiority and dependance, every way 
unbecoming "the legate of the skies." And the Rev. 
Doctor is aware of this; for although he conforms to 
the custom of his modern peers in writing a text at the 
bead of the p^ge^ he simply adduces it as a motto, and 
troubles his head no more about it; but proceeds to 
something more sublime and glowing from the skies. 
No old revelation, but one new and brilliant occupies 
bis tongue and pen. 

This sermon occupies SO octavo pages, and has not 
one argument in it to shew that the text has any more 
bearing upon the present day, nor upon his subject, than 
^'Abraham begat Isaac, and Isaac begat Jacob. ^' Indeed 
there is not a single sentence of scripture adduced in 
the way of argumentative proof, in the whole discourse. 
Some two or three scraps round off as many periods^ 
and the Bible is upon a par with the Koran through the 
remainder of the sermon. But this was wisely done, 
for the Bible has nothing to do with his object or design. 
His mock explanation of apostles, prophets, pastors, 
Sec. is a burlesque on modern commentators. ^'The 
teachers" mentioned in the text are represented as pro • 
fessors of Divinity and presidents of Theolotglcal schocila. 
*'Some teachers," says he, ^S^Yio^^ X^wt^^^^ Vv. v^. -(^'^x- 
^/ca/ar/y ^o explain the 4octt\nw«Lw\t^^^^^^^'^^'^'^^ 


ons) of the church, and carefullj instruct young men in 
the course of TheoJogy taught in the Bible." 

His method of sweeping from the afena all argument 
ai\d proof is fairly exhibited in the following words: — 
'•''The general idea implied in the office of minister or 
ambassador for Christ, was designed to continue in the 
church to the end of time; but the special idea attached 
to the ministry, under the word apostles and propketSy 
ended with the completion of the canon of scripture." 
This single assertion of one D. D. sweeps from the 
arena, all that ten thousand such as I am, might say in a 
century. So the Doctor thinks, for he adduces no more. 
This is just the topic, too, in substance, oa which all 
turns, and every thing is decided, that came upon that 
arena which the Doctor swept so clean. This is &hesom 
of destruction indeed — this mighty, this omnipotent as- 
sertion. 'Tis well for thee that thou art an old man, and 
of a privileged order; for had a pious young man as- 
serted so roundly, we would have demanded t^e proof. 
But thei'e is no need of proof — an ambassador from the 
skies says so! 

But after all, the assertion is a little wanting in com- 
mon sense, and borders upon what, amongst young men, 
is calletl nonsense. — A "gcnero/ irfca" continues in the 
church till the end of time, and "a special ideo" died 
with the completion of the inspired canon. This re- 
minds me of a waorgish epitaph written on the tomb of 
the materialist^ and sceptic historian, David Hume. A 
student in Edinburgli is said to have written it:— 

^''Ihwaih this circular idea, 

yiilgarlij called tomb^ 
Impressions and ideas rest^ 

fVhich comtittited IlumeV 

3o the general idea implied in ambassador and. minister 
is immortal, and the special one is in the tomb of the 
apostles!! I yet remember the rhetorical flourishes of 
this textuary, when I last heard him; and this is a pretty 
good sample of them, excepting what pertains to his 

In describing this general idea which is found in the 
/^Arsons of modern ambassadors^ he says, "Ac,'* to wit 
the idea, '^''musi have a correct "knov^X^^^'fc o^ Wv^^c*^ 
in its radical principles," \lhe "btwacVi^a, ua m^Wvc "a^i^^a^ 


Ihem,] "its systematic arrangement,*' [at Westminstfer,^ 
*'and the dependance of its parts," [the Five Points,] 
*'upon each other, together with a good knowledge of 
the classes of terts on which each leading idea is bot- 
tomed." He has only to study the classes of texts on 
which the leading ideas of his system is bottomgd. Thus 
the Doctor aims at making a good textuary. 

But in farther describing this textuary, who on a sud- 
den becomes a general idea^ and assumes to be an am- 
bassador.with his good knowledge of general ideas, bot- 
tomed on classes of textSy he says, ''he is employed by 
Christ to be his agent, on earth, in negotiating with the 
souls of men." What a general idea is this! A pious 
youth becomes a beneficiary, then a textuary, next a 
minister or ambassador— Christ^s agent, negotiating with 
the souls of men?!! A fine picture! an important office ( 
a high calling! 

In finding a model for this plan of procedure, the 
Doctor ransacks the Bible in vain; but he finds in some 
old copy, or, may be, in the Apocbrypha, a piece of 
church history I never saw before. Perhaps it is a new 
revelation. As it is of great consequence to the com- 
munity, I shall therefore quote it. It is designed to tell 
us how the primitive church got a supply of the general 
ideas, called ambassadors: — ''Some one who appeared 
to be be>t qualified to lead the devotions, was appointed 
to that office. He devoted himself to reading and study, 
U)at he might acquit himself properly in that station. 
After he had acquired sufficient theological knowledge, 
and a good degree of boldness in the faith, he was set 
apart to the work of the ministry by the laying on of the 
hands of the presbytery." This is a precious piece of 
ancient history, and we shall ever after quote it as of 
undoubted authority; because an agent of the Saviour's 
in negotiaiing with the souls of men in Kentucky, has 
favored us with it 

In dividing these agents into proper classes, and in as- 
signing them their portion of labor, he wills some to be 
editors of religious newspapers and authors, who are to 
be qualified "to defend the minute parts of the Christian 
system." Some to be able "logically and mathematical- 
ly to explore the whole field of theory^ «cwL\.'Ci 0^^%:^ ^^ 
the heterogeneous matter cast oiv \\\^ \.t\j.Wx\i^ ^^ ^ci>Jwv%- 
try and ivjclredness of men oC T>eT\%T^^ mvsi^O'* 
''for parochial duties." Some ^ot v'ioty^^^^^^^^' 

1 a yid. 


iio9i< — and a liost "of minHte men on all the essential 
tloi:(rines of the gospel." These are to be ready at a 
luiiiiite^s warning to put on their armor of texts, and to 
march into tiie field panoplied with general ideas. 

But the Doctor aims at a new plan of aiigmeniing the 
number of the Presbyterian clergy, from 1080, the pre- 
sent number, to 20,000 in the lapse of twenty years. 
Theological schools will not answer the purpose. Too 
.slow iu their operation. He laments that pious youths 
of respectab'e parents are deterred from becoming am* 
bassadors. ^'Many parents even discourage their pious 
sons from preparing for an office 80 destitute of pecuniary 
r</iir?is." The poor, then, by means of gratuitous con- 
tributions, are to be converted into agents of heaven, 
and he will have every^/Zj^members to make one priest 
iu five, years. It will not do, he says, 'Ho leave to pa- 
rents to select and educate" their sons for ambaesadon* 
This will produce ito favorable results. ^'There are two 
thousand congregations of Presbyterians in the Union*, 
let each of these educate one beneficiary in five yeiirs'' 
—or, "every fifty members, by paying 25 cents per 
month, could furnish one" agent to negotiate for heaven, 
every Hye years. Thus for the small sum of 750 dollars, 
one ambassHdor could be furnished with sufficient gener- 
al ideas, bottomed on ^'classes of texts,'* and m'ght be* 
come a ^''mmute-man*^ in all the ^'essential doctrines of 
the gospel: and thus a supply of one for every 500 souls, 
could be easily obtained, if avarice were subdued. But 
be will have those young men put under some member 
of presbytery, to study Divinitj ; and thus recommenda 
a departure from that fragment of ecclesiastical history 
whivh he made known to the world. 

Unless efforts similar to these are made, "the period 
is not far remote when missionary efforts must be paral- 
yzed — the very foundation of the church*' [viz. Jesus 
Christ and the Apostles,] "must give." As an argument 
to enforce the burden of his message, he reminds the 
people that he was the originator "cf. the plan of instruc* 
tion now adopted amongst the American savages; the 
plan which was at the bottom of the present missions, 
and which now gives them support;" and hints, modestly 
enough, that some have not honored him for it, but have 
^'atiempted to conceal'' this facU V£ ow^^VactioCQ^^ra- 
t'oa whicli he ias introduced^ anA o^ yiWv \ife \% ^%. 


inventor, has been so successful, it is a fair and neces- 
sary conclusion that this plan of augmenting the number 
of priests must be alike wise and practicable; and that 
similar results will follow its adoption. With such wea* 
pons as these, the Rev. G. Blackburn, D D. sweeps the 
arena of all false doctrine, and carries conviction to the 
hearts of his hearers. Ed, 

1^ ;o:o;i 

MY text will be found in the Columbian Star, vol. 9, 
pas;e 1 1, column 5th, section 5tb, at the sign of the 
tltree stars. 

"Dipinc Service will be performed in the Hall of the 
^^ House of Representatives J to morrow mornings at 1 1 
^^6*clocky by the ilev. Dr. Staughton, Chaplain of the 
^^ Senate, There loill be no Service in the morning at the 
^^First Presbyterian [Mr. Post's] Church.^^ 

My respected auditors — Tou will remember that the 
Stars were placed in the heavens ^'for signs^ and for 
seasons; for days and for years.'* So the ancient Moser 
saith in the book of the genealogy of the heavens and of 
the earth. From that time till now stars have been fop 
signs. Their falling from heaven, and their constella* 
tions have frequently, by the wise and superstitious, been 
considered ominous. They attract the attention of the 
devout pliilosopher, and as Young saith, 

**Jhi undevotU ^ttronamer it mad,** 

The appearance of three stars in one Star, is to me a 
phenomenon, and well calculated to astound my con- 
templative faculties. While I was conjecturing what 
could be the meaning of these new and strange signs, 
my attention was arrested to the words suspended to 
these stars, and found them to be the above words of my 

In expounding my text mystically, I shall attend 
merely to the mystic symbols in which it is pourtrayed. 

The three stars I conjecture denote a Doctor of Divi- 
nity, a President of a College, and a Chaplain to Qon* 
gr^fis — and the three stars appearing in one Star, sym- 
bohzed or exhibited these three lights meeting uv q\^^ 
person. What an extraordinary Vi^VX Vc^yi Xsv^vwjI^^ 
bow sublime! A beautiful em\>\^ui ol >^^ \i»\.^^ ^«^ 


of devotion; and if he pleases them in quantity and 
quality they are grateful to heaven for his short and 
eloquent discourse. He prays, and they listen; he 
preaches, and they admire ; he concludes, and they re- 
joice; and so the Divine service is performed. 

HEAD m. 

In describing the person by whom this service is to be 
performed, we have only to state that he must 

1st. Be elected and chosen by the representatives of 
the nation, or a majority of them; and thus vox populi 
become*^ tjoa? Dei, 

3d. He must be one who is entitled to be paid, and 
willing to receive pay for his Divine service out of the 
public treasury. 

Sd. He must be one who is possessed of that peculiar 
class of gifts which enter into the idea of a chaplain. 
These are not extraordinary, nor are they very ordinary 
^Ifts. There is nothing said about their qualifications 
in the New Testament, for it knows nothing of them, 
and their qualifications are such as congress pleases to 


For I see your patience is far gone. The last clause 
of our text plainly shews, that while Divine service is 
performing in the worldly sanctuary, it cannot be per- 
formed in the Christian brick church. The brick church 
cannot perform Divine service while the Levite is in 
the court of the Gentiles ; for one plain reason, which is 
as good as a thousand, the priest is not omnipresent, and 
because where there is no priest there is no Divine 

My dear hearers, sufiTp.r a word of exhortation. Tou 

see I have not exhausted my subject. I have not had 

to spin out one topic for the want oi matter; but have 

just given you the quintessence of the sound doctrine of 

my text, leaving it to your own good judgment to draw 

out all its meaning, and to make a right application of it. 

I have to beseech you to be thanluul, that while the 

Author of the Christian religion gave some apostles, 

prophets, and chaplains to men, he laid so much upon 

them, and so little upon you. He has required a great 

deal from tbem . They mu%\ perjorm alV lk« Divine ser- 

*"*^^ -and a/i he has enjoined ui^oi\ 'yo^a^ «^ «vSftKt Va ^ 

'Own person or aeud aome ol 'yo>Mci%sK^i^\.^ ^^ 


that he dpes i^ all right— and make an annual oblation to 
him. Tou are placed in the most happy circumstances, 
and your whole duty is comprehended in one word—- 
reverence the Divine ambassadors . S . ' 



fV — County (^Ind.) Dec, 12, 1825. 

Dear Sir, 

A SINCERE desire to know the truth as it is jn 
Christ, is the sole cause of these lines* I need not tell 
you that I am not a scholar — that, these lines will mani- 
fest: Neither do I approve of the popular doctrines of 
the clergy, or even of such an order of men; but think 
it my duty to let you Icnow that I belong to a church 
called German Baptists, sometimes Dunkards, whose 
government is the New Testa^nent only. They are not 
the same in principle or faith with those of the old con- 
nexion in Pennsylvania, Virginia, Maryland, and Ohio; 
but an order that took rise from them In Kentucky, by 
one Teacher, in Shelby county, about six years ago, 
amounting now to about 2000, having about 24 teachers, 
and increasing fast. Our views of Christianity you-have 
^ expressed in the Christian Baptist^ vol. 2d, and on the 
Grace of God, vol. 2d. Nos. 8 and 9, and in the whole 
second volume I do not see any thing to divide us in sen- 
timent, though I do not approve of some things in your 
first and 8d volumes. The Calvinists here generally 
anathematize the Christian Baptist^ because it condemns 
their metaphysical speculations. I read your debate with 
Mr. M Galla, and also the first and second part of the 
3d vols, of the Christian Baptist, and find myself edified, 
my views enlarged, and my faith strengthened; yet I 
was astonished, finding you so great an advocate for 
primitive Christianity, ip hear you say that whatsoever 
the apostles commanded constituted Ihe practice of the 
first Christians, and yet not notice the plain command- 
ment of washing feet, and that of the kiss of charity; 
and to hear you say that the practice of the a^o^tUci 
constituted a Jaw for us, and \ipoTv\.Vj\a ^o\wA <i5sc\K«i^^^^^ 
for weekly communion, and ytlTvoV.^VaXvxi^VVaN.'vicL^ wg*'' 


was the time, yea, the only time, according to Christ's 
institution and the practice o( the apostles to observe 
this ordinance. Though I am not convinced of the ne- 
cessity of weekly commuir'on, not seeing how it could 
be kept so often in our back count 7, owing to our scat- 
tered state of living from 10 to 15 miles apart; yet I 
think that whenever it is observed, it should be done 
according to the primitive tnodt\> This much I have 
written for your own meditation, and now request you 
to write to me personally, and give me your views on 
trine immersion. You have plainly proven in your De- 
bate that immersion was the only baptism the New Tes- 
tament authorizes; but you have not stated whether 
trine or single immersion is the proper action of baptism. 
In your Debate you state that trine immersion was prac- 
tised within two years 0/ the lives of the apostles; and 
we know, according to Robinson's History, that it was 
the practice of the Christians in the time of Constantine, 
and yet is among the Greeks. From the commission tu 
baptize. Matt, xxviii. 19. I yet think it is the proper 
action of baptism, and think that it should not be per- 
formed transversely, but forwards, in the most humble 
manner of obedience, Romans vi. 5. I have written this 
to let you know my views; and now beg you, in the 
name of Christ, to inform a poor, illiterate man, who 
never has had the opportunity of receiving education, 
(though he has always desired it) the whole truth with 
respect to this matter. I wish jou to be concise, but 
very particular, as I shall depend on what you write to 
me; and every earthly advantage and popularity would 
I freely forego to follow the truth. 
I am sincerely your friend, &.c. 

J II . 


X>ear Brother, 

FOR such I recognize you, notwithstanding the varieties of 
opinion which you express on some topics, on which we might 
never agree. But, if we should not, as not unity of opinion, but 
unity of faith is the only true bond of Christian union, 1 wiU esteem 
and love youi as I do every man of whatever name, who believes 
sincerely that Jesus is the Messiah, jind hopes in his salvation. And 
as to the evidence of this belief arid hope, I know of none more 
decisive than an unfeigned obedience, and willingness to submit to 
t/ie authority of the Great King. 
I our objection to the weekly bTCOiVvTv^ o^ \yce.^^^ \^ \ ^awv ^-^'^ 
an '-^icctlon, equally bears againslWie itv*:e\'YW£ ^A e^^v^X^^ ^\ tS^ 

BAPTIST. 18 1 

fof any purpose, 6n the first day. For you will allow that if they 
meet at all, there is no difiicuhy insurmountable, in the way of at- 
tending^ to this, more than to any other institution of Jesus. As 
often as they can assemble for worship on that day, let them at* 
tend to all the worship, and means of edification, and comfort 
which their gracious sovereign has appointed. 

As to the time of the day or night when it should be observed we 
have no commandment. But we have authority to attend upon 
this institution at whatever time of the day or night we meet. The 
Lord's having instituted it at night, will not oblige us to obsene it 
at night, more than his having first eaten the passover should oblige 
us first to eat a paschal lamb, or to observe it in all the same circum- 
stances. We are always to distinguish what is merely circumstan- 
tial in any institution, from the institution itrielf. The disciples at 
Troas came together up -m the first day of the week to break bread; 
and the apostle Paul commanded the disciples at Corinth **To 
tarry one fi>r another, to wait till all the expected guests had arriv- 
ed;" which shews that it occupied an eariy as well as an essential 
part of their worship. Any objection made to the hour of the day 
or night in which any Christian institution should be observed is 
predicated upon the doctrine of holy times, or sacred hours, which 
are Jewish and not Christian. Besides, it is bad logic to draw a 
general conclusion from any particular occurrence. We might aa 
well argue that because Paul immersed the jailor at the dead liour 
of night, every person should be immersed at the same hour, as 
that because the Lord instituted the supper the ni^ht in which he 
was betrayed, it should be always observed at night. Nay, the 
same sort of logic would oblige us to observe it only the last' night 
in our lives, if we could ascertain it, and to have no more than a 
dozen of fellow participants. We should, on the same principk:^ 
be constrained, like the Sabbatarians, to reform our almanacs; and 
to decide whether it was instituted at nine or twelve o'clock at 
night, &c. — But apostolic precedent decides this point, and not 
inferential reasoning. 

As to the toasldng of the gainfi feef there is no eiridence that it 
was a religious ordinance, or an act of social worship. Yea, there 
b positive evidence that it was not. Paul in his directions to Tim- 
othy, at Ephesus, tells him that certain widows were to be suppoi-t- 
ed m certain circumstances by the church. Tliese widows were 
members of the church, and as such must have been regular 
attendants on, and partakers of all its institutions. 

Now In describing the character of those widows which were to 
be supported fay the congregation, Paul sayi^ "If she have brought 
up children; if she have lod|;ed strangers; if she have washed th<r 
saint's feet; if she have diligently followed every good work." 
Had the washing of the saint's feet been a relig^us, or what is call- 
ed a churoh or social ordinance, it would have been impossible for 
her to have been in the congregation^ and not to have joined in it^ 
He might as well have said, If she have been baptized; if she have 
eaten Uie supper; as to have said if die have washed the saint's 
feet, had it been a reiigioua ii\adtutVQiU,-*^^V Vvt -wsSci^ W -^jcJ^ 
mmongBt social acts of worship, -not aaoMWi^ T€^^"iv«^^ ^^^"^^^ 
hut amongst ^ood -zeorkM. When then'^Vft «» g«>od-«wVs iX w^se*^ 

1& ^ 


be pet formed, but never placed on a level with acta of religious 
worship. It is a g^ood work when necessity calls for it, and though 
a menial service the Saviour gave an example, that no Christian 
should forget, of that condescending humility which as Christians 
we are bound both from precept and example to exhibit towards 
our brethren in all cases when called \ipon — Besides the design of 
it at the time he practised it, is ascertained from a regard to the 
mistaken and aspiring views of the disciples respecting the na« 
turc of places of honor in bis kingdom. 

It was a good work, and still is a good work more frequently in 
Asia than Amerim — The soil, climate, and dress of the Asiatics 
more frequently called for it, than our circumstances require it. 
But we argue not from these circumstances, we use them as illus- 
trations of the fact that Paul the apostle has positively decided that 
it is not a religious institution, an act of religious worship, or an 
ordinance in the church, but simply a good work, and I have expe- 
rienced it to be a ^ood work, in my own person, more than once, 
even in these United States. 

Much the same sort of evidence exists, in proof that the kia» 6f 
charitv, is not a social or chnrch ordinance. A great deal more^ 
however, can be saud in behalf of it, than of either of the preced- 
ing items. It is argued that it is Jive times positively commanded, 
in the epistles written to the congregations, set in order by the 
apostles. From this I would conclude, that it had not been estab- 
lished by the apostles as an act of religious or social worship in 
those societies, as a part of their Usual and stated worship: for if it 
had, there could not have existed a reason for enjoining it so re- 
peatedly as we find it enjoined. Hence, we do not find one com- 
mandment in all the epistles to the churches, respecting baptism, 
the Lord's STipper, or the Lord's day: certiun things are said of 
them, and in relation to them, as already established in the church, 
but no command to obsen*e them. From the fact of the kiss of 
charity being 90 often mentioned, and from the circumstances 
of the congregations to which it is mentioned, I ar^e quite difier-. 
cntly from many zealous and exemplary Christians. 

Another argument in favor of it, is deduced from the fact, that 
these letters were written to the churches, and that, cousequcntly, 
the tiling's enjoined in them, were enjoined upon the disciples in 
their collective capacity. True in part only. For it is not a fact, 
that the injunctions in tho&e epistles all respected the brethren in 
their meetings only, but also their conduct in the world, in their 
^milies, and in all the various relations of life. 

It is admitted that the usual method of salutation in the Fast 
was, and still is, by kissing the cheek, or neck, of a relative or 
friend. In sfime countries, in Europe, too, this custom is quite 
common; but the farther West or North we travel from Constanti- 
nople or Rome, the custom is less frequent. Shaking hands is one 
of the most usual methods of expressing friendship and love in 
Europe and America* 

Christians are to love one another as brethren. This is the 
grand stancLvrd of their affection. Whatever way, then, ¥ express 
^re to my natural brother, I sho\\\d ex\>Tesa \1 \<i xi^'^^ ^:Xvt\%Vv«v 
brother. If the custom of tlie country aw^ tVkost \va\>v^^ ^^ «*35ft^%*- 


in^ affection which it familiarizes to our niinds^ pcqulre me to 
salute my natural brother when 1 meet him, by a kiss on the lips, 
neck, or cheek; so let me salute my (Christian brother. But if thp 
rig-ht haiid of friendship and love be the higliest expression of love 
and affection for a natural brother, to salute a Christian brother 
otherwise is unnatural. For example, suppose that after an ab- 
sence of seven years, I were introduced into a room where one of 
my natural brothers and one of my Christian brethren were assem- 
bled — and that I should kiss the latter and shake hands with the 
former — would not this diversity be unnatural, and contrary to the 
j^eneric precept, "Love as brethren." 1 contend then thatneitlicr 
the customs m dress, wearing the beard, or mode of salutation, is 
the meaning of the requirements, of the precepts, or examples ot 
the apostles. But that the genius and spirit of their injunctions 
and exarnples, are, in these tfdiigs, expressed by the <iustoms and 
liubits wliich our country and kindred adopt, and by means of 
which we express the spirit and temper which they inculcated and 

But to make this a regular and standing ordinance of Cliristian 
Assemblies, appears to be entirely unauthorised by any hint, allu- 
sion, or command in the apostolic writings. I speak neither from 
prejudice, nor aversion to this custom. For my ow^n part, I can 
cordially comply with either custom, having been born in a country 
where this mode of salutation was more common than in tliis; but 
to advocate or enjoin it as of apostolic authority, I cannot. Wlw^n 
misunderstandings and alienations tike place amongst brethren, and 
a reconciliation has been effected; when long absence has been 
succeeded by a joyful interview; or when about to separate for a 
long time, the highest expressions of love and most affectionate 
salutations are naturally called for, which the customs of the coun- 
try have made natural. Aiitl these become holy amongst Christian 
brethren, on account of the high considerations which elicit them. 
' In a word, whatever promotes love amongst Christian brethren, 
whatever may increase their affection, or whatever exprcssioft's of 
it can bestexhibit it to others, according to the customs and/eclings 
of the people amongst whom we live, is cert:iinly inculcated by 
the apostles. And if Christian societies should exactly and literal- 
ly imitate and obey this injunction, no man, as fur as lean learn, 
lias a right to condemn or censure them. Nor have they who 
practise according to the letter, a right to insist upon others to 
think or practise in a similar way, so long as they exhibit that they 
love one another as brethren. 

With regard to trine immersion, and the manner in which the 
action should be performed, we have neither precept nor prece- 
dent. In the Debate alluded to, instead of tv/Ot it is, I think, in 
the errata, 200 )ear3 after the apostolic age, when we first read of 
trine immersion. That immersion is always spoken of as one act, 
is most evident from all that is said about Christian immersion. It 
is true that the scribes and elders, as indeed the Jews generally, 
had a plurality of immeraions; but the (Christian action is a unit. 
There is no command that a person sUovild \>«: YwcTCv^\>ifc.^ \\\Ta?. 
times in order to constitute one bujjlism <iT \v\vk\v:\'«v^'^. ^^-^ vj 
tbfipo iU} exiunplc of th(^ kind on rect^v»\, %wV^\tTv"awVv\^^^'^^'^''^ 


to such a custom. Therefore we cannot teach it as of Divine* but 
us of human authority. And in what position the body should be 
disposed of in the act, is as immaterial as in what fashion a coat or 
mantle should be madei To brin|^ the Christian religion to incul- 
cate mutters of this sort, would be to convert the New Testament 
into a ritual like the book of Leviticus, and to make Christian 
obedience as low and servile as that of the weak and beggarly 

Thus, my dear sir, I have hinted at the topics you proposed. I 
should have written to you **per8onal)y" longr since, but in such 
cases, where the matter is of general interest, I prefer, as opportu* 
nity serves, to lay it before tlie public. And as to the long delay, 
I have to urge, by way of apology, that I am this winter, more than 
ever before, absorbed in business of the highest, most solemn, and 
responsible nature. I have under my care the publication of a new 
translation of the New Testament. Though the translation was 
made ready to my hand, yet the necessary examinatian of every 
word and comparison of it with the other translations of note, for 
the purpose of assisting the English reader with the best meant of 
understanding this blessed bookf has g^ven me incomparabhr more 
labor that I had any idea of. It is indeed to me a dd^httnl and 
profitable employment, having assembled all translations of note« 
and even those of no great reputation, I am nnder the happy ne* 
cessity of reading, examining, and comparing all« and in notes 
critical and explanatory, elucidating the text when it can be im-> 
proved. Rut a small portion of m^ labor can b« seen, or win meet 
the public eye, because, in many instances, after the moat diligent 
exBtninatfon and oomparison, the tranblation given is adopted in 
preference to all others; and my labor nmply results in the convic* 
tion that the translation of the standard works is the best. It is a 
work too that I dare not delay, or jdeld to any other demanda upoii 
Oder however imperious. I have more than 60 letters at thb time 
on file unanswered, and many of my correspondents are got out of 
patience with me; but I have a good, or many g^ood apologies to 
make. If tlH^y will only bear with me this once, I hope to make 
them returns in full. 

Wishing you favor, mercy, and peace, from our T^rd and Saviour, 
and glad to hear from you at any time, I subscribe myself your 
brother in the hope of immortality. A. €« 

Februar}', 25th, 1826. 


Being one of the Notes in the Appendix to the 
A'cw Translation of the New Testament. 

HADES^ is. very improperly translated hell^ in 
the common version. It is compounded of a, nega-* 
tire and k/eirif to see* and lltter^U^ Ti!k«^aLW% hidden^ 

BAPTtsr. 185 

Oil hell, is coaipoundod of ge^ valley, and H'lnnom^ 
tlic name of a prrsoii. I'licrc is a great imprt)priety 
in translating two words, so diflTerent in their deriva- 
tion and meaning, by one and the same word in our 
language. Gelicnna occurs neither in the Septuagint 
Gi'eek of the Old Testament, nor in any classic au- 
thor extant in the world. (Sec note on Math. v. 22.) 
Both tophet and gehenna amongst tlie Jewsy came 
gradually to express a state of torment, and at the 
time of the Messiahs were frequently used to denote a 
futui*e state of punishment, it is suitably enough 
translated hell in our language, because the ideas 
attached to the English word hell pretty much cor- 
respond to the ideas attached to the word gehenna about 
tfie Christian era. But this is very far from being 
true of the word hades. The term hell by no means 
conveys its meaning, nay, it is a very eri*one^us re- 
presentation of it, as Dr. George Campbell has proved 
in a dissertation of 50 octa^ o pages, from which we 
have extracted the substance of tlie greater part of our 
remarks upon these words. 

There being no one word in our language which 
corresponds to the term hades, he is obliged to retain 
and explain it. He always translates the term gehtn^ 
na by the term helL We have uniformly followed liis 
method in the books which he did not transhite, and 
consequently whei'e the word hell is found in this 
translation, the reader may be assui'cd it vs gehenna in 
the original — It occurs just twelve times in the New 
Testament, and as it was better undei*stood in Judea 
than in any other country, and amongst the Jews than 
amongst any other people, we find it never adopted 
in any letter or communication to the Gentiles, In 
the testimony of Matthew Levi it occurs seven of 
these twelve times; in Mark's testimony it occurs three 
times; in Luke once. It occurs once in tlie epistle of 
James addressed to the twelve ti'ibes in theii* dlsjiersion. 
For the i^jference and examination of the i-eader, we 
sliall note down all these passages in order, Matth. v. 
22, 29, 30. X. 28. xviii. 9. XxVvu 15,*^^.^, ^\jot>».^vk. 

4J^ 4^ 47. Luke, xii. 5. James, \vv. ^. N^>Ssx ^te^ 

16* i 


I'x* * ptiiiTi fif the last inontioncci passage ifi CYOty oihfp 
II is fjii!)iii! fi^iii the lips ol* Ji^ii.s. Dr. Camiibell 
nifiitlnis twi> of tlirse passages whei-e it is used 
ii:;iii\Hi\t'ly, James iii. 6. and Mattli. xxiii. 15. to 
rhisi* wr wUU Mattli. v. 22. In tlie otliers he is of 
<»|Miiioii iliat it ivlates to tlie future punishmcut of the 
\\\'. Led. 

/m/cv ocnir-s eleven times in the New testamenty 
.iiul in l!ie king*s vei-sion is ti*anslated ten times by 
^hv \s»);(l //,'//, ami once by the term^rov^, viz 1 Cor. 
\v. 5.?. The passages whei-e it is found we will also 
no:o down — Matth. xi. 23, xvi. is. Luke, x. 15. xvl. 23. 
A<'Js, ii. 27, 21. Rev. i. 18. ^± 8- xx. 13, 14. 

We have the woi"d hell about thirty-three times in 
the king*s translation of the Old Testament. In two 
of these it isy in the Septuagint thajiatos death, and in 
thtrty-Gue it is hades. But they were constrained 
sometimes to depai-t from the term helU because it was 
too glaring apreversion of the original, as when Jacob 
says, "You will bring my grey hairs with sorrow to 
the ^rave*^ "1 will go to the grave mourning.'* *^0 
grave where now tliy victory." In these jilaces it 
would not do to have translated it hell^ yet they might 
as well have translated it by the term helliii these 
agcs, as in many others. For the same reason that 
tliey abandoned the term hell 1 Cor. xv. 55. they 
wei-e constrained to abandon it several times in tlie 
0-d Testament. 

For the same reason that it doen violence to the 
original to translate either the Hebi'ew word sheol 
(wliich the Seventy have translated hadcs)ov the Greek 
word hades by the English word hell^ so it destroys 
the sense of many passages to render it by tlie term 
grave. Although this term may have, in the Hcbi-ew 
idiom, sometimes, expi'cssed their sense of hades^ or 
its Ilchi'ew repi-esentative keher; this now is very far 
fi*om being the case. The term grave with us denotes, 
tlie mere rece])tacle of the body, whereas the mansion 
of sjurits sepiii-ated from the body is, by u«i, ^vv\^^o«^ 
be quite different f i-om l\\e ^vw^'^^.. K^i^w^v^^V^ 


our views, we should call the receptacle of the bod j 
the grave^ and the place of departed spirits hades. 

To explain tlie term hades it must be observed tliat 
there are three states of human spirits entirely distinct 
fi*om each otiier. The first state of human spirits is 
in union with an animal body. This state terminates 
at dcatlu The second state is that in which human spi- 
rits are separated from their animal bodies. Tliis com* 
mcnccs at death and terminates with the resurrection 
of the body; this is precisely what is called hades. 
The third state commences with the re-union of the 
spirit and body and continues ever after. Hades is 
said to be de.stroyed w hen the third state commences* 
The termination of hades is clearly foretold by John^ 
in these words, *^Death and hades were cast into the 
lake of fire, tliis is tlie second death." To say^ as the 
common version says, that death and hell were cast 
into the lake of fire, or into hell, is very absurd and 
unintelligible. It holds out tlie idea that one hell is to 
be destroyed in another. 

In the anticipation of the termination of hades Paul 
exclaims — **0 death where now thy sting! — O hades 
>vheiT now thy victory!** The passage which Paul 
quotes is from Hosea xiii. 14. and reads thus: — 

'^I will ransom them from the power of hades, 

^*I will redeem them from deatii^ 

**0 Death, 1 will be tiiy plagues! 

**0 Hades f I will be thy destruction! 
O death, thy power to separate spirits from tlieir 
bodies is no more! O hades thy dominion over dis- 
einboilied spirits is destroyed! 

Both the ancient Jews and Pagans supposed tliat 
hades tlie region of departed spirits was just as far 
below the earth as the distance from heaven to earth— 
and therefore we find allusions in tlie Old and New 
Scriptures to the common views of men in ap])1ying 
these words. — Thus we find Jonah, when in the deptlis 
of the sea, speaking of himself as in hades. Thus 
David says, **If I a«ce/i</ to heaveik tJiftv^ ^\\.^J^^^^^^S. 
/ mnkc my bed in, or desceuA \o hades ^wwk^'^xw^^ 
/// Jo\ too, the knowledge oi G^Vvs^ ^^A^-^^^^'^^^'S^' 



er than heaven, and dec})cr than hadesJ* And in thb 
style the Saviour speaks of CajH^rnaum, ^*TLough 
thou art exalted to heaven, thou shait be brought down 
to hadex,^* Tills is a strong way of expi*essing great- 
ness of privilege; and the deprivation that will ensue 
the neglect or sibusc of it. 

But it will be objected that Dives is represented as 
being in torment in hades; and that, conscqucntlyi 
tiie state of the condemned, or'V^hat is called hei/^ is 
fitly enough denoted by this term. *'This is the only 
passage/* says Dr. Campbell, "in holy writ which 
seems to give countenance to the opinion tliat hades 
sometimes means tlie same thing as gehennaj* In 
reply to all objections derived from this one passage it 
is to be noted — 

Ist. That before the Captivity, and the Macedonian^ 
and Roman conquests, the Jews observed the most pi'o- 
found silence upon the state of the deceased, as to 
their happiness or misery — They spoke of it simply 
^s a place of silence, darkness, and inactivity. 

2d. But after tlie Hebrcw^s mingled witli the Greeks 
and Romans they insensibly slided into their use of 
terms, and adopted some of their ideas on such sub- 
jects as those on which their oracles were silent. 
Hence the abodes of Elysium and Tartarus became 
familiar amongst the Jews^ and as the Gfreks and 
Romans had tlicir gardens and. fields of delights in 
hac/eSf and their Tartarus in the same i-egions: so the 
Jews assimulated to them, and had tbclr garden of 
Eden or paradise^ and their Tartarus, all within the 
boundaries of hades. — So Abraham^ s bosom and para- 
dise were the abodes of the happy separated spirits, 
and Tartarus was tlie abode of the wicked — Even, 
Pet(^.r« a Jew, and an apostle of Jesus Christ, adopts 
their word tartarus, and says, (^ Pet ii. 4.) TJiat 
€rod cast the angels that sinned down to Tartarus, 
In the common version it is hell; but in the original 
it is neither gehenna nor hades, but tartarus — Now 
the fact is, tliat these terms being thus introduced must 
have bad some of tlie ideas ol Wve Yico\Ae Wva.V tvvv?»\.\\^^^ 
tAcjn attached to them. And t\i^^. t\\^^ "v^ \Tk ^^^ 


Christian i^evelationy a degree of happiness and a de« 
grec of misery alotted to disembodied spirits^ is be- 
yond doubt or disputation: and, also, that perfect 
happiness and misery, or happiness and misery in 
their highest degi-ees, do not commence until the re- 
union of spirits to their bodies at the resun^ection, is 
n Tery common idea, and clearly taught in the Christ^ 
ian books — In hades, then, the receptacle of all the 
dead^ there are rewards and punishments. There ia 
a paradise or an Abraham*s bosom, and there is a tar^ 
tarus, in which the evil angels are chained, and the 
spirits of wicked men engulphed. Hence Dives in 
tartanis, and Lazaru9 in Abraham's bosom, were 
both in hades — Jesus and the converted thief wer^ 
togetlier in hades, while they were together in para^ 
disc. But Jesus continued ia hades but three days 
and nights — ^For of him these words were spoken^ 
^rhou wilt not leare my soul in hades, nor suffer my 
body to see corruption in the grave.'' This solves a 
great difficulty with many, arising from the good spi- 
rit of Samuel eaying to ihe wicked Saul, ^To-morroxo 
shall thou and thy sons be with meJ' viz. in hades. 

3d. It is remarkable that the words in construction 
"wiatihadeSfparadise, Abraham's bosom, smd tartarus bt^ 
always correspondent;, and those joined to heaven and 
heli perfectly suitable to the ideas attached to them. 
Hence Lazarus is said to be carried awatf, not up to 
Abraham's bosom^ but when Jesus leaves hades and 
the earth, and enters heaven, he is said to be taken uf^ 
into heaven. In the Greek text there is an exact um-^ 
formity which is not preserved in the English transla« 
tion. Sometimes the king's version has an up or a 
down which is not in the original. As in Paul's account 
t)f the two visions and different revelations he had in 
heaven. It is not caught up but caught away, but of 
this in its own place. There is, then, no repugnancy 
in the account of Dives and Lazarus to the above cri* 
ticisms on hades and g-ehenna. For hades is represent^ 
ed as tlie receptacle of all separated spirits whether 
good or evil, whether hap^^y or \ftYiaKoXiA\ \!^"^^*»^ 


there is a tartants^ between which flicre is an impasi* 
ble gulph. The happiness ot' those in paradise, and 
the misery of those in tartarus, will be augmented to 
perfection, when hades shall be destroyed;, wrhen right- 
eous spirits shall be united to their glorified bodie% . 
and when the wicked shall be cast into helL 

As these remarks will be applicable to so many pas« 
sages, solve so many difficulties, .and preclude iJie ne- 
cessity of other references, we shall just add anotlier. 
That, as w^e have seen in the instance of Capernaum, 
this term is sometimes used figuratively, as almost all 
other terms are. Even Moses is figuratively, a god to 
Aaron. In the New Testament it is once more used 
figuratively in connexion with the word gates. The 
gates of hades shall not prevail against tlie congrega- 
tion of disciples built upon the Rock — **Tho gates of 
hades," Dr Campbell observes, **is a very natural pep^ 
iphrasis for deaih?'^ ^^Wc have sufficient evidence sa- 
cred and profane that this is its meaning." Both the 
seventy translators and the Grecian poets use them thus 
'.^pulai adou. Hezekiah uses equivalent to dearhy "I 
said I shall gu to the gates of hades," i. e. T should die^ 
hut I have recovered. So Homer — eikos aidao pulesi^-* 
translated by Pope — 

*' Who can think one thing and another tell^ 
^^My soui dttests him as the gates of Ac//." 

I hate him as death, **To say then that the gates of 
hades shall not prevail against the church, is, in other 
words, to say, It shall never die, it shaU never be ex- 
tinct."— —jEa'. 


THERE 19, perhaps, do book read more than the 
Bible, and it appears as though no book generally read 
was less understood. This no doubt, has arisen from a 
combination of causes which exists in relation to no 
other book in the world. If any other book in the En- 
glish language, had as many commentaries written upon 
/t, had as many systems predVcaV^d w^^ni \^ ot >x^<sti i^^t« 
Jiicjxlar coustructions of itj-n-li any oXYiw V^oV^^x^^x- 


hibited in the same dislocated and dlstraofted light, had 
as manj debates about its meaning, and as many ditfer- 
ent senses attributed to its words; if any other book 
were read as the scriptures are commonly read, in the 
same broken, disconnected^ and caieless manner, with 
- the same stock of prejudices, and pre-conceived opin- 
ions, there is every reason to believe that it would be as 
unintelligible and as little understood as th« iiible ap- 
pears to be. We often wonder at (he stupidity of the 
Jews in our Saviour^s time in relation to his pretensions 
and claims; and, no doubt, posterity will wonder at our 
stupidity, and ignorance of a book, which we read so 
often, and profess to venerate so highly. There is a 
greater similarity in the causes and reasons of their and 
our indocility than we are aware. The evil One has tLe 
same interest in obscuring this volume, which he had in 
obscuring the evidences of his mission; and the viciosity 
of man, both natural and acquired, exhibits itself in the 
same aspect towards the Bible as it did in reference to 
the Person concerning whom It was all written. 

Bmt amono; the mjriads who religiously read the Bible 
why is it that so little of the spirit of it seems to be 
caught, possessed, and exhibited? I will give one rea- 
son, and those more wise may add to it others. Many 
read the Bible to have a general idea of what it contains, 
as a necessary part of a polite education; many read it to 
attain the means of proving the dogmas which they al- 
ready profess; many read it with a design of being ex- 
tremely wise in its contents; many read it that they may 
be able to explain it toothers; and alas! but few appear 
to read it supremely and exclusively that the> may prac- 
tise it; that they may be conformed to it, not only in 
their outward deportment, but in the spirit and temper 
of their minds. This is the only reading of it which is 
really profitable unto men, which rewards us for our 
pains, which consoles us now, and which will be remem- 
bered for ages to come, with inexpressible delight In 
this way, and in this way only, the spirit of it is caught^ 
retained, and exhibited. Some such readers seem to be 
enrapt or inspired with its ccnfents. Every sentiment and 
feeling which it imparts, seem to be the sentiments and 
feeling'of their hearts; and the Bible is to their reliQoa 
what their spirit is to their boA;^, V\\fi \A^ ^^^ '^v^''^^''\. 
thereof. The Bible to such «l pei^^oTi \^ vX^fc ^^<^>>^^ ^ 


conTersation with (he Lord of !ife. He speaks tn hea? en, 
iu the languao;e of heaven, ivhexi he prays in the belief cf 
its truth; and the Great Hod speaks to IjJni in the same 
language, and thus the trr.e and intelligent Ghristiao 
Ufoiki with God and eonvt^sea with him every day. One 
h«iurof such company is mure to be desired than a thou- 
sand yeurs spent in intimate converae with the wisest phi- 
losophers and most august potentates that earth ever saw. 


A NEW Paper has been issued in Kentucky called "The Bapti^ 
Xeg-iiter,*' (Edited Ly George Waller and Spencer Clack, Blooic- 
ficUl. It is both religious and political. A^'e are jg>Iad to sec thit 
its prospectus exhibits the editors as extremely afraid of nrw thing) ) 
and innovatiotu in the Christian religion, l^his is commendabie. 
vVoMtn^ that it not at old tu the JVVw rettament otig-ht to he admitted 
into the faith of Ch^uttiant. We hope that thev will reroenibfr 
this and contend for tlie faith once delivered to the saints. Ibive 
seen the second number only, in which there are some thin^d»!t 
I cannot altogether reconcile to their apparent abhorrence of ve» 
things. But 1 must understand them better, before I make any it- 
marks upon these things which seem to be new. So dir as they 
^•endeavor to ttrip religion (whether in the heart or out of it) of m- 
ry thing" like the tradition of men, and to prewent the truth in c 
plain and timple manner," so far will we cooperate with them, but 
ill so fur as they depart from this "endeavor^' so far wc cannpt bid 
them God speed.— JSt/. 


The few have had a conflict with the many in every attempt to- 
wards reformation since error got the better of truth. This fori 
long time must uniformly be the case. Therefore none ought to 
be discouraged because of the number or influence efthose leagued 
in support of any error. The history of the world is replete with 
info'-mation and encouragement on this subject. Truth fairly pre- ., 
sented, and enforced by tiie good example of its advocates has ever f 
triumphed, and will continue to triumph till the victor}' is complete. * 

iv. " 

0::J^UR eagerness to get the New Testament out of the press, \ 
and into the hands of the book -binder may, perhaps, retard the ap- 
pearance of the Apiil number when due. 0\ir subscribers will 
therefore know to what cause to attribute its delay, should it not 
arrive in the usual time. We cannot publish a list of agents until 
the present work is finished. To the same cause let our failui*e to 
answer such letters as are not on business be attributed. Of this 
kind there are scores on hand, which we cannot in justice to tliis 
arduous undertaking find time to answer. 

dy'Thereare nianycommunicatvon*Tec<iVife^fcT>\\\^v:tsfy.. s^t^w?- 

of them will appear in due t\xne. 

(^^I^S^'ilMf m^^Mil'< 


JVb. 9— Vol. lilj BUFFALOE, April 3, 1826. [ Whole .Vo. 33 

j^fy/e no man on earth your. Fathers for he alone w your father -who 
i§ in heaven; and all ye are brethren. Assume not the title of Rabbif 
fir ye have only one teacher: — JVeither assume the title of Leader; for 
ye have oniy one leader — the Mebbiau. 

[Mat. xxiii. 8—10. — ^— Campbell's Translation.] 
Prove all things: holdfast that which is good, 

[Paul the Apostle.] 


THE history of the world down fiom its first page till 
the present line represents man to be precisely such a be- 
ing, in respect to moral character, as the Bible describes 
him. In bis natural, or rather preternatural character, 
he exhibits himself to be ignorant of God, alienated from 
him, filled with enmity, hatred, selfishness, ingratitude, 
and a false ambition. However the refiex light of Chris- 
tianity in civilized nations, and what is called the science 
of morals approbated and enforced in the social com- 
pact and forms of government of pao;aa nations, have 
imposed restraints upon these evil principles, have offer- 
ed rewards to virtue, and assigned puni^hments to vice, 
still the radical principles of human depravity exhibit 
themselves in the best children of nature, under the best 
human culture; and therebv prove that, however they 
may be restrained,they still exist in all the bitterness of 
moral corruption Hence all the crime, misery, and 
wretchedness which appear in the human family. 

JL mind alienated from God is alienated from man. 
This is a truism of greater momentum in morale, than 
any axiom of Newton's is in physics. Hence every 
ficheme which has been adopted for moralizing and im« 
proving the social character of man, which has not been 
predicated upon the above truism, has failed of its ob- 
ject Like the universal sptcifics of empyrics, or the 
nostruma of quaiks, they have proved the disgrace of 
their authors; and the injury, if not the ruin, of the too 
credulous recipients . The C hristian scheme of mor aliz- 
ing and improving the world recommends itsplf to the 
philosopher upon his own principles. While false 
philosophy ascribes effects to m^^v.^xi'^V^. ^'^w's^'?^^ "j*^^ 
mould produce results regard\fts% oi ^si^ ^Vsx^'^^ *^'^'^^'*^'^ ^ 


true philosophy requires adequate causes, and means 
suitably adapted to the ends in view. Thus the 
Christian scheme of moralizing and felicitating the world 
is predicated upon the actual condition of the human 
family, and regards every symptom and exhibition of 
the complex case of human vileness. But it begins at 
the root of the disorder. Perfect moral health can be 
enjoyed^only in the temperature of perfect love to God, 
and on the food of perfect obedience to his will. A 
comfortable degree of this health can be enjoyed in this 
life, only by a reconciliation of the mmd to God, which 
necessarily produces benevolence in its manifold exhi» 
bitions towards man. The Christian scheme of amelio- 
rating society in this world, and fitting man for heaven 
is predicated upon these leading principles. 

1. That man is alienated from God through igno* 
ranee of him, and by his wicked works. 

^. That this ignorance, alienation, and these wicked 
works, must necessarily eventuate in his ruin, unless he 
be delivered from them. 

S. Tnat wicked works proceeding from alienation of 
mind, and alienation of mind proceeding from igno- 
rance of the moral cliRracter of God, the true and ra- 
tional course of procpdure in the deliverance of man 
fronn this state, commences with imparting to his mind 
just views of the character of God, which, when appre- 
hended, reconcile the mind to God and necessarily pro- 
duce philanthropy or benevolence to man. On these 
principles, which the wise men of this world on other 
subjects call philosophicdl, does the Christian religion 

The rudiments of Christianity or the first lessons 
which it imparts are compEehended in one sentence, viz. 
'^Gorf u love.^^ l.^his does not in its scriptural connex- 
ions, represent him as having no other perfections nat- 
ural or moral but that of love; but it represents him in 
hh procedure to men in the whole origin and process of 
ti.e work of reconciliation, in the amelioration of the 
character and condition of men, as supereminently dis- 
playing benevolence or philanthropy. 

]t is the love of men and not o[ individuals which is 
called philantkro'pif in the ^fevr T^^l^tcv^wt, Tho$e 
systems of religion which \)eg[\u «iii^ Vfc\\oAXi"a.\jfc \Tk. wjk% 


BAPTIST. 195 ' 

principle, viz. that God loves ^.only one nation or a few 
individuals of all nations as men, divest the Christian 
religion of God's means of reconciling human beings 
to himself. On this principle it becomes equally 
unavailing to the few who are loved as sinners; 
as it does to the many who are not loved as sinners. 
For no means are adapted to reconcile the mind of 
man to God but such as exhibit his benevolence to 
men indiscriminately. So lon^ as the Divine be- 
nevolence is represented as without any known ob- 
ject, as being a secret to every human being, neither 
those who are embraced in it, nor those who are left out 
of it, can derive one ray of hope from all the preacher 
can say about it, until they discover something in them- 
selves which warrants an opinion that they may be 
amongst the special objects of it. Hence their piety 
originates from a religious selfishness which enters into 
all their thoughts and expressions on the subject of the 
favour of God! 

All the terrors of the Lord cannot produce love in 
any creature alienated from hira^ else those evil spirits 
which kept not their first estate would long since have 
been reconciled to him. jyotking but the exhibition of 
love can destroy enmity. Hence in the word ofrtconcili* 
oHon which the apostles announced, the most emphatic 
sentence is — ^^God so loved the world that he gave his 
only begotten son, that whosoever believeth on him 
mav not perish but enjoy eternal life." They never told 
any congregation that God loved a world which nobody 
knew any thing about, that he loved a few here and 
there; and who was or was not one of these, nobody 
could tell. Such a representation of God's election, or 
purpose,i8 not worthy of the name of gospel or good news 
to all people, or indeed to any people. But of this 

To bring man to love God and one another is the 
high end of the Christian religion. This is happiness. 
The happiness of heaven is the happiness of perfect 
love. The intelligent Christian expects to be introduced 
into a society of the most refined and exalted intelli- 
gences, whose love to each other wvU b^ \w^'8w^^^^c^fc ^\ 
Bu^mentSLtion . Hence the sIqiu^^t^ ol Ci\vwX.v2c«^^^^* 
fyctioa ii graduated by love to IW \>x^\Xi^«^— ^^^ V^'^^ 


in so far as we have progressed in the cultivation of 
complacent affection and benevolence, so far have we 
obtained a taste for the society of the saved. 

One leading design of the institution called the churchy 
was to give its members 9,t<iste for the society of heav- 
en: for the fact is, but very few have any ttiste for such 
a society, and for such entertai nments as the intelligent 
and perfect Christian pants after, in the upper world. 
Many christians talk a good deal about heaven, but 
from their taste, as it exhibits itself, they would like, it 
is true, to be in the palace of the Great Sing, but they 
would rather be in the kitchen amongst the servants, 
than amidst his attendants that wait upon his royal per«^ 
son. They think more upon being safe than upon the 
high enjoyments, and talk more on escaping the burning 
lake, than on all the rational delights of pure and ezaltea 
spirits before the throne of the Almighty. 

Men have made many attempts to promote good 
will amongst a few — whom nature, interest, solemn 
pledges, climate or country had united. But these 
are poor substitutes for the grand scheme of con- 
sociation devised and published by the Almighty. Ev^ 
ery tie has been broken or worn out, which men have 
devised as a substitute for the ties of enlightened Chris* 
tian affection. But what consideration can unite men 
in the purest affection, as the manifold cords of the 
Christian religion? 

To the ties of nature, to all the bonds that draw the 
heart of man to man, Christianity adds considerations in* 
finitely more endearing. The one faith, the one hope^ 
thb one Spirit, the one Lord, open a new world of rela- 
tionships. Christians are united by the highest, strong- 
est, noblest ties that human reason knows; each of which 
is stronger than death, more triumphant than the grave. 
That we are redeemed by the same blood, bought bj 
the same Lord, purified by the same Spirit, embraced in 
the same love of tije Father; that we are to be joint 
participants of the same glorious resurrection, co-heirs 
of the same immortality, and joint inheriters of the same 
triumphant kingdom: that we are to be fellow*guests at 
the tndrriage supper of the Lamb, to attend the funeral 
ofnuure, a 1 1 f 1 to b p f e\lo w - cWvzeivs \n\V\\ i)^ VJev^ ^wt^ -a^wd 
^-^^Jttid iiiteii/i;ences of iVie umv^tse 'm qu^ fei«^^\\«%,\ 


thronp; forever, are considerations, if realized, which 
ou^ht, one would thinks to produce but one feeling to- 
wards all the household of faith, banish all discord, cov- 
er all defects, excite all sjmpathies, and elicit all broth« 
erly love. 

This is that fountain, the streams of which are pure 
morality. That formal, stiff, forced, mechanical and 
legal morality which appears detached from these prin- 
ciples, which grows from another root, is like the wild 
olive orthe forestgrape, which, while exbibitii g •ome 
of the appearance.<«, po.-isess not those valuable pioper- 
ties, on account of which, we appreciate those cultiva- 
ted by man. 

We are sorry to have to remark, that there appears 
to be a great falling off from the morality of the chris- 
tian religion, as well as from the ancient order of things 
in the christian communities. This is in a measure to be 
traced to the new bonds of union which have been 
adopted in different religious communities, and to at- 
tachmgan undue importance to the little party shibbo* 
leths which, in some societies, become at once the h(an- 
dard of both religion and morality. These are desulto- 
ry remarks, and intended as prefatory to a serits of cf- 
says on christian morality^ In the course of which we 
ai-e apprehensive that we shall fuai even amongst 
christiiins of the present day, that the standard *>f chris#^ 
tiao morality is many degrees lower thuu the apostolic. 


THE following letter is from the pen of one of the most intel- 
ligent, pious, and worthy Bishops in Virginia; wliose sUmding in 
the learned world obtained for him the honorajy degree of D. D. 
anil »vhose piety and intelligence refiif-ed the title as a badge of 
poperi . Believing this letter to be of importance to myself, and 
to lUe religious community at laige, i here lay it before the public 
with my remarks in reply to the same. 

King Sf Queen Co. Dec, 6, J825. 

Br^tder Campbell, 

Daar Sir — According to my promise to you' (and I 
may say tu Go 1 alho) I commence a. WV\.%.\ o^ <:vix^^^.>^vN\v- 
dercfi with you. —Your preacWmv; ^^k^^"^^ ^"^ wmww'^v^ 
me of Apoiioa who displayed, as nn^uvo^^^^^ ^^^^ ^'t'*^' 



talents, or as the scripture says, "was an eloquent man 
and mi^ljt}' in the scriptures." Apollos however with all 
his eioquence and miscbt in the scriptures submitted to 
be tauiiiht the way of God more perfectly, and that too 
by a Liciiianic and bis wife. After this he helped those 
much who had believed through grace. May I, though 
inferior to Aquiia, &.o. attempt a rf formation in princi- 
ple of one, not only eloquent and mighty in the scrip- 
tures, but deeply learned in all the wisdom of the Greeks 
and Romans. So far as I can judge by your writings 
}ind preaching, you are substantially a Sandemanian or 
Haldanian. I know you differ from them in some 
points^ but in substance you occupy their ground. Now 
I auQ not about to fall out with them as hereticks of the 
black sort. 1 think they have mqny excellent things 
among them, things I would gladly see more prevalent 
among us. But in some respects they are far from 
pure Christianity. Forbearance is certainly a christian 
grace, strongly recommended both by precept and ex- 
ample, in the word of God. It is an important branch 
of charity, without which knowledge is nothing, and the 
eloquence of angels nothing more than a tinkling cym« 
bal. Without christian forbearance no church fellow- 
bhip can be maintained, at least, so I think. The Hal- 
danians, I am persuaded, are greatly deficient on this 
head. J do not say they are wholly wittaout forbear- 
ance, but they limit its exercise to too narrow bounds. 
In all church decisions, say they, there must be an una- 
nimity, all must think alike. However desirable this 
may be it is impossible —men will differ in opinions hon- 
estly; hence, ualess allowance be made for ignorance, 
for humors, and even for obstinacy, th**re will be little 
peace, or however, peace cannot subsist long. The 
strone, must bear the burdens of the weak and not please 
themselves. I name th s one case out of many in which 
they use too little forbearance. Yoiiwill a«^k. Are there 
no limits? Douhtless.the same apostie who in one place 
says, ^' J please all ihtn in all /Aings,'* in another says, ^''do 
I seek lo pUastmtnV* ihe essence of the gospel must 
be mamtained at the expense of even life it.'^elf, and to 
do this more effectually, we must use forbearance in mi- 
juor fhJnffs. Gentleness of spml bfecooit^ ^^tirvant of the 
L»ord, and C5|>ecially towaids Uvoae N\\io o^^o^^ \.\\x>^ Ti& 


1>etii^ the most likely to bring them to repentance. But 
among the Haldanians (judging from writings) a gentle 
spirit is rarely to be found. Harsh and bitter sarcasms are 
the weapons with which they fight their opponents. This 
too I am the more disposed to think appliei to them as a 
dect. because I have known some of their parity who 
have appeared in private conversation, to be mild and 
gentle indeed, and every way pleasant; but when 
brought out in writing or public speaking, seemed to 
have another kind of temper. If you will bear with 
me I wiil suggest that this seems to me to be the case with 
the editor ot the Christian Baptist* As a man, in pri* 
vate circles, mild, pleasant and affectionate; as a writer, 
rigid and satirical, beyond all the bounds of scripture 
allowance. I have taken the Christian Baptist now 
from its beginning, i. e. I have read them from their first 
publication, and my opinion has been uniformly the 
same. That, although sensible and edited with ability, 
it has been deficient in a very important point, a JVew 
Testament spirit. It will not do to say there are hard 
sayings to be found in the scriptures. True, but that 
is far from being the general tenor of them. These 
hard expressions are to be found only at the end of Ions 
forbearance, and then they-cg^^ not contrary to the spirit 
of Christianity. This, may I say, is the most serious ob- 
jection to the Debate on Baptism, That book exhibits 
baptism in a most lucid point, sufficient I should think to 
convince every pedo-baptist that may ever read it. 
But the bitterness of the expressions unfortunately 
blind their minds with resentment, so as to stop up the 
entrance to truth. You will say it was but a retort to 
more bitter things from the other side. I answer error 
requires no such defence. Hence the persecutions of 
every age have been'on the side of error. But truthy holy 
truth, with God on its sids, requires no such support* 
Tis a tender plant that dwindles under such rough cul- 
ture. So much for forbearance,getitlene8s,&c.irour opin- 
ions on some other points are, I think, dangerous, un- 
less you are misunderstood, such as casting off- the Old 
Testament, exploding experimental religion in its com- 
mon acceptation, denying the existence of gifts in th^ 
present day commonly believed lo e'XA^V ^tcvwti^^^ ^'4'^^*",. 
Itval christisLasy such as preacVxm^, ^c . ^^suvfe ^<ic«^ ^ 


your opinion^ thong;h true, are pushed fo *»x*ppmes, 
8ucb as those upon the use of creeds, confessions. &c. 
Stc Your views of ministeiial support, directed against 
abuses on that bead, would be useful, but levelled a* 
gainst all support to ministers .(unless hy way of alms) 
is so palpably contrary to scripture and common justice, 
that I persuade myself that there mu<t be some misun- 
derstanding. In short, your views are generally so con- 
trary to those of the Baptists in genet al, that if a party 
ivas to go fully into the practice of your pinciples I 
ahould say a new sect had sprung up^ radically different 
from the Bsiptist?, as they now are. But I have almo>ji 
gotten through my paper with finding fault, an article 
too, that I have heretofore not dealt much in. Shall 
I close by telling you that we** ail feel much inteiest in 
your welfare personally, that your mild and sociable 
manners, &c procured among us not respect only, but 
brotherly love and Chrihtian affection, and that much of 
your preaching was admired for its eloquence and ex- 
cellency, and that if you would dwell upon those great 
points, chiefly, such as faith, hope, charity. Sic. you 
ivould be viewed by us as having a special command from 
Bim whom we hope you love, to feed his lambs and his 
sheep. By way of apology for you, and a small com- 
pliment to our folks, I was really struck while you were 
among us, that the acrimonious treatment which you had 
received from others had pushed you to certain severi- 
ties and singularities, which if you dwelt among us, } ou 
would relinquish. This letter is designed as a private 
correspondence, but if any good should arise trom its 
publication, I should have no objection, provided it 
came out wholly. 

P. S. [ was, writing this from first to last, two or 
three weeks. I yesterday got your December C. B, 
With which I am much pleased. Yours affectionately « 

R. IS. S. 

Terif Dear .Sir, 

B£I!NG very sensible that sundry items, in your letter arc 

matters or general importance, and of general interest, after due 

dtliberution on ils go .tenia, 1 coi\a\*\eted \t uvv dvitv to la) it be- 

fore the public. And hud it t^ov \>etTv vVv^x vcwi v.\?\\v:Cs^ \w\vs»*t *il 

its publicsiiioi), that it should vcYioVv^ •A^^tiiX-A'**^^^^^^*''*'^*^^^^'^** 


cd certain complimentary expressions, which, howcTer kind the 
motives which dictated them, are more flattering on your part^ 
than deserved on mine. The benevolent and christian spirit whicU 
appears in every sentence, while it explains and seasons your com« 
mendations, gives weight and emphasis to your censures. Thot 
latter however, are those in which I am most concemed, and in 
which most will agree in opinion with you. To myself ind^edf 
they are the more acceptable; having long since learned that the 
rebukes of a friend are taithfuU while the kisses of an enemy are 

I have no design to plead not guilty to the whole of your cor<r 
rections; nor to say that I do not need some of your reproofs and 
admonitions, but I have some explanations to offer, and misunder* 
standings to correct, which I beheve, will be as acceptable to yout 
as they are necessary for the sake of others. 

To pay due regard to tbe sundry items in your letter, I shall 
follow the order in which they appear; and in the first place, yoa 
say, '*So far as I can judge by your writings and preaching, yoa 
are substantially a Sandemanian, or Haldanian," This is substan* 
tially affirmed of me by many who have never seen or read one 
▼olume of the writings of Sandeman or* Haldane: and with the 
majority it has great weight, who attach to these names something 
as heretical and damnable, as the tenets of Cerinthus and the Nicola^ 
tans. I have not myself ev^r read all the works of those men, bult 
I have read more of them than I approve, and more of theia 
than they who impute to me their opinions, as heresy. I was some 
fourteen years ago a great admirer of the works of John Newtoiv 
I read them with great delight, and I still love the author and ad- 
mire many of his sentiments. He was not a staunch Episcopalian 
though he died in tliat connexion. In an apology to a fnend for his 
departure from the tenets of that sect in some instances^ he said^ 
whenever he found a pretty feather in any bird, he endeavored t9 
attach it to his own plumage and although he had become a very 
speckled bird, so much so that no one of any one species would 
altogether own him as belonging to them, he flattered himself that 
he was the prettiest bird among them. From that cUv to the pres- 
ent i have been 1 >oking for pretty feathers, and 1 have become 
more speckled than Newton of Olney; but whether i have as goo^ 
a taste in the selection, must be decided by connoisseurs mornithol* 

Concerning Sandeman and Haldane, how they can be associate^ 
under one species, is to me a matter of surprise. The former a 
Paido-baptist, the latter a Baptist; the former as keen, as sharp, ae 
censorious, as acrimonious as Juvenal; tlie latter as mild, as char* 
itable, as conciliating as any man this age has produced. As au* 
thors I know them well. The one is like the mountain stona 
that roars among the cliffs; the other, like the balmy zephyrs thet 
breath upon banks of violets. That their views were the same on 
tome poinu, is as true as that JLuther, Calvin, and Wesley agreed 
in many points. 

J wan once much pti22ledontV\e%\vV^ec\.^i^ >^ar«««^*^^'^^^'^B^^*» 
1 mcda bia Tberon and Aapaiio. 1 ap^voiptvkXtt^ ww^ ^vdns* ^»»» 


ibr exftminin^this subject. I assembled all the leadiQg^ writers of 
that day on Uiese subjects. I laid before me Robert Sanaeman^ 
Harvey, Marshall, Bellamy, Glass, Cud worth, and others of mi" 
nor fame in this controversy. I not only read, but studied, and 
wrote off in miniature their respective views. 1 had Paul and 
Peter, James, and John on the same table-^I took nothing upon 
trust. I did not care for the authority, reputation, or standing 
Of one of the systems a grain of sand. I never weighed the con- 
tequences of embracing any one of th% systems as affecting my 
standing or reputation in the world. 

Truth, (not who says so,} was my sole object, t found much 
entertainment in the investigation. And I will not blush, nor do 
I fear to say, that, in this controversy, Sandeman was like a g^ant 
among dwarfs. He was like Samson with the ^tes and posts of 
^aza on his shoulders. J was the most prejudiced against him, 
and the most infavour of Harvey when I commenced this course 
Of reading. Yet I now believe that not one of them was exactly 
bn the track of the apostles. I have also read Fuller's stricturet 
bn Sandemanianism, which I suppose to b^ the medium of most of 
the information possessed on that subject in this country. 1 his 
is the poorest performance Andrew Fuller ever gave to the 
Worid. I have not read it for a lon^ time; it is on the shelves of 
Ikiy library, but I will not at this time brush the dust off it If 
t remember right he concedes eveiy thing in the first two or three 
Images, which he censures in the rest of his work, except it be 
the spirit of the system. And the fact is (which indeed he indl^ 
f^ctly acknowledges) that Andrew Fuller was indebted more to 
John Glass and Robert dandeman than to any two men in BritaiA 
for the best part of his views — I will not here |>ause to inquire 
Whether he wrote those strictures to save himself from tht obloquy ' 
4>f being called a Sandemanian, as someccmjecture, or whether he 
wrote them to ^ve a blow to Arclubald M*Clane of Edinburgh^ 
Who had driven him from the arena some years before: but I wrli 
0ay it is a very poor production, and proves nothing that either Rob* 
ert Sandeman or Archibald M*Clane felt any concern in oppos- 

But, my dear sir, while I am pretty well acquainted with aH 

this controversy since John Glass was excommunicated by the high 
church of Scotland, for preaching that Christ's kingdom is tft of 
ihis Worlds which is now more than a century ago; and while I 
ficknowledge myself a debtor to Glass, Sandeman, Harvey, Cud- 
Worth, Fuller, and M^Clane; as much as to Luther, Calvin, and ' 
John Wesley; 1 candidly and unequivocally avow, that I do not 
beheve that any one of them had clear and consistent views of the 
Christian religion as a vhole. Some of them no doubt had clear 
•nd correct views of some of its truths, nay of many of them, but 
they were impeded in their enquiries by a false philosophy and 
metaphysics, which fettered their own understanding in some of 
the plainest things. For instance, with the exception of Fuller 
mnd M'Clane, they all contended fot the popish rite of baby bap* 
tistn or sprinkling. As to Jamea H^X^lMv^ \ wb. \«.«^ \yA^\sA \ft 
^^ Uuua to xfiOBt cf the oth«n» lw«i is»k^ y^^i^a^^vA^^^jcceh^ 


fiis views and procee^lings when in Scotland, owing to mjr connex« 
ion with those who were engaged in a controversy with his brother 
Hobert, and against the system in general. I have since my arri. 
val in this country, read some two or three pieces from his pen; 
one in favour of infant baptism, and one against it, and some 
others I do not now recollect. I have heard a great deal of hint 
•and his brother Robert from members of their connexion, who 
have emigrated to this country; and while I do not believe that 
there lives upon the earth a more godly, pious, primitive Chris* 
tian, than James Haldane of Edinburgh; and few, if any, more 
generally intelligent in the Christian scriptures, you express my 
views of that system generally. Being possessed of a very large 
estate and connected by marriage with some of the most illustrious 
families of North Britain; these two brothers, especially the elder, 
had much in their power. From the best information I have gath- 
ered, Robert Haldane has expended something like 400,000 dol- 
lars, in what he deemed to be the cause of the Redeemer; and, no 
doubt, will have his reward. He now sees, and acknowledges, 
that much of this money, though benevolently appropriated, was 
misapplied — He had, at one time, a great notion*of training poor 
and pious young men for "the gospel ministry,** and I think, in a 
few years he had some fifty or sixty educated, boarded, and equip- 
ped for the field, at his own expense. Many of those, without the 
spirit of their master, became just such spirited men as you 
describe. Some of them, too, excellent men, caught the spirit 
of Robert Sandeman, and became fierce as lions in the garb of 
lambs, hyper Calvinists, Separatists, with whom "tenth, or ten 
thousandths broke the chain alike.** No matter if an agreement 
existed in nine hundred and ninety-nine opinions, if in the thou- 
.^ sandths, there was a difference, the chain was severed, and they 
were to one another as heathen men and publicans. 

While I thus acknowledge myself a debtor to those persons, I 
must say, that the debt, in most instances, is a very small one. I 
am indebted, upon the whole, as much to their errors as to their 
virtues, for these have been to me as beacons to the manner, 
who might otherwise have run upon the rocks and shoals. 
And, although, it is a catachrisis to say, that a sailor is indebted to 
those who have fallen upon rocks, on which he might have been 
wrecked, had not others, before him, been unfortunate in this way; 
yet, I must acknowledge, that the largest amount of my debts is 
of this kind, though, in some instances, 1 have been edified and 
instructed by their labours. 

For the iast ten years I have not looked into the works of any of 
these men; and have lost the taste which I once had for controver- 
sial reading of this sort. And during this period my enquiries in- 
to the Christian religion have been almost exclusively confined to 
the holy scriptures. And 1 can assure you that the scriptures, 
when made their own interpreter, and accompanied with earnest 
desires to the author of these writings, have become, to me, 
a book entirely new, and unlike what they were w\vwvt^%!\ "wx^^ 
consulted as a book of reference — ^1 call ivo tcv*^tv xiva&Xft^ xslt^^w ^«i 
earth; and although my own father lku& Y>t«ik ^ ^S^^^oX ito^^\3&i% 


and teaclieip of the Christian rclig-ion since his youth; and, 
opinion, understands this book as well as any person with v 
•m acquainted, yet there is no man with whom I have debated 
and reasoned more, on all subjects of this kind, than he. — 
been so long^ disciphned in the school of free enquiry, th 
know my own mind, there is not a man upon the earth whc 
4hority ca'h influence me, any farther than he comes with t 
tbority of evidence; reason, and truth- To arrive at this s 
tnind, is the result of many experiments and efforts; and 
has been arduous beyond expression. 1 have endeavoured 1 
the scriptures as though no one had read them before me; ai 
as much on my guard against reading them to-day, through t 
dium of my own views yesterday, or a week ago, as I am j 
being influenced by any foreign name, authority, or system 

You say, that, **those people have many excellent things 
them; things, you would gladly see among us." So say I, 
think, "they are very defective in forbearance." This n 
still true for any thing 1 know; but one thing I do know, that ( 
congregations in this connexion are far more "forbearing^' th 
Baptists in Virginia. For several of them receive unbaptize 
• sons to the Lord's table, on the ground of forbearance. Th 
gregation in Edinburgh in connexion with James Haldane, ai 
in Tubermore in connexion with Alexander Carson, two 
most prominent congregations in the connexion, do actual 
pense with baptism on the ground of ^^forbearance" I believi 
are some others who carry "forbearance" thus far. These j 
have been much slandered at home and abroad by an inte 
priesthood, and I do know that many things reported of them 
country are false. They say that when a Paido-baptist giv« 
dence that he is a Christian, and cannot be convinced that 
baptism is a human tradition, he ought to be received into a 
tian congregation as a brother, if he desires it, irrespective « 
weakness. They were once more tenacious of their pecuhai 
than at present. 

But, on the subject o{ forbearance^ I have to remark, thai 
is no greater misapplication of a word in our language that I 
of, than of this one. In strict propriety it does not apply ai 
the subject in relation to which it is copnmonly used. No m 
be said to forbear with another, except in such cases as 1: 
done him an injury. Now when Christians differ in opinion 
any subject, unless it can be made appear that the opinion 
is injurious to B. the latter cannot forbear with the former, 
is no room, nor occasion for forbearance; for B. is not injur 
the opinion of A. To say that Christians must exercise fc 
ance with one anot)ier because of differences of opinion, is 
ting that they h^ve a right to consider themselves injured, < 
one christian has a right to consider himself injured, becaua 
ther differs in opinion from him. It is precisely the same m 
which is committed by those who ask the civil authorities to t 
fUl or any religious opinions. T\\e met^ «5^w^ Iv^x tr^Utratu 
^^o^oizea a right which no civW goveinmcoX^^^^^^^M^'w^^ 

BAPTIS r. 96S 

«9 a principTc of calamitous consequenct s; viz. that opinions con- 
trary to the majority, or the national creed, are a pibllc injury, 
"which it ts in the power of jfovernment to punish or tolerate, ac- 
cording to their intellipfence and forbearance. Civil rulers have no 
n^ht to tolerate nor punish men on accovmt of their opu.icns in 
matters of reUg^on. Neither have christians a right to coiidenm 
tiieir brethren {av difi'erences of opinion, nor even to talk of for- 
bearing with one another in matters of opinion. The scriptures 
S);eak of the forbearance of God, and teuch that christians in cer- 
tain cases should forbear with une another in cases of injury bus- 
taine^U bitt never, that I can see, on account of matters ot opinion. 
A person might as well be said to forbear with his natural brother, 
because he was Ofily ten years old, or five feet high, or because he 
had grey eyes, as to forbear with his christian brother because he 
differed from him in some opinions. I know that we all use the 
term forbearance in a very unu-urrantable sense; and that it is diffi- 
cult to find a term every way appropriate to conmmnicate correct 
ideas on this subject. To bear with, or to allow a brother to ex- 
ercise his own Judgment, is no doubt all that you intend by the 
term, and this is certainly inculcated in the apostolic writings. 
And I am willing to carry tliis princlj»le to its greatest possible 
extent; though, as you say, there is, and must be, a slopping 
place. So long as any man, woman; or child, declares his confi- 
dence in Jesus of Nazareth as God's own Son, tnat he was deliver- 
ed for our offences, and raised again ibr our justification: or, in 
o»her words, that Jesus is the Mtssiali, the Saviour of men, and 
so long as he exhibits a willingness to obey him in all tilings ac- 
cording to his knowledge, so long 1 will receive him as a christian 
brother, and treat him as such. 

What you say of the ''Chnstian Baptist" as being deficient in 
one important point — "a J^Tevf Testament spirit " nexL tijerits n.y 
attention. This mav be true. And 1 am thankful to voi. ior your 
kind remarks upon this topic. One tiling, however, 1 ' : n say that 
I am conscious of the most benevolent intentions and kind feelings 
towards the persons of -those very men, on whose conduct and 
measures I have animadverted wiih the most apparent severity. 
But I will not say that what I have written exhibits this spirit to the 
best advantage. I can, I acknowledge, with the utmost good 
nature and benevolence, say and write nary things that will apprar, 
and that, to strangers, do appear, to be dictated by a very differ- 
ent spirit. I know that what you say of the general spirit of the 
New Testament is true; but there is one thing on w nich I have 
thought a good deal, which i think escapes the observation of 
many; viz. that if the apostles were on earth now, and were to 
write upon the present state of things in Christendom, tbcir 
writings would appear to be very different in spirit from those 
which they w-rote when first declaring God's philanthropy in the 
g'fl of his Son. They then spcke ai.d wrote in the full spirit of 
this benevolence. But when a defection began to a^^ear^ c.vA. 
apostacy began to shew i<8 face, tVie s\;oa>Ae ^^btguti to c'h.uiv^fc ><*%> 
voire," and iv exhort others to carry oi\ a gi><»d -wcvje-ve ^m^v^ 
tbo3c seducing spirits, and to reprove, xt\i>iks., ^^^ ^^^"^ "*^ 


«bRi*pne8s too. Judging from what they said when false teacbem 
began to appear, both of them and to others concerning them, I 
am of the opinion that the same spirit of benevolence which ap- 
pears in their public annunciation of the gospel, would lead them 
now to sp^ak in a style similar to that in which the epistle of Jude, 
and the second epistle of Peter are written. These things I do not 
ad>ance as an excuse fornnyself, in all respects; fori know that few 
will apprehend that the '^Christian Baptist^' is written in the spiiit 
in which 1 am conscious it is. But I think that the New Testament 
spirit is a spirit of meekness, of mildness, of benevolence, and of 
decided hostility to all and every corruption of the gospel. The 
physician is not less benevolent, when, as a surgeon, be amputates 
a linib, than when he administers an anodyne. Yet there would be 
a manifest difference in his spirit and temper, in the judgment of ft 
spectator who did not enter into his views and motives in these two 
actions*- Inhere is one fact which will not be out of place to state 
here. It is this: There are many topics which would lead to the 
exltibition of what would appear in the fullest sense, and in your 
own sense, of the words "a JVVto Testament spirit" which I would 
have gladly introduced inlo this work; but owing to its eircum- 
scribed dimensions, and the force of opposition, I have bad to 
withiiold, or to cause them to yield to those topics which are tn% 
least conducive to what, in the estimation Of the majority, is the 
spirit you would wish to see more strikingly exhibited. Hence so 
much of one species of composition gives a general character, both 
to the matter and manner of the work. So much for **a JVVw 
Testament spint," I will conclude this item by obsenin^ that I 
hope to profit from your remarks on this subject. 

among all spiritual christians, such as preaching," &c. which you 
think "are dangerous" unless I am misunderstood, I have not room 
to say much at prcbewt. On the subject of "experimental religion" 
srjiTie remarks will appear in the next number under another 
head; and with reference to **casting off the Old TeBtametit^* I 
will just observe, that 1 know not of one sentence in the "Christian 
B;»ptist" that holds out such an idea. As to Divine authority, I have 
at all times viewed it and represented it as equal to the New, But 
that clirislians are not under it, but under tlie J\i'erot I have con- 
tended, and must still contend. And as to the present existence 
of ^spiritual gifca** in the church, in the New Testament sense of 
these words, I do not believe that any such exist. But if you mean 
to call preaching, teaching, praying, praising, exhorting, ard 
ruling, spiritual gifts, 1 do believe that such gifts do exist, and 
tiiat tliere is sufficient room for a very liberal exhibition of them in 
the present day. 1 have thought that my essays on the work and 
office of the Holy Spirit had sufficiently exhibited my views on this 
subject, so as to preclude misapprehension. Any objections, 
candid or wncajidid, against tYie \\ev;s e"s\\\\i\Ved \ti these essays, I 

BAPTIST, ftor 

Bat I hasten to your remark on ministerial support. Tou say, 
*'Your views of ministerial support, directed against abuses on that 
heady would be useful; but levelled against all support to ministers 
(unless by way of alms) is so palpably contrary to scripture and 
common justice, that I persuade myself that there must be some 
misunderstanding.'* Now, my dear sir, the words **nUm8teriiU 
support" are so vague and so latitudinarian, that I do not believe 
that 1 could be understood by any person who uses them in the 
common acceptation, if I speak in the style of the New Testament. 
On this subject I have said but little, except by way of allusion to 
existing customs, and have generally condemned, and must con> 
demn the popular course. 1 have said something on the word 
minister, which 1 beheve to be of importance in this question. But 
I have not arrived in my course ot essays on ^*Tke Restoration** to 
that place which would lead me to exiubit what I deem the views 
of the New Testament on the bishop's office, call, ordination, and 
support. That any man is to be paid at all for preaching, «. e. making 
sermons and pronouncing them; or that any man is to be hired for 
a stipulated sum to preach and pray and expound scripture by the 
day, month, or year, I believe to Be a relic of popery. 

The difference between a hireling **minister," and a bishop, I 
will endeavor to illustrate in my next essay on the ••Ancient Order 
of Things," to which I refer you for the present. I db-know, for I 
inquired when in your vicinity, that you have never esteemed gain 
to be godliness, and that although you have labored much as a 
bishop and as a preacher, you have never made it, sought it, or 
found it to be a lucrative calling. And I am sure that you do not 
object to any thing you have seen in the "Christian Baptist" on 
this subject, because it either has operated, or was feared to 
operate against you. In the words of the apostle, «*you have not 
thus spoken that it should be so done unto you." I say, I am con- 
vinced of this, and that you speak in behalf of others, and lor the 
6ake of consistent views of the christian religion. 

Your last observation in your table of corrections, I come now 
to notice. It is this: •*ln short, your views are generally so contra- 
ry to those of the Baptists in genera], that if a party was to go 
fully into the practice of your principles, I should say a new sect 
had sprung up," &c. This is neither a commendation nor a re- 
probation of the "Christian Baptist," until one or two questions 
are answered. 

In the first place. Are the Baptists generally now following in , 
the steps of the primitive church — are they up to the model of the 
New Testament? Upon the answer given to this query, your last 
remark conveys praise or blame. If they are in the milienial state, 
or in the primitive state of the church, then every thing that 
would change their order and practice is to be reprobated and dis- 
countenanced by every christian. But if not, every well meant 
effort to bring them up to that state, as far as scripture and reason 
approbate, ought to be countenanced, aided, and abetted by every 
one that loves the Lord Jesus Christ \t\ svwcctvV'^ . 

Again, it may be asked for the sa^ke o^ n w^eV^ > "^ w^^ ^c^n' 
congregation of saints, built exact\y \\)^oxv \X\^ ^owtA^^^^ ^^ "^ 


»postlc-A and nropliets, and walking in 9II the commandments md 
ord^itu'.iccs of ttie Lor J biaroelessl\, appear \'ike a new sect iriung 
amongst the B -prists, or any other secc in thi» country? 

Arut, in the third place. Ought not every christian who paats 
for the millt-nial state, or a restoration of the ancient order o£ things, 
to LABOR to promote so desirable an event by ail the means in hii 

On the view taken of these questions, and the answer given to 
tliem, depends the import and weight of your last remark. In the 
mean time I must come to a close, referring you on this last topic t« 
my reply to an ^Independent Baptist" in the next namfoeTy for a 
more luminous ejr^off^of the principle embraced in it; aasanng yott 
at the same time that I will maturely weigh and candidly attend to 
any remarks you may please to favor me with on any topic embraced 
ill this reply, or on any other embraced in this work* I hope 
always to possess and to be able to exhibit the spirit and temper of 
a diseiple of him who taught his followers to love and to obey the 
truth, and who gave us an example in his own person, that the 
most exalted, glorious, and happy coarse of Hfe, is to do the will of 
our Heavenly Father. ' 

With sentiments of the htghest respect and affection^ 
1 remain your Fellow-Sen-ant, 
In the hope of immortality^ 




A BISHOP without acliarge ordure, is like a hus- 
band witliout a wife, a contradiction in sense, if not is 
terms. Thei*e must be sheep before there can be a 
shepherd, and tliere must be a congregation befoi*6 
there can be an overseer. Tliere must be work to. be 
done, before there is occasion for a workman. Prom 


all which it is plain, there must exist a congregation 
of disciples before thei'e is any office, officer^ call, 
ordination, or charge concerning them. A bishop 
without a congregation, a president without people, a 
teacher without pupils, is like an eye without ahead, a 
tongue without a mouth, a hand without a body. From 
these incontestihle dictates of common sense, if there 
were not a hint in the oracles of heaven upon the sub- 
ject, it would a]>pear, tliat the existence of bishops or 
overseers was, in the ordev o^ x\^\\w^, \tv ^^ «^^t ^C 
reason, in the order ot God, ^»\j&r\OT\»^^ wsXrxnr^ 


of churches or congregations. But the apostolic wri»- 
tings arc as plain as the dictates of common sense upon 
this subject They teach us that the office of bishops 
was the last thing instituted, or, in other words, thi.t 
the apostles and evangelists had fulfilled their coni- 
niission, L e. had proclaimed the gospel, made disci- 
ples, baptized thein, convened them, and taught tiiem 
the christian doctrine, before they suggested to them 
the necessity, utility, and importance of the office of a 
bishop. Thus we find the apostles in their subsequent 
or last visits to the congregations which tliey had 
planted, iiifstitating, appointing, and giving directions 
concerning the bishop^s office. 

From these premises it must follow, that as the en- 
listing of soldiers is previous to their training; the 
making of disciples, to teaching them; the gathering 
of congregations, to setting them in order, necessarily 
the bishop's work is diffeient from that of a missionary, 
a preacher, an evangelist, in the New Testament im- 
port of these terms. That the work of a hiahop is dif- 
f treat from everij other tvork requisite to forming a 
congregation is self eviiknt from one fact; viz. that 


How congregations ^r6f came into existence, is one 
question; how they are to be brought into existence 
now, is another question; and what is a christian 
bisho]), or his work, is a question essentially distinct 
from both. To arrive at clear and distinct views on 
any subject, we must simplify, not confound; we must 
take one topic at a time; we must Wew it in all its 
bearings, and still keep it separate and distinct from 
every other. 

We are now on ihc btshop^s offce, as presented to ns 
in the primitive congiTgationSj and not on the question, 
ho7u these congreg'aiions were gathered then^ nor how 
con/fregatio7is are to be gathered now. On these ques- 
tions we have di*opped some hints already, and lu'j.^ 
hereafter be more diffuse. V^^eVi^^vrv VvOtx ^ ^mv^^^i^^^- 
grition such as tliat in Antioc\\, ov \\\^\. \^ ^^^^'^^^^ 

o Jlk. 


and convened the disciples in those places; had opened 
to their minds the christian doctrine; in process of time 
tiiey had so fat* progressed iii this doctrine, as to be 
able to edify one another; some, as in all societies, 
pt*ogresscd faster, and fartlier than others. Some were 
liottcr qualified to preside, to rule, and to teach^ than 
others; and the constitution of man as an individual, 
and of men in society, is such as to require, for the 
sake of intelligence, order, peace, hai*mony, and gene- 
ral good, that there be persons set apart, or a}>pointed 
to certain functi(ms, which are necessary to ^e good 
of the whole associate body. The exigences of the 
congregations required this; both with regard to them- 
selves, and to otliers. Thus originated the bishop^s 

The nature of the bishop's office may be learnt either 
from the exigencies of the congregations, orfromihe 
qualifications by which the apostles have designated 
bishops. Tiie qualifications which the bishop must 
possess, show what was expected from him. These 
qualifications are of two sorts: such as respect the 
work to be done by the bishop; and, secondly, such as 
respect the dignity of character which his prominence ^ 
in the christian congregation behooves him to possess. 
The former are those which some call gifts, or talents, 
of tlie intellectual order; the latter ai*e endowments , 
purely moral or religious. 1 hose with which we ai-e 
at present concerned, are of the intellectual order. 
Tiiese are comprized under two general head% viz. 
teaching and presiding. He must be qualified to teach^ 
and be able by sound teaching, both to convince and to 
exhoi^t those who oppose the truth. He must feed the ■ 
flock of God with all those provisions which their ex- 
igences require, or with wldch God has furnished tlieni 
in the christian institution. He must preside well. He 
is from office the standing president of the congrega- 
tio}.; and it heing requisite that he should be one that 
presides well in his own Itousehold, plainly imports 
what is expected from liim Ui the clu'istian congji gc- 
//i our ordinary meeting^., aXico\A:vcvi\»>3cvR ^^n^- 


ing order in our congregations, we kave no need of a 
president; we only desire and need an orator. Hence 
we have often been asked, (Vhat are we to iinder stand 
by a bishop's ruling or presiding well} 1 have gener* 
ally replied, (perhaps rather satirically,) that thifr 
ancient congregations were not so well bred as the 
modern; that they were apt to ask questions and pro^ 
pose difficulties, and some arose to address their breth- 
ren, in the way of admonition and exhortation; but 
that we Americans were a well bred people^ had stu- 
died the etiquette of gentility in our meetings; and that 
our bishops needed not the qualifications of a president 
of a family, tribe, or conmiunity, no more than the 
president of the United States wanted a life-guard in 
these peaceful times; or a shepherd a staff to guard 
his sheep, when wolves and dogs were extinct. 

In what are called ^^meetings of busiuess^*' once a- 
month^ or once a-quarter, there is some apprehension 
that a president or ^^moderator" may be necessary, 
and the fii^t thing done is to elect or appoint on^^ 
never considering or viewing the bishop as any more 
president from office, than any other member; a posi- 
tive and explicit proof that even the idea of presiding 
zvell is not so much as attached to the bishop's office, 
in these times, amongst the Baptists too. 

A congregation of disciples, which is modeled upon 
the New Testament,, will find, WidX presiding well \s 
just as indispensable as teaching well^ and that the 
prohibition of novitiates, or young inexperienced dis- 
dlsciples, from the bishop's office, is as wise a provi- 
sion as any otlier in the cliristian institution. 

Tiic bishop of a christian congregation will find 

much to do tiiat never enters into the idea of a modern 

])ivacher or '"minister." The duties he is to discharge 

lo Christ's flock in the capacity of teacher and presi- 

liciit, will engross much of his time and attcntior. 

lhcrefow> the idea of remuneration for his services 

was attached to the office from its first institutior). 

Tiiis is indisputably plain, not owV^ Axvvav >^\^ ^^^*i<!^^ 

co/iijjia/3f/sdeJivere<l to t\\e coivgv'^^'aNlvwx^v^^^^'^^''^^^^^^ 
hints uttered with a reference \ft\XW^*Kvc^V\5a^^ ^«^^^ 


thduld it ht fl6 Much as hinted that the bishd^id were 
not to take the dvei*sight Of the flock **for the sake of 
sordid ffain^^* if M eiAolomeiit or l^mitiieration was 
attach^ to the offtce? The abuses of the principle have 
kd many to oppose ereti the principle itself. We have 
0aid much tigaiilst the hiireltng system, and see ho just 
gt'Olund as yet tof t^fraini so long sua the salration of the 
gospel^ the convei-sion of th^ world, and heaven itself, 
are articles of traffic! and in the market, like other 
Commodities, accessible to the highest bidder. The 
motto ovfer the spiritual warehouses is^ **T/te Highest 
Bidder shall be the Purchaser J*^ And we are persuaded 
by a hundred venal prints, that if the church had the 
bank of the United States « that of London, andParis^ 
it Could in twenty years convert the whole world, with 
the exception of a few millions of reprobates. I say, 
While such is the spirit breathed fi*om the pulpit and 
the press, there exist ten thousand good reasons for 
lifting up our voices like a ti'umpct, crying aloud, and 
sparing not. 

But to discriminate on this subject, and to exhibit 
where, and when, the hireling system begins; to 
graphically define, bound, and limit, beyond the power 
of cavil, on the one hand, and abuse on the othci*, has 
appeared to us a desideratum. W hileon the subject we 
shall make one eifoi-therc, subject to futui-e and farther 
amendment, as circumstances may require. 

A hireling is one who prepares himself for the office 

of *'a preacher", or *^9ninister,'* as a mechanic learns 

a trade, and who obtains a license from a congi'ega- 

tion, convention, presbytery, pope, or diocesan bishop, 

as a preacher or minister, and agrees by the day, or 

Sermon, month or year, for a stipulated reward. This 

definition requires explanation. That such, however, 

is a hireling, requires little demonstration. He Icfiriis 

the art and mystery of making a sermon, or a prayer, 

as a man learns the art of making a boot or a shoe. 

JIc intends to make his living in whole, or in part, by 

making sermons and prayei*?^^; viwd \ve ?^ets himself up 

/•> tJie highest bidder. He ngvee^ tor ^q \ft>\c\\ ^^v y\«\m\\^ 

^^ for /i/t^ -two in the \NhoYvfevv\e Vi^n, ^vA^vnv *^v^^i\\j\\w 

BAM'IST, 218 

Slim undertakes to furnish so many; . but if a better 
oifCir is made faim when his first contract is out, (and 
sometimes before it expires,^ lie will agree to accept a 
better price. Such a preacher or minister, by all the 
rules of grammar, logic, and arithmetic, is a hireling 
in the full sense of the word. 

But there are other hirelings not so barefaced as 
these, who pretend to be inwardly moved\by the Holy 
Spirit to become ministers; and who spurn at any other 
qualification than the impressions and suggestions of 
the Holy Spirit; who are under an awful woe if they 
do not preach; and yet agree merely in the ciq^acity of 
supplies, ov preachers, to act the preacher for some 
small consid^^tion. Upcm the whole, I do not think 
we will err very much in making it a general rule^ 
that every man who receives money for preaching the 
gospek, or for sermons, by the day, month, or year, is a 
l^ireling in the language of truth and soberaess — wbe* 
ther he preaches out of his saddlebags, or from the 
immediate suggestions of the Holy Spiril^ 

The christian bishop pleads no inward call to the 
work, and never sets himseUTto learii it. The hireling 
does both. The christian bishcm is called by the breth- 
ren, because he has tiie qualifeations already. The 
minister says he is inwardly called, and prepares him* 
self to be called, and induces others to coil him. The 
former accepts of the office for tiie congregation of 
which he is a member, and takes tiie oversight of theoif 
and i*eceives from them such remuneration as his cir- 
cumstances require, and as they are bound in duty to 
contribute to him, not (or preaching the gospel at all, 
for this they have already believed, enjoyed, and pro- 
fessed; but for laboring among them in teaching, and 
watching over them, in admonishing them, in presiding 
over them, in visiting them in all their afflictions, and 
in guarding them against seduction, apostacy, and 
every tiling that militates against their growth in 
knowledge, faith, hope, and love, and retaining their 
begun confidence unshaken t» tUecuA. TV^Vi^tec ^^5*^ 
about looking for a flock, aiiA vAiftw^kfc toA^ ^^^ssa^ 
suits hh expectations, he takea iSas^ Oaax^'^ ^^"^ ^^"^ ^ 


year or two, until he can suit himself better. Th^ 
former considers himself the overseer or president of 
the one congregation only who called him to the office; 
and that when he leaves them he resigns the office, and 
is no longer president; — the latter views himself as a 
bishop alt hi$ life. He was one before he got his present 
charge, and when he abandons it he is one still. He 
has been called of God as Aaron was; and remain eth 
a priest forever. The christian bishop was chosen and 
ordained from bis outward and visible qualifications 
i¥hich the apostles described and required; the ^^minis- 
ter^' is licensed because of some imoard impressions and 
call which he announces; or because he has been taught 
Latin, and Greek, and Divinity, and because he can 
make a sermon, speech, or discourse pleasing to the 
ears of a congregation or presbytery. Thus they di^er 
in their origin, call, ordination, and work. Money is 
either the alpha or the omega, or both, in the one 
system. The grace of God, and the edification of the 
body of Christ, are the alpha and omega of the other. 
Money makes, induces, and constitutes the one; unites 
him and his charge; dissolves him and his charge; 
and re*unites him with another; again dissolves the 
union, and again and again originates a new union. 
Hence in the hireling system there is a continual tinkling 
of monej; writing of new contracts; giving new obli- 
gation^; making new subscriptions; reading of new 
calls; installing of old bishops; and a system of endless 
dunning. In the other, the love of God, the grace of 
Jesus Christ who save himself for the church, — the 
eternal ties of christian affection; the superior blessjed- 
xiess of giving to receiving, of supplying our own wants, 
of laboring with our own hands, when it would be op- 
pressive to others, either to relieve us or others; the 
example of Jesus who made himself poor, are the dar- 
ling topics, and the constant themes. That the bishop 
who thus labors in the word and teaching is worthy of 
double honor and justly entitled to the supply of his 
wants, whether of food, raiment, or money, or all, 
Paul himself declares, and reason itself teaches; and 
tJjose christians deserve not the name^t ^bo would suffer 
such a bishop to be iu need ot atcy n^c^^^^x-^ ^oo^ vVVw*^ 
which they had in their power V.o be^loNf . \l \\^ n^-^X^^ 
bis Hght to receive it, he Vs th^ mox^ ^otS!cvi\>q\xV v\v^ 


rigbt ex!s;ts, whether he uses or waives U; whether it is, 
or is not recognized by others. So saith the christiao 
institution, so saith reason, and so say I. But of the 
bishop's oflSce again. ■ Ed, 

AFTER much strife and contention, and the excom« 
munication of about forty members, including the five 
senior deacons, the Second-street Baptist church in this 
city have finally agreed to employ William T. Brantley, 
of Augusta, Georgia, to be their pastor, with a salary of 
two thousand six hundred dollars per annum. Sixteen 
hundred dollars of this sum he is to have for preaching, 
and the remaining one thousand dollars is guaranteed to 
him from a school. This is perhaps the largest salary 
received by any Baptist preacher in the United States; 
and it sufHciently shows that the gospel has become an 
article of merchandize amongst the Baptists as well as 
among Presbyterians and Episcopalians. 

Great advancements are made in this day, not in piety, 
but in high salaries to preachers. Indeed, to undertake 
to get to heaven by the modern fashionable way of be* 
longing to some sect^ and paying a priest, is quite an 
expensive business, and after all it must fail to bring 
those there who place their dependance on it. 

The Presbyterian congregation in Thirteenth street 
have renounced the power and jurisdiction of the Pres- 
byterian Sanhedrim and now stand in the same relation 
to that body as Mr. DuncanV congregation at Balti- 
more, and Mr. MLean's at Gettysburg;. A mandate 
was issued by the Synod of the Presbyterian church, and 
delivered by two clergymen to Mr. Chambers, the pastor 
at Thirteenth street, ordering him to suspend his preach- 
ing and care of that church. But the congregation re- 
belled against the authority of the Synod, and deter- 
rnined to retain Mr. Chambers for their minister, and so 
the higher powers in the Presbyterian church are left to 
ruminate on the refractory spirit of their subjects, and see 
them withdraw from under their standard. This congre- 
gation, like that at Baltimore and Gettysburg, reject 
all human cieeds and confessions, consid^tlw^lVik^ ^^V.^ 
a more certain and superior gu\de lo i^\^ ^ti^ Yv^^>cv^^ 
We un JerstanCforty new memWT« 'wev^ ^^^^^ ^.^ "^^ 
corj^re^ation at Iheir Ust comui\xuvo\^> ^sA ^vcXl ^'^ 
Similar occasion preceding \t^ 


There appears also lo be rathfr a shakiijg among the 
**dry bones" Jn the Protestant Episcopal chi.rch in this 
city; and two Fpjscopal publications, vith conflicting 
views and interests, are now issxied in this place of once 
brotherly love, but now relio;ious fctrife atid contention. 
By the hye, the warm contention in the Friends* Society 
of this city is \v no means abated. The rulers vf the 
synagogues seem dispostid-to carry matters with a b'-gh 
hai^.d., and cast out all those who are not sound in the 
faitn, or that withstand their authority; and these on the 
other hand, are not willing to submit to their dictation, 
and be thrown over the wall, while they are equally as 
good, and think they have as much reason and scripture 
for their faith as those who have proscribed them . How 
matters will end, time must determine. So far aathese 
struggles tend to bring down spiritual tyranny and ar- 
bitrary rule, and restrain arrogant assumptions over the 
rights and consciences of others, the true christian will 
rejoice in them For freedom from all restraint in do- 
ing good, and in the exercise of opinion and judgment 
in matters pertaining to religion, is the privilege of all 
—and especially of those whom Christ has made frte^ 
and who have taken Him for their guide and teacher. 

[Refof^ner 1 

'• ' * I » I I I I I ■ I I » ■ 1. . I I ,1 ir 

The New Testament. 

\VE have this day (April 19th) got the new version of the JV«i» 
Testamtnt out of pres«. We flatter ourselves that the iirpression, 
as to beauty and Cf»iTectness, will be found equal to our proposals, 
if not s\iperior, and equal to any other impression which has issued 
from the American press. It is vastly superior to the London edition 
in every respect. 1 he v hole work contains 528 large octavo pages. 
Of these about 70 are in small type, in prefaces and critical notes 
on the translation, containing as n ucb matter as 140 of the body of 
the work; so that the volume contams matter ( qua! to 600 pagesof 
the text or body of the work. It passes imnu diately into the hands 
of the book-biider, srd vill be ready fcr delivery as soon as possi- 
ble. 1 he edition is a small one, and i- early all subscribed for. No 
expense has been spared in forwai ding the work thus far; and it has 
really much transcended our calculations every way. We found it 
a much more arduous and expensive underts^kmg than we had anti- 
cipated; but have no doubt that to the judicious and ur.biassed \'0T' 
lion of the community, it will prove a most valuable acquisition. 1 he 
work ought to have been propi^std u' ^25Ci ^crvoluire, especially 
*n publishing a stT'SlW edition i>t \t "Ntvi t.\i\>^f:T\>tw^^ «v-\V^%:A"»l 
^K wJIJ have to pay two dollars per ^o^\.xlve. Kiw \t\w>\ ^*\vO^«v^^ 
fybBcription papers for tlie ^wk., TvoV^t\i^V\tfWL^»^>^\'^^^»^'w»- 

^ftem iniintdiaieJy, 

',wmm^ ma^rai^ 


j\ro. 10— ro/. IH] BUFF ALOE, May 1, 1826. [ IVhole vVo. 34 

' lllll 11 !■ I ■» 

Style no man on earth yoxir Father} for he alone ia your father -kho 
is in heaven; and all ye are brethren. Assume not the title of Rabbi; 
for ye have onltf one teacher: — JsTeither assume the title of Leader; for 
ye have only o^e leader — the Messiah. 

[Mat. xxiii, 8—10. Campbell's Translation.] 

Prove all things: hold fast that v>hich is good, 

[Paul the Apostle.] 

I DO not wish to occupy many pages of this work 
writh a controversy on a subject which has most gener- 
ally terminated in metaphysical jargon,and which usually 
becomes a mere logomachy, or war of words. If the 
scripture statements, in scripture connexions, and in 
scripture words, will not prove satisfactory on this 
subject; and if union, confidence, and harmony cannot 
be established and retained on such a basis — in vain will 
recourse be had to speculation, scholastic ternis^^and 
philosophical distinctions. 


THE communication of Aquila, published in the "Christian 
Baptist," of January last, in reference to some things said in the 
third number of *^Christi(^n Union,'* dpniands some attention. 

The union of Christians it is believed is essential to"t!>e g-lory of 
God, tlie happiness of the saints, and the conversion of the 
world. Jesus Christ is the ybww^/a^/o?/ and the Aeac? of this union; 
xnd faith in him, according" to the scHptural account of his nature 
and character, is the bond of it. Aquila I suppose will agree to 
these things; and whetl^er he, or the writer of Christian Union, 
be correct or not in their views, it is impossible that they and those 
who think with them, can realize christian union, as long as their 
ideas of the foundation and head of this upion, arc materially 

There is in the scriptures one doctrine, in which all the "lines 
of divine revelation meet as in a common centre, and which is 
therefore by way of eminence denominated the truth. That doc- 
trine may be thus briefly stated, namely, that Jesus of Nazareth is 
the true Messiah, the son of God, and saviour of sinners; that he 
was delivered for the offences of the guilty, and was raised for 
their justification, and that in him the Father is well pleased. This 
is the truth which came by Jesus Christ, John i. 17. to which he 
himself bare witness, John xiv. 6. which was attested by the 
voice at his baptism, Math. iii. 17. and at his trw«»^^T^wv^ VnJ«w^ 
\x, 35. To this truth all the apost\esbeai mVKv't'&Vv^SSsv^vs ^^nxv^. 
'<*Many other signs truly did Jesus *m the ^xescx^c^ q'v V\% ^>sk^V«''^ 



which are not Mi-ritten in this book: but these are written that y« 
mi}|[lit believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God: and that 
bchcving, ye might have life through his name/' John zx. 30. 31. 
"J^t all the house of Israel know assuredly that God hath made 
that same Jesus whom ye have crucified both Lord and Christ.'* 
Ar^ts ii. 36. Thus far I suppose there is no difference between 
Aquila and Christian Union. 

Aqnila agrees that men must be content with the scripture state- 
ments of tlie nature and character of Christ; that Christ is really 
an object of worship, and that he is Divine. But he denies that 
Christ was worshipped as God, and only as the Son of the only 
true and living God. ITe denies also that the apostles and chris- 
tians for worsliipping Christ as Crod suffered death, or that it was 
the first cause of their persecution. The only point that is odTany. 
imi)ort.'ince here is included in the question— What were the views 
of inspired apostles of the nature and character of Christ as an ob- 
ject of worship? Did they worship him as a man, or as an ang'el, 
or as a superangelic creature, or as a c(emi-god or as the only fine 
and living lied? Aquila will answer, that they viewed him tf« the 
Son of ihe onh tine and living God. I ask. What were their views 
of his nature and character as the Son of God? Did they view him 
.\.s a man, or as God, or as neither, as do the Arians? Or did they 
view him as G(»d and man? Whatever werp the views of the Apos- 
tles on this subject, it will be readily conceded they are essential to 
true Christianity, and to the union of christians tn truth and iove. 
And it will be also agreed that the apostles in worshipping* of Christ 
had tlie same views of him which they have written in the 
New Testament. These things being premised, I observe, that 
the Apostles did denominate Christ, God; and ascribed to him 
the at tributes of Jehovah. Paul tells us that as concerning the 
flesh, Christ came from the iiithers, who is over all God blessed 
forever. Rom. ix. 5. This is a scripture statement, agreeably i 
to w hich Paul, an inspired apostle, must have worshipped Christ; I 
he worshipped him as God blessed forever, and so ought we. 

Dut he is not only culled or denominated God, but tne perfec- 
tions of God, such as creative poxoer, omnipotence^ omniscience, 
divine -worships divine honours, and eternal existence are ascribed to 
him in scripture ctaiements. lie is also described as a real nwn and 
is so denominated, yet without sin: he by the power of the Holy 
Ghost was conceived by the virgin Mary, was born, increased in 
wisdom, grew in stature and in tiivour with God and man; he ate, 
drank, slept, laboured; was fatigued, hungered, thirsted; rejoiced 
and sympathised with his brethren; wept and was in an a^ny; 
prayed, bled, died, and was buried, and rose again. 

The ascriptions of divinity to him are sustained by cHvine 'soords, 
as the ascriptions of human nature to him are sustained by human 
actions and sufftiHngs. 

Those who object to Christ being God, as well as man, do it be- 

cau««e they cannot understand the modus of the connexion between 

Deity and humanity— Aow a union of the divine and human na- 

tares could take place; and yet they believe, at least some of tbcm 

do, that a human body trac tiTiiled to o wxX not humaai. TVi«^ 


^ai^e never yet told us to what order or class of beings this 
new compound belongs. Accordin|^ to their views he is not di- 
vine, only in the same way, but in a higher degree, than the apos- 
tles were; he is not human, for a human soul is essential to human 
nature; liorisiie angelic, for angels have no corporeal powers. 

If Christ possesses, not only the nature accoi*ding to the flesh, 
that is human nature, which he derived from the fathers, but is 
also God blessed forever, Aquila will surely agree that '*the wor- 
ship of him always supposes and includes his Godhead, in which 
the eternal, original, and essential dignity of his person consists." 
Again; the inspired evangelist John, has told us that the Word 
was God, and was made nesh; who is the same that Paul spoke 
of as above. Aquila, by reason of his not being able to com- 
prehend, or even t<y understand the mannei^ of the conception, or 
the mode of the union between the Deity and humanity of Christ, 
ought not to re^rd it as "a soul revolting, and a heart chilling 
idea,** for great is the mystery, God was manifested in the flesh. 
Instead of this being a heart chilling and a soul revolting idea, it is 
the delight and joy of the saints. It is also essential to Christian 
union, and to true Christianity, according to apostolic views of it. 

Every thing said of Christ in respect to his htiman nature, 
must necessarily be spoken of him in a capacity in which he is 
inferior to the Father. But it may be asked. How are we to 
^stinguish between Christ's human, and his divine nature? I an- 
ftwer: just as when we speak of a man, we distinguish whether 
what is said, is said of his body or of his soul When we say 
that Abraham is dead; we mean his mortal part. When we say 
Abraham is alive, we mean his immortal part. When the Evan- 
gelist says that Jesus increased in stature and wisdom, and in fa> 
vour with God and man; that he ate, drank, slept, wept, &c. he 
obviously means that his human nature did this, comprehending 
his body and soul. When he affirms that the Word was God, 
and made the universe; and when the apostle Paul says that 
Christ is supreme, God blessed forever; these are predicated of 
his divinity, which can neither increase in stature or in wisdom 

Christian union is vitally concerned in unity of view, and sen- 
timent in relation to the nature and character of Christ. There 
can be no union in worship without this, as there cannot be in 
faith aatd love, for he is the Alpha and the Omega of both. Arians, 
who deny the Deity of Jesus Christ, do actually charge those 
who believe in it and worship him as such, with idolatry. How 
would those who entertain such discordant ^-iews commune with 
each other, — realize a joint participation of the same blessings? 
those things which are soul revolting and heart chilling to one, 
are soul attracting, and heart cheering to another. 

I have written with much frankness, and perhaps the things 
1 have written, may be considered as savouring too much of the 
language of Ashdod. Be it so. I cannot understand the use of 
facte, natural and supernatural, and of correspondent words and 
sentences as means of informaton, if they be not intended for, and 
^ used to impart ideas and knowledf^ o? ei\?k\fcxvK.^s.s^ w-atea^^^ ^a^-i^ 
itjes, »nd characters, in relatiou to \\ve oV^t^Vsi v\A 's'^^^^^^'^^ 
which they belong and apply. 


in n-it:!*'^', 'ift'iMiil pluT.oTnena or appearances, indicate and provi 
n:t:t:ral txist* ij'. f:s and properties, and form the bounding circle 
fii' u\\ th;it: c;ui be known of nature. Supernatural phenomina, 
M»:ru';lcs, o.-Tiivine work., asdisiinguished from th« operations of 
n:iturc, \>i'o])ttv]y so called, indicate and prove supernatural or di- 
vine exihtences, when associated with verbal explanation and 
• i^'d by tl»e a.^ents foriliut purpose. These, comprehending the 
])*ieiK):nf:n:» 'M\:\ lang-iitiijo, form the bounding circle of all that can 
be knoA'n of «:piritual t x'stences exclusive of the knowledge of 
tho humun ir/md, if indeed that can be termed spiritual knowl- 
edj^c, wliich may be knov/n of the mind without revelation. 

it may be objected, that the number of places in the New Test- 
ament in wnich Christ is called God are so few, that they ought 
not to be relied on in fixinjf so important an article of faith as his 
Deity. To which I reply, that it is no more necessary that the 
fact sliould be slated in every chapter in the New Testament tkat 
Jesus Christ/* God, in order that it should be known and believed 
as an essential article of christian faith, and of christian union, than 
it is necessary that we be informed in every chapter of the Bible 
that in the beginning God created the heavens and tlie earth, 
that it should be known and believed; or that a law of the state 
shall be re-enacted every day by the legislature; to make it ob- 
li»^atory on the people of the state. 

In casting my eyes over Aquila's publication, I was sensibly im- 
pressed with the truth of some of the remarks made in the 
tliird number of Christian Union, and which apply in a consider- 
able degree, although not in the same way or in relation to the 
same subject, to all sectary Christian associations, so far as their 
peculiarities are concerned. "With tlie quotation of it I will con- 
clude this paper. 

"These disputes have originated a technical phraseology on 
both sides, (the Arian and Athanasian) which has groatly nar- 
rowed the vocabulary of religion, and has rendered some modes 
of expression almost obsolete, which were indulged in without 
scruple by the sacred writers. They have occasioned, on the 
Arian side of t!ie question, in many instances, the relinquishment 
of the latitude with which the scriptures express themselves on 
the nature and glory of Christ, and have produced a scrupulous 
jwd systematic cast of diction, which is altogether inconsistent 
wit!] the freedom displayed by the inspired penmen. Many ex- 
pressions are employed, without hesitation in scripture, which arc 
rarely found even in tlic direct form of quotation in their writings, 
and are never heard in their public addresses, but witli a view of 
iiubjecting them to explanations and criticisms, which so n.ur and 
niulilate 1 lie nature and character of Christ, as to render him alto- 
gether an unfit object fon the worship of Christians; and who, if 
he had been thus seen by Stephen, and Paul, and apostolic Chris- 
tians, had not been worshipped bv them. 


M'iJ have always cies^^ned ^w^ e^^e^^-^ox^A vWl U\U 
rork should not present a oue s\^^^ i^^^^'s.^ts.V'^Kx^w ^s. 


things, of sentiments, and practices of the time in which 
we live. We have nothing to lose in the pursuit of 
truth; and we never desired that our own views should 
ever obtain any other authority over the minds of our 
brethren, than as they are authorized and supported by 
the apostles and prophets. We have therefore given 
publicity to all the objections, candid or uncandid, which 
have been respectfully submitted by our brethren or 
opponents. We wish to give our readers every oppor- 
tunity of judging correctly of every thing we advocate, 
and have therefore given much more of the objections 
ofiered by our correspondents, than of the commenda- 
tions and encomiums which have been received. The 
following letter speaks for itself and demonstrates that 
its author possesses talents of the first order. I publish 
his letter literatim et punctuatim; but had I taken any 
liberty with it, there are two or three words and phrases 
which 1 would, for his sake, have erased. I need not 
add that my giving publicity to this document affords 
some evidence that I am willing to meet any objections 
»hica can be made to my views or to my course. — Ed, 

Saturday mormngy February 11th. 1826. 


MY own conciousne»s approbates the goodness of the injunc- 
tion "Judge not,*' and intimates the folly of expecting "perfec- 
tion** in any man living; But we expect "cortsistency," especially 
in a -Re/brmer, and Restorer of the pnmitive orj*;* of things in the 
church of Christ. Suffer me to call your attention to a ijpw things 
which demand, on your part^ a public elucidation. In your reply to 
'J\ T. of Boone county "Missouri, you say **/ and the church -with 
-ivJiich I am connected^ are in ^*fvll communion^* tcith the JUahoning 
Baptist Association, Ohio; and through them, roith the whole Baptist 
society in the United States; and I do intend to continue in connexion 
with t/iis people" &c. Now, sir, I have no doubt but you feel honestly 
about this "full communion*' with the whole Baptist society, but in 
fact and in effect, it is but a -white lie; an Equivoque, a time-serving 
expedient and tends to sliake the confidence of those who love 
you, as to the downright sincerity of the Christian Bapiist, It has, 
at least, disturbed me not a little. Pray sir, what is "full commu- 
nion?** Is it not "full union in the common worship, docii le and 
institutions of any church or denomination.** Yes, tliis is the under- 
standing where the language comes from the lip, or pen of integrity. 
Your profes^on implies, according to your own principles, a sincere 
conviction that the whole Baptist society(regular associatedBaptisfs) 
is the church of Christ, of which Jesus is the bead, a.i\d tl\^t.\.W:.^ 
are conformed to the New TestameuX\aN» 9A Tfcs^^^\& d'»c\^v\\'t^-^»w- 
.^^/fi, ajhd order. You, by this, p\i\A\c\y t>.NO\J x.Yi^vv^N^^^^V^'^"^ 



raent, the regular associated Baptists exhibit tlie fRo<2eZ of Christ'lf 
bouse, are tlur election of g^ce, and may be pointed oat as the liv- 
ng epistle of the Holy Ghost to be seen and read of all men. This 
is not \vh:it the Christian Baptist says, but it is what your ▼iable 
standing" and professing* conduct says. If so, in what sense are you 
a restorer of primitive Christianity? If they, as a society, are tho 
church of Christ, what rig'ht have you to intc^ere with their exist- 
in^ order and state? But if, at heart, you do not confess them as 
holding' that order, which would rejoice the soul of an Apostle, 
what do you mean by professing* **£ull communion'* with them? 

Pray sir who, or what are the associated Baptists in the United 
States? Are they not a large denomination of religionists, differing 
trom the other religious sects in no respect, affecting this question? 
Iftcryou have approved their dipping, and reprobated the sprink- 
^ing^ of the others, in what other particular are the associated Bap- 
tists a peculiar people, unless it be that after having made one right 
movement, their conformity to the "course of the (Cliristian) 
world/' is more sinful as it is more inconsistent and glaring? this 
may be contradicted, but cannot be disproved from God's wor^; 
and he who has "full communion with the xohole Baptist society, as 
the New Testament church, and yet refuses to extend the right 
hand of fellowship to the rest of the Evangelical sects, is a purbUnd 
Pharisee, straining out a gnat, and swiallowing a camel. 
BIALOGUE between "Regular Baptist" and the "Editor," who 
ure professedly of ofie faith, of one mind, of one church, speaking 
the sair^ things, and of one heart to serve tUp King of Zion, as he 
liatii commanded, &c. 

Reg. B. "Our churches are founded on the Philade Iphia Confes- 
sion, as the bond of union, and the statute of discipline; is not that 
proper and Scriptural?" 

Ed. By no means; it is Antichristian and must be considered re- 
bellion against thQ great King and head of the church! 

Reg. B. "It prevents varieties in doctrine, which could not be 
tolerated among us as particular Baptists, and sound Calvinists; Is 
not Calvinism according to the Scriptures? I mean the limited 
supra-sub-lapsarian plan?" 

Ed. I think not. Calvinism is a corruption of Christianity, «nd 
of course a curse to the world, by perverting men from the simpli- 
city of the faith! 

lieg. B. "Indeed! but Mr. Editor, what think you; ought the 
Lord's Supper to be attended oftener than once a month, or is it a 
matter left to the churches to fix, as suits their views? Vou know 
the scriptures say "as oft," without telling how oft, and the Associa- 
ted Baptists throughout the union consider it a matter of mdifl'erence 
until determined by a vote of the church. They generally com- 
mune once a month, or at least once in three months, m the country 
chiirches. Is not our order scriptural?" 

Kd. Uncjriestionably it is not. The church of Christ must break 

bread every first day; nay, it is the main design of their coming to- 

g'cther. Monthly communion is s vile deviation from Gospel order! 

' Htj^}^. B.. At any rate the Assoc\ateA ^AT^\)i9Xa *x^ tv^ht m casting 

oat of the Associations any chutcVv xXyaX \\asTWiTt\5s\^wwne^\s3«\^^ 

or £'Wer. Itjins been late\^' dov\ii-, V7\3i^ \i\^\. tiqX. aVwxVj ^^tv^\\«:A> 


£d. No! The primitive churches had each a plurality of Elders 
pr Bishops, and without at least two Bishops was not fully organi- 
zed. They g^ew up in the church and were never imported— 
Know Sir, that in each Church there was a Presbyteryl Examine 
and you will be satisfied of this too—- 

Reg. B. *< Well, well, Mr. Ed. tho' we donH agree in fttott things, 
yet we are one as respects the glorious duty of going down into the 
water and coming up out of the water— We ooth despise baby* 
rantism, do we not?'* 

Ed. Even here, you are blind and uninstructed — You are dipped 
for no better reason than binds you to any other duty, such as 
speaking the truth, or paying adebt. JLearn Sir, that the Baptis- 
mal water washes away sin, and is the wily divinely appointed 
pledge that the Blood of Christ has purged the conscience of the 
obedient disciple. Why do you stare so? Go home and read your 
Bible and you will see that your regular, particular, Calvinistic, 
Associated Churches are of the world, and their Services an 
abomination for it is written *'ln vain do you worship me, teaching 
-or doctrines, the commandments of men"! 

Ileg. B. "O Dear Sir, I was mistaken in you — pray Mr, Ed. are 
you a regular Baptist?" 

Ed. Why yes! I am and I intend to be in^J^fuU communion" with 
the whole Baptist Society in the United States. Tho' I agree with 
you in almost nothing, yet by keeping up this nominal fellowship, 
I can be more extensively useful! I confess that this plea is prefer- 
red by almost all the Evangelical in their respective communions, 
ru a reason for Infant sprinkling. Episcopacy, &c. but what then? 

Reg. B. **0 nothing! As our Br. Dr. says, utility is the standard 
of virtue, and conscience is the creature of circumstances—Besides 
you will Mr. Ed. be better protectetl, by the Association at your 
back, than if you only relied on Christ's promises — It is at least a 
good thing to "lay heavy burdens on the shoulders of other men, 
tho* we do not touch them ourselves with one of our fingers" — 

Ed. Well; let us say no more on this head — Good bye my Bro- 

Dear Sir, I have used plainness of speech — print this, and speak 
in your own behalf— If Associations are scriptural, why then, say 
so — If not, then "Come out from among them" — If you are acting- 
a part, from Pride, love of Popularity or Singularity, be assured, 
that in their train cometh contempt. These things have I written, 
hoping you are desirous ef consistency — a man of integrity and 
uprightness, and from a desire to make you more and more amiable, 
that 1 may love you more for the truth's sake, 


To an Independent Baptist. 

Dear Sir, 

AFTER thanking you for your fidelity, and great 
plainness of speech^ and fop the favorable opportunity 
you have aftbrded me fqr N\nd\ca.\Ai\^ xsx^ \i^>\^>k^ \^^\sv 
JmputaitionSy which many may «v?A^fe^vf\\%.Ti> ^^a^^^V^x^^ 


I should never hear them; and also for the occasion 
which you have given for illustrating more fully a prin- 
ciple which I think is not yet well understood by many 
intelligent christians, I proceed to observe that your 
very ingenious dialogue, and, indtsed, your objections 
altogether proceed upon the hypothesis, and terminate 
in one point, viz that my course, or rather my decla- 
ration that '^I and the church «vith which I am connect- 
ed are in ^'full communion^' with the Mahoning Baptist 
Association, and through them, with the whole Baptist 
Society,^' &c. i»« inconsistent with the sentin\ents and 
views exhibited in the ^'Christian Baptist ^' If so, your 
dialogue and letter are unanswerable; I must lay my 
hand upon my mouth: if not, your shafts have missed 
the mark, and carry no conviction to my mind; and 
cannot to any intelligent reader. 

I agree with you that consistency^ though a very rare 
commodity, is essential to a good character, and espe- 
cially in any person**who would call the attention of m^n 
to the Bible. It is a misfortune, however, to see men 
always consistently doing wrong. Consistency is a 
virtue only when the professed principles of action are 
good. In every other case it is very far from being 
commendable. Perhaps Satan is a very consistent cha- 
racter since the seduction of Eve. Neither sincerity 
nor consistency are virtues, abstract from the qualities 
which constitute a good man. But without them no 
man can claim any regard from his fellow-men, nor can 
his conduct or example be worthy of imitation, whatever 
other good qualities he may possess. I consider, there- 
fore, that the charge of inconsistency^ when the profess- 
ed principles of action are good and sacred, is no trivial 

But what constitutes consistency^ In acting c nforma- 
bly to our own professed sentiments and principles; or, 
in acting conformably to the professed sentiments and 
principles of others? In answering this question, your 
letter is answered. I have no doubt of being able to 
make it quite obvious that this obnoxious sentence is 
perfectly consistent with the views and principles ex- 
hibited and advocated in this work But if consistency 
requires a person to act conformgiVil'j lo the views df an 
^Jndependent Baftisi^'^ {^ prou^i «Ji^ xm^^^x^^ xi-wxiO^ 


or lo the views of any other person differing from his 
own, in that case you are unanswerable; but if not, a 
pigmy is an overmatch for a giant panoplied with dia- 

To come to the point at once, What are the principles 
of union and communion advocated in this work? Has 
not the one foundation vrhich the apostle affirmed was 
already laid, and besides which, no other can be laid, 
which will stand the test of time and of cntica^ which is 
the only one on which all christians can unite, and have 
^^full communion,'* and against which the gates of Hades 
shall not prevail; I say, has not this been the only bond 
of union which the "Christian Baptist^' ever advocated? 
And what is it but a sincere and hearty conviction, ex* 
pressed or confessed by the lips, that Jesus is tbSi 
Christ: and this belief, exhibited by an overt act of 
obedienc3 which implies that the subject has put on 
Christ, prepares him, or qualifies him, if you please, 
to be saluted as a brother. So long as he confesses with 
his lips, that he believes in his heart this truth, and lives 
conformably to it. and supports an unblemished morsJ 
character, so long he is a worthy brother. 

Your dlaloguis artfully keepa-out of- ttctt erery thing 
about the one Lord, the one faith, the one hope, and 
hardly will admit the one baptism., and every other point 
of general agreement in the Baptist society; and to the 
best advantage exhibits the points of difference. Now a 
person equally ingenious with yourself, could frame a 
dialogue on the other side, showing how inconsistent I 
would be, with the principles asserted in this work, if I 
had refused communion with the whole Baptist Society? 
— Did I say as ingenious as yourself? Nay, with the 
ingenuity of a stripling, he might confound me. On 
the hypothesis that [ refused or declined union or com-* 
jnunion with the Baptist society, he would introduce an 

^tficial, regular, or associate Baptist, who would ask 
JDo not the associate and unassociated Baptists be«- 
lieveXhat Jmus is the Christ^ Nay, do they not believe 
that he died for our sins, that he was buried, that he 
rose the third day, that he ascended into heaven, that 
he sent down the Holy Spirit to advocate his caiis^\ to 
convince the world of sin, ot r\^\.eo\x^Ti^^^^ "axA ^"^ >^^^"^ 
mf^nt; that he will come as;^m Vo t^\^.^V\^^ ^^"^^^ ^^^v=^ 


judgtt the world. Nay, do they not declare (heir belief 
that his kingdom is not of this world, that the subjects 
of it are bom again, new creatures, and must maintain 
good works, and cultivate holiness, without which, no 
man shall see the Lord? To all such queries I would be 
constrained to answer ye$. 

He woukl next say, Do you not contend that unity of 
opinion is not essential to christian union, that the one 
Lord, the one faith, the one hope, and the one baptism 
comprehend all that can legitimately be required . To 
^is 1 must €onsutmtly answer yes. Well then, says be, 
jott are a hypocrite, a pharisee, Insincere, and most 
inconsistent, and a transgressor, building the things 
which you have demolished. To which I must consist^ 
eniAf plead guilty. 

Yon see, then, how little ingenuity would be requisite 
to confound and silence me, should I act the part of an 
^^Independent Baptist" while contending for the princi* 
pies exhibited; in this work. 

The inconsistency of which you complain is therefore 
Mot in me^ but it is in your own views. 

I am yet but entering upon the subject. I shall now 
Sive my own •x]^an«iioi» of thts offensive ^^full eo'mmU' 
fiion^ with the Baptist society. Tour full communion 
and my full communion are very different things. You 
define your full communion to be ^^fuil union in the 
eommon worship, doctrine, and institutions of any 
church or denomination.** Again you say, ^Tour pro- 
fession implies, according to your own principles, a sin- 
cere conviction that the whole Baptist society (regular 
associated Baptists} is the church of Christ, of which 
Jesus is the head, and that they are conformed to the 
New Testament law, as respects doctrine, worship and 
order— exhibiting the model of Christ's house, &c." I 
question very much whether you yourself have this sort 
of full communion with the one congregation with which 
you associate. But this will not excuse me. Again, I 
question very much whether Paul, the apostle, could 
have broken bread with the congregation in Rome, in 
Corinth, in Thessalonica, or with the congregations in 
IraJatia, and others at the time he wrote bis letters to 
item, iVay, I do not think t\x9L\. VVi^ ^^Vvoxrc \\\m%^U 
"ouJd bare instituted the supper amoT\^\.VX3L^v.v;^V!^. c 


that they could have bad full communion on your prin* 
ciples in that one iostifution the night in which he was 
betrayed. For none of these con^egations at the times 
alluded to were exhibiting the model of Christ^s house^» 
*Svere conformed to the New Testament, as respects 
doctrinky worships und ordtr^'^ or had this sincere con- 
viction that all was perfect-" just up to the standard of 
full perfection in all these particulars. 

In the full import of the words tvvl eommunton^ when 
carried to their utmost extent, I do not know that sucli 
SI communion ever was, or ever will be exhibited upon 
the earth. The word fall I admit, may be so explained 
as to eonfine this sort of communion to the heavenly 
state. But in ordinary acceptation, or in its loose ac- 
ceptation, it means no more than joint participation in a 
certain act or acts. When J unite in prayer with a 
society of disciples, I have full communion with them 
in certain petitions, confessions, and thanksgivings; but 
requests may be presented, confessions m^de, and 
thanksgivings offered, in which I have not full commu- 
nion. The same may be said of any other social act of 
worship. All that I intend by the phrase is,* that I will 
unite with any Baptist society in the United States, in 
any act of social worship; such as prayer, praise, or 
breaking bread in commemoration of the Lord's death) 
if they confess the one Lord, the one faith, the one 
hope, and the one baptism: provided always, that, as 
far as I can judge^^ they piousiy and morally conform to 
their profession. Btit that congregations may be found, 
under the banners of this profesion, with whom I would 
not unite in one single act of social worship, as well as 
individuals, I will cheerfully declare. And with not one 
would I unite in prayer, or praise, or breaking bread, 
if that act is to be interpreted into a full, perfect, and 
entire approbation of all their views, doctrine, and 
practice, as a society or individuals. Here then is the 
fundamental difference between your full communion 
and mine. Every act of the one,.}fou understand, as 
unequivocally expressing full and entire approbation of 
every thing among them* I consider every act as only 

• The words full communion are tnaxkedm^ •\3Ks«sf«.^'^^'«ssfiaB^fc 
in my letter to T. T. Missouri, thereby Vm^VsViv^^^X^^^'^'*^ 
in accommodation to their current uiye. 


expressing approbation of the thing represented^ and of 
thenn in so far as they conform to it. Therefore, I frank- 
ly and boldl> declare to them, as Paul did to the Corin* 
thians, the things in which I praise them, and the things 
in which I praise them not. And I know of no way, of 
no course, that any christian can pursue consistently 
with the whole New Testament, consistently with his 
serving God and his own generation, but this one. 
Therefore I advocate it and practise it. 

I have tried the Pharisaic plan, and the monastic. I 
was once so straight, that, like the Indian's tree, I leaned 
a little the other way. And however much I may be 
slandered now as seeking "popularity" or a popular 
course, I have to rejoice that to to my otcn Baiisfaciion 
as well as to others, I proved that truth, and not popu- 
larity, was my object, for I was once so strict a Sepa- 
ratist that I would neither pray nor sing praises with 
any one who was not as perfect as I supposed myself* 
In this most unpopular course I persisted until I disco* 
vered the mistake, and saw that on the principle em- 
braced in my conduct, there never could be a congrega- 
tion .or church on the earth . 

As to ^^the purblind Pharisee who strains out a gnat 
and swallows a cameU" because he will not have full 
communion with all the evangelical sects in the mass, I 
have to remark, that it is not optional with me or you 
. whether we could have christian communion with them. 
They have something to say upon that subject; and 
here, once for all, it must be noted, that my having 
communion with any society. Baptist or Paido- Baptist, 
■depends just as much upon them as upon myself. Some 
Baptist congregations would not receive me into their 
communion, and if any Paido-Baptist society would, it 
is time enough to show that I am ineonsisteni with my 
own principles when any -^evangelical sect, or congrega- 
tion" shall have welcomed me to their eommunion, and 
I have refused it. At the same time, I frankly own, 
that my full conviction is that there are many Paido- 
Baptist congregations, of whose Christianity, or of whose 
profession of Christianity, I think as highly, as of most 
Baptist congregations, and with whom I could wish to 
Jbe on the very same terms of christian communion on 
which Island with the whole Ba.ip\!\^V^Q^\^v^* 


There is, I confess^ a greatinconsistcncj somewhere; 
yes, every where, on the subject of communioo. Bap- 
tists and Paido Baptists generally confine communion to 
the Lord's table, and indeed call it, by way of di<:tinction, 
the communion* Hence full communion with V e majori- 
ty means no more than the breaking of bread together, 
or sitting down at the same ^^commuiiion table .'* H^re 
originates all error on the subject of} our dialogue, a) d 
on the whole subject of intercommunity with the chris- 
tian world. Another proof, too, that conscrence is a 
creature of circumstances. 

There is a certain place called ' //ic famUy altar "^^ 
Baptists and Paido- Baptists, of different name, often 
meet at this ^^family altar ,^' and there unite all in one 
communion. In their monthly concerts for prayer, &c. 
there is another '^altar,^* at which all sects sometimes 
meet; and ail have full communion in prayer and praise. 
But if on the next day the Lord's table was furnished, 
they would rather be caught in company with publicans 
and sinners, than sit at the side of those with whom 
they had full communion in prayer and praise a few 
hours before. Their consciences would shudder at the 
idea ol breaking bread in full communion w!th those, 
with whom yesterday, or last night, Lhey had full com- 
munion in adoring, venerating, invoking, and praising 
the same God and. Redeemer. There is something like 
Inconsistency here. It must be* confessed, too, that the 
New Testament presents baptism as prior to social 
prayer and praise, as indispensably preceding these, as 
the Lord's supper. I have thought and thought and 
vascillated very much, on the question. Whether Bap- 
tists and Paido Baptists ought, could, would, or should, 
irrespective of their peculiarities, sit down at the same 
Lord's table. And one thing 1 do know, that either 
they should cease to have communion in prayer, praise, 
and other religious observances, or they should go th'^e 
whole length. Qf this point I am certain* And I do 
know that as much can be said, and with as much reason 
and scripture on its side, to prove that immersion is as 
necessarily prior to social prayer, praise, &c. a& it is to 
eating the Lord's supper. 

Dear sir, this plan ot cnaikui^ w« o^^^x^^'^V ^^^ 
Suttenng oref our own broody oi >a^^^vsi^ wa ^'^'^ 




tent, and of confining all goodness and grace to our 
noble selves, and the '^elect few^' who are like us, is 
the quintessence of sublimated pharisaism. The old 
Pharisees were but babes in comparison of the modem r 
and the longer I live, and the more I reflect upon God 
and man — heaven and earth — the Bible and the world «— 
the Redeemer and his church — the more I am assured 
that all sectarianhsm is the offspring of hell; and that all 
differences about words, and names, and opinions, hatch- 
ed in £g}l>t, or Rome, or Edinburgh, are like the frolics 
of drunken men; and that where there is creature^ 
or a society of them, with all their imperfections, and 
frailties, and errors in sentiment, in views, atad opinions, 
they ought to receive one another, and the strong to 
support the infirmities of the weak, and not to pjease 
themselves. To lock ourselves up in the bandbox of 
our own little circle; to associate with a few units, tens, 
or hundreds, as the pure church, as the elect, is real 
protestant monkery, it is evangelical nunnery. 

If we would heal the sick, we must visit them; jf we- 
would restore the lame, we must take them by the hand; 
and if we would correct, inform, or reform erring chris* 
tians, we must do as the Saviour did, and bear with 
their weaknesses. We must seek every opportunity of 
converting the sinner from the error of his way, of in- 
structing the weak and feeble- minded. It is lame charity 
which requires all its objects to be as rich, as wise, and 
as strong as ourselves. And the history of the world 
does not afford one instance of any man, or set of men, 
reforming, or restoring, or enlightening, or comforting 
the society from which they separated. And the systems 
and sects which they built, in the lapse of a few years 
\Tere as much in need of reformation, as those from 
which their founders separated. 

The Baptist society exhibits a greater variety than any 
mfcer society in Christendom. They are a people made 
up of all religious persuasions; and generally speaking, 
their platform is more consonant to the freedom of en- 
quiry, to freedom from ecclesiastical tyranny, and to 
the independence of congregations, than any other. 
With the exception of some rigid "regtilars,'*^ confes- 
ions of faith and the anthoniy ot 9A^ott\a3ciKns.%^ ^\^ held 
BO great esteem^ The congcepA^ouu \u xaft^'\Ji%R«v 


are extremely jealous of their rights, and delegate no« 
thing to any superior judicatory, f do know some as- 
gociations whose meetings are as innocent as a tea-party, 
or any social or friendly interview. Some I know do 
imitate the beastj only they want horns. They resemble 
a hornless ox; they push with the head, but cannot gore. 
But so long as they will bear reproof, suffer exhortation, 
and allow us to declare our sentiments without restraint; 
so long as they manifest a willingness to know the whole 
truth, and any disposition to obey it; so long as they 
will hear us and cordially have fellowship with us, we 
will have fellowship with them, ^e will thus labor for 
their good, and endeavour to correct what appears 
to be amiss—commending when praise is due, and cen- 
suring when it becomes necessary. I do hope in this 
way always to have the approbation of Him whose com- 
mendation is more to be desired than the admiration and 
praise of ten thousand worlds. This, f think, you must 
see, I do in perfect consistency with the sentiments ad- 
vocated in this work. But if you still think otherwise, I 
am willing to hear from you again, and to pay due regard 
to what you have to advance. 

With best wishes, 1 remain, &c. 


The Baptist Recorder. 

WE have duly received seven numbers of The Baptist Recorder^ 
edited by Messrs. George Waller and Spencer Clack, Ky. Sundry 
articles in these numbers exhibit a belligerent aspect towards this 
paper. The anonymous pieces over the signatures S. M. — S. W. — 
and P. D.^ we pass without a criticism, for two reasons. Firsty 
Because when a writer opposes a person who is known, and dis« 
liking to be known himself, conceals himself behind two letters as 
a mask, there is something so suspicious in his character, so unde- 
serving of notice, except from a person like himself under a mask, 
that we cannot deign him a reply. We appear unmasked. Those 
who expect from us any attention must come forward in their full 
name, and present themselves not like cowards, or so squeamishly 
modest that they are either afraid or ashamed of their own 
name. And, in the second place, there is no reason, argument, 
or good sense in those pieces, that should induce us either to de- 
sire to know their authors, or, if known, to require a moment's 
reflection. If the authors make themselves known, I will publish 
some of their pieces in this work wVtiiovA. «k ^Xk^<& t«xw«t^^'^^Nss^- 
ing that their very appearance in Wtts vioxV vjoviX^'V^^-^^*^^?'^'^^^ 
exposure of their imbecility, or oC \.\\iX ^ >i>x€>!S c«xw> v\ ^^'^ 
h^re any. , 


I feel myself in duty bound to pay some attention to the editorial 
department of this work, or to what the editors themselves have 
to say on tlie great tilings of the kingdom of Jesus in the present 
and future state. I am, indeed, much pleased to see them come 
forward to oppose what they do not like, and to correct what they 
think wrong. I do assure them that it will give me great pleasure 
to be corrected by them in any respect whatever. I trust I have 
not yet- to learn the value of truth. Like gold, every particle of 
it is precious. I do earnestly desire to be in the fiill possesion of 
as much of it as I can by any means acquire, and I am always thank- 
ful to every man, woman, or child who imparts to me the knowledge 
of what I knew not before. Besides, I am much pleased with their 
efforts on another account. The Christian Baftiet is extensively 
read in Kentucky, and if it is doing any injuty it will be corrected 
and repressed in its career; and if it is doing any good, it will re« 
ceive a new impulse and be accelerated in its course. I care not 
for its circulation on any other account, than as it does -good. If it 
does evil, the sooner it dies I will rejoice. But I must be con- 
vinced before I can be converted to any thing. And such is the 
constitution of my mind, that nothing will operate upon it but 
truth, reason, arijument and evidence. 

Inhere are in the numbers which have been issued but hoo topics 
that demand my attention. The one is the editorial remarks upon 
*''experimeiital rtU^ion;'* the other is some remarks of Mr. George 
M'allcr upon his ^^caaiing vote in the Long Run Association,** Had 
Mr. Waller confined his remarks to the subject on which he pro- 
fcsseclly wrote, wc should have endeavored to have found room 
f(jr his whole piece; but he has indulged in too much acrimony, 
and gone off in a tangent from his subject to insinuations which 
are neither creditable to himself nor his cause. We shall, however, 
present the reader with what pertains to his casting vote: — 

••Finding in the last number of the work alluded to," [Christian 
Baptist,] «*page 150, under the head of "the casting vote, or the 
creed triumj>hant over the Bible," a few remarks, in which I, 
(with the Long Run Association) am implicated as acting an un- 
worth}' part, and considering myself in that connexion singled 
out as an object of slander, it seems altogether important that I 
pay some attention to this subject. It is true, as stated in ssud 
number, that the Long Run Association at her session of Septem- 
ber, 1825, reported 3064 members; that I did preside in said 
meeting as Moderator; that a circular letter, written by P. S. Fall, 
pastor of the Baptist church in Louisville, Ky. was presented for 
inspection, the subject of which was as stated in said number. It 
is also true, that I am a descendant of the Wallers of Virginia; 
once persecuted by those who, haWng the form of goliness, but 
denied the power of it: and so great is my attachment to my pre- 
decessors, and that gospel which they so warmly espoused, that I 
am content (if the will of God be so) to suffer persecution from a 
similar source. It is not true, as expressed at the head of said re« 
marks, that in the rejection of said VeUet^ \\\^ ct^ed was triumph- 
M/jt over the Bible, Nor is it true, \.\va\\Tv ^Nwc\)^«tt^V\\v^N<i\A 
i'a that ciise^ J copied the cx*my\e o^ "Ur. VK^NSo'iV. \>^ ^ocnv^ 


from the same reasons. I must acknowledge myself at some loss 
to understand the allusion in the expression, **ioT the same rea- 
sons:" if reference is had in this expression to tlie reason given by 
the publishers of said circular letter, for the decision of the 
moderator. Although 1 have no disposition to impeach the mo- 
tives or veracity of the publishers, yet, to say the least of it, 
manifest injustice is done to the moderator on the subject of his 
vote: it is admitted that something to that eifcct may have occur- 
red in the course of examination on that subject, but not in the 
shape of a reason for the casting vote. It is not true, as intimated 
by the Christian Baptist, that the creed and the Bible were in 
question before the Association; and I cannot persuade myself 
that Mr. Campbell believes they were; for he knows too well the 
views of the Baptists in the adoption of the creed, to be innocent 
when he thus represents them; for support of these remarks, see 
Confession, ch. i. of which Mr. C. cannot be supposed to be ignor- 
ant, especially as be hait so much to say against them. It M'ill be 
recollected by those who were attentive to the proceedings of the 
Long Run Association, that after the circular, written by P. S. 
Fall, had passed the examination of the committee, and it wus 
presented to the Association for adoption, there were two addi- 
tional notes, one of which declaring that it was not the intention 
of the writer to call in question the propriety of creeds: this was 
done at the suggestion of the Moderator, in committee, and with 
a design to waive any objection to the letter, before the Associa- 
tion, which might arise from the supposition that the letter was 
designed to oppose and put down the creed. Not having the 
manuscript (as it a])pearedaf\er amendments) before me, I do not 
pretend to detail the facts precisely as they occurred; but ttie 
substance is given, to the best of my recollection. These things 
in view, and it is impossible that any person can believe, either 
that the creed or Bible were in question before the Association, or 
that the casting vote of the Moderator rendered the creed triumph- 
ant over the Bible." 

Now let the reader observe that every thing stated in the article 
alluded to in the seventh number is admitted by Mr. Waller, ex- 
cepting the head or title prefixed to the article. That the cree<l 
was triumphant over the Bible was the natural consequence in my 
mind, for this reason: First, because the letter advocated neither 
more nor less than that the Bible is "the owk'oxlt suJScient, 
perfect, and infallible i^le of christian faith and i/intnnert." And 
Mr. Waller admits that the extracts given in the seventh number 
do, in truth, express the substance of the whole letter. Has IS^Ir. 
Waller assigned any other reason for giving his casting vote, otlur 
than stated by the publishers of suid letter? Does he now give his 
reasons for said vote? And what damnable or condemnable doctrine 
was in said letter, except that it contended that the Bible alone 
w;is the only sufficient, perfect, and infallible rule of christian 
faith and manners? Tl'at not the xubntatice of the tetter the retunn 
-why lie rejected it by the casting vote? VVtvo^, V^^*^ ^\v^\. '^"^^x'O. K\\^S. 
If it was the substance, I must again dec\«LTe^Tvo\.V\\V*vwv^vcv% '^^ 
question was not put in the very vrotOls, \{Y\e\.\\tT ^V^ c!c^^^ ^ '*^* 


Bible shall be the one only perfect and Infallible ruk, &c. that sfiU it 
was in fact and in eflect, **the creed triumphant over the Bible:"— 
And to quibble now about the form in which the question was put, 
or to make that an excuse for the vote, is only weak and childish. 
Will the reader please turn over to tlie 7th No. of this volume and 
read tlie extracts of said letter there given, and remember that 
Mr. Waller has affirmed them to be correctly stated, and then ask 
himself whether the title given to tlie casting vote is just or unjust, 
and I will abide by his decision. 

As to what he says about copying the example of Dr. Lightfoot, 
1 did not say he "copied** it. And his saying that he was not actu- 
ated by Dr. Lightfoot's reasons, and then declaring be did not 
know wliat (hey were, I must charitably say, deserves no notice. 
I am glad to observe that he is now ashamed of his vote, and that he 
considers it **slander^* to be reminded of it, or to have it published 
without a disrespectful word I have only to add my earnest de- 
sires that all who vote as he did aguinst such a document as said 
letter, may consider it "slandei'" to be told of it ag^n. 

I will give another extract immediately following the preceding, 
which I am sorry to say is but a poor defence of himself, and im- 
wnrthy of a good cause. Tliis I consider undeserved slander, and 
of the lowest kind: — 

"I take this to be tiie whole secret; Mr: C. has set out to cut a 
figure in the learned world, and no plan so likely to succeed, as to 
set himself to oppose the whole religious world. If this course 
can be freed from the charge of bigotr}-, (against which he inveighs 
so vehemently,) I can only say that 1 am mistaken: this, however, 
is no new thing under the sun, for in every instance where new 
sects stiirt ~up, tlieir leaders must (in order to success) shew, that 
ever}- body else are wrong, as to religious matters, and themselves 
right: it is true, the Baptists are complimented, not only with as- 
sertions that they are right, on the subject of baptism, but to their 
support on that subject, one public controversy after another has 
bvien bcitovfed upon them. This, however, is not surprising, when 
k seems a reasonable calculation, that by means of a press at hand, 
publications of those controversies might be productive of a con- 
siderable income to the donor. The exertions of Mr. C. in opposi- 
tion to Associations and Confessions of Faith, or opinions, cannot 
be accounted for upon principles satisfactory to me, in any other 
wayf than by admitting the following as the cause. That in order 
to enlarge the sphere of his operations, every thing like depend- 
ence of the churches, one upon another, must be destro^'ed by 
the destruction cf Associations, and that of the members of the 
churches, by the destruction of Confessions of Faith — and why 
must Associations and Creeds be destroyed.^ Because they are 
huiiian productions. No person pretends that there is express 
precept or example, in the word of God, yet, I esteem it 
^mpioc.s, that the scripturality of Associations or Greeds should 
be clunicd.** 

tier* my motives of action are t€\iTctieT\\,c^\ »l* "©ilc a,ivd what I 
« c bdid mu»t bcfalfie beciiuscmy w\o\\\e&«tt \wv\^v:,^, <i,Kiw^«s«v 
C-. ui;^J cjf riattd. JUiai^l tl.ou^\i\ "VW\ Vi-iOi A^^^^ ^vi-^xO^v^vw Si 


hearts and tried the thoughts of the children of men.'^ 0n this I 
will mi^e no comment. I do not impute any thing to the motives 
of Mr. Waller. I trust they are pure and upright; and I assure 
him I will be the last to impeach tbem. It is with what he says 
and does, I have to do. I leave the rest to him *'that seeth not as 
man seeth." 

I have not room to be more particular in my remarks, nor more 
lengthy in my extract^ on this subject. There are some sentiments 
expressed on the subject of creeds and associations, which I can- 
not believe are the real sentiments of the author. He says, <-I 
esteem it impiout that the scripturality of associations or creeds 
should be denied." I will not comment upon this saying until the 
writer avows it to be his real sentiment on this subject, believing 
it to have been written at an unfavorable moment when under the 
influence of some mental perturbation. For assuredly no Baptist 
can think that it is a sin agpsunst God, or the want of reverence for 
him, to deny that human creeds and associations are commanded 
in scripture. 

Again he says — ''To say that creeds and associations were intro* 
duced among us, with any other than religious feelings, desires, 
and motives, is unpardonable impiety." Now I would rather think 
and say, that Mr. Waller did not understand or weigh the import of 
his own words, than to think he really means that the mere saying 
that creeds and associations were introduced not as he represents, 
is a sin ag^nst God that has no forgiveness, neither in this world 
nor the next. There are so many things of this kind hi brotlier 
Waller's piece, that I would rather impute them to any cause than 
to suppose them the genuine views and feelings of his mind. His 
remarks upon the new version of the New Testament, which he 
never saw, are of thu same kind, and indicate some mental per- 
turbation which forbid my commenting upon them until 1 am 
assured that they are his cool and deUberate sentiments. 

On the subject of ''experimental reli^on" the editors have 
been hinting, hoping, and doubting somethmg about my orthodoxy. 
I am glad they have begun here, and that they have published my 
first essay on this subject. Had they also been so obliging as to 
])uve published my last one, or even an intermediate one on the 
same topic, 1 should have appreciated their candor and liberality 
still more. I think my remarks, on Conscience, vol. 3, No. 7, 
being the last thing said on that subject, ought to appear in con- 
nexion with No. 8. vul.l. I shall feel obliged to acknowledge a favor 
done to myself in>lividually, and to the cause which 1 espouse, 
should the* editors publish the article on "Conscience,** No. 7. vol. 3. 

While on this topic, I must just remark, that as the editors have 
not as yet attempted to elucidate this subject, or to give their 
views, or any views, other than a few vagfue expressions, it would 
no doubt be of importance to the community that they sh >u]d fully 
discuss the subject. And still 1 put the question. What is ^yxpe- 
rimenfal reUgiw?" The words import neither more wot Vc-aavvw^x^ 
acceptation of them, according; to W\e \^Tv?;\vi«v Xwv'^.vvs^^'k '^'^;^ > 
rJiffion/oundtid upon ej/imiuent, OT {iirotjcd b-a «^V*'*^*l^^*Vv« ^^ 
ontinml with those who contend ^ox l\v<i nXvw^ ^\^g«CA^-^ ^ 


phnscy to say which of the two. If it mean a religion founded 
upon experiment let Uiem illuBtrate the nature and properties of 
thoae experiments: if proved by experiment, let the experiments 
be explamed. I will not do it for them, because I cannot. Let 
them, who so warmly contend for the name and for somethir.g 
under the name, explain it, and I will examine, and declare une- 
quivocally my views upon, their exposition. As to '-christian ex- 
perience," the language is intelligible, and I understand the words 
precisely. They mean the expert tnce of a chrittian. And I am 
persuaded that every christian in the world has experience. Yet 
a great portion of what is commonly called ''christian experience** 
is as much the experience of deists and apostates, as it is of chris- 
tians. Neither convictions of guilt, nor fears of punishment, nor 
hopes of exemption, nor desire« for reformation, are peculiar to 
christians. Simon ^lagus, and Judas Iscariot, and ten thousand 
others have experienced these, whom few of the populars would 
put on their lists of christians. If the phrase "christian experience" 
must be retained, let it be defined; let those who consecni'e it 
give US a defmition of it that comports with the import of the 
words or with their views. My remarks in the 8th No. vol: 1. en 
this subject, may be ridiculed and laughed at by those who do n(4: 
understand them, or by those who have been misled and are mis- 
leading others in this wild course; but they have not yet been able 
to shew that they are either logically or scripturally erroneous. I 
have too many documents to prove that thousands are dependirg 
upon their experiences and experimental religion as the bases of 
their hope towards God, whose experience and experimental re- 
ligfion are not worth a straw. 

I am assured that every one that is bom of God feels as well as 
believes, hopes and fears, loves and abhors, rejoices and trembles, 
and that they are conscious of all these. That they are purified in 
their hearts, reformed in their lives, and zealous of good works. 
That they are fervent in spirit, constant in prayer, and intent on 
shewing forth the praises of him who hath called them out of dark- 
ness into his marvellous light. And I contend that, without these, 
a man is blind and cannot see far, and dead while he lives. 

As to the modua operandi, as described by the populars, it is all 
foolish philosophy, vain and deceitful jargon, and a ship load 
of such theories is not worth one inspired word. If I cannot prove 
them such by unanswerable arguments, I will become a spiritual 
metaphysician, a theoretic doctor, a retailer of theological receipts, 
as orthodox as Beza or Calvin. 

I have now to propose to the editors of the Baptist Reconlev: — 
You, gr'ntlemen, have selected what you call my v'ews of experi- 
mental religion, out of the numerous topics in the Christian Ilaptist, 
as either the most assailable, or chiefly worthy of being assaih'd. 
riiis appears from your beginning with this topic. If, of the 
numerous essa} s on this subject, you think the first one on tlrs 
topic Hnswers y OUT purpose better than any other, I have no ob- 
Jc'ctions to your availing vouTse\ves ct \\.,\Ttea'^eOC\N«,^3S ^w^ Uvin^r 
^^erwurds published oil llie sanne lo\)\c; or \^ \v>w ^X^i^^vi u> ^^«^v:vx 
^ij^ other one down to tlic arlicVe Y\eai\i:«\ "Cousciwce,^^ ^^i.^» 


vol.3; orif^ou prefer to publish your own sentiments on the 
subject, I will promise to publish any thing you write on the sub- 
ject, tu the amount of four or five pages in one number, and will 
take no more to myself in replying to it— on the following condi- 
tions: 1st. That you publish my replies in full in your paper; and 
2dly. I'hat you confine yourselves to one topic at a time, and abstain 
from every expression of passion, from evoy inmnuation about my 
motives, which you know nothing about; in a word, that you con- 
fine yourselves to argument and scripture. I do not stipulate these 
conditions as though I feared a non-compliance, or any thing like 
injustice on your part; but the iminuaHoru over the name of George 
Waller have given some apprehension that the latter may not be 
an untimely hint. My willmgness to be instructed or put to rights, 
and to give every opportunity to my readers to judge for them- 
selves, have dictated the first condition. I court investigation, and 
only ask for what is commonly called **fiur play," and good order 
in the plan of conducting it 

One topic at a time, and a firm adherence to the oracles of truth 
and to argument, are conditions which common sense and common 
justice dictate; and against wl^ch, we know of no objection, which 
honesty, integrity, and ^e consciousness of a good cause can 
offer. All of which is respectfully submitted, by 
Your humble servant »>r the truth's sake, 


MANY of the great men of all departments off science, in their 
lucid intervals, have expressed the same views c^ the Bible, and 
of systematic theology:— 

Milton? 9 Treatise on Christian Doctrine. 

^^\U then, the Scriptures be in themselves so perspi- 
cuouS) and sufficient of themselves to makt men xoist 
unto salvation through faith^ and that the man of God 
may be perfect^ thoroughly furnishtd unto all good works, 
through what infatuation is it, that even Protestant 
divines persist in darkening the most momentous truths 
of religion by intricate metaphysical comments, on the 
plea that such an explanation is necessary; stringing to- 
gether all the useless technicalities and empty distinctions 
of scholastic barbarism, for the purpose of elucidating 
those Scriptures, which they are continually extolling as 
models of plainness? a:s if Scripture, which possesses 
in itself the clearest light, and is sufficient for its own 
explanation, e^pecially in matters of faith and holiness, 
required to have tjie simplicity of it* dviVci^ Vc>aS3o&xsiRs^^ 
full/ developed) and placed in a laoT^ ^x^SlvatX.NwwO^'^ 
JlJustrafions drawn from the ^bslt^icl ol V>a.m^v. ^^\k^^>^ 
false I V so calJed.*' 


Dr. Becrge CampbelPs views of Commentators and of Commenta- 
ries. — Extracted firom his Lectures on Systematic Theology:— 

^^The dogmatist knows nothing of degrees, either in 
evidence or in faith. He has properly no opinions oi 
doubts. £very tiling with him is either certainly true, 
or certainSy false. Of this turn of mind I shall on!) 
sayi that far from being an indication of vigor, it is a 
sure indication of debihty in the intellectual powers.'*— 

^K)f most of our commentaries we may almost say— 
.Thej speak 'ait infinite deal of nothing. Their rea* 
smis are as two grains of wheat hid in two bushels o 
bhaff; you shall seek all day ere you find them, ant 
when you have them they are not worth the search ^^^ 

^^Almost every commentator hath his favorite system 
which occupies his imasination, bias6e» his understand- 
ing, and more or less tinges all his comments.^ — 

^^How unsafe then must it be to trust in men! TVbei 
we thus implicitly follow a guide before inquiry, if wi 
should even happen to be in the right, it is, with regari 
to us, a matter purely accidental. '— 

^^Whilst therefore it is by far the too general cry 
*%ead, read commentators, systematists, paraphrasts 
controvertlsts, demonstrations, confutations, apologies 
answers, defences, replies, and ten thousand other sue) 
like;' I should think the most important advice to be 
Devoutly study the scriptures themselves*, if you woul 
understand their doctrine in singleness of heart"— 

>^Biea having been to visit the library of a French con 

vent, writes thus to his friend in Persia concerning whs 

had passed: Father^ said I to the librarian, what ar 

these huge volumes which fill the whole side of th 

library? These, said he, are the Interpreters of th 

scriptures. There is a prodigious number of them, re 

plied I; the scriptures must have been very dark formci 

ly and very clear at present. Do there remain still an 

doubts? Are there now any points contested? Are then 

(answered he with surprise,) Are there? There ai 

almost as many as there are lines. Tou astonish txn 

said /, what then have all tbese authors been doing 

These authors, returned be, ik^N w ^^w^Xv^^ V^^ ^^tv 

iures, for what ought to be \j«A\«iv^^'» but Jw v>Wl t 

d/a Relieve ihemstUtB . TViey ^lA uoV. ^oti^v^^^ vV^x 


ftbook wherein were contained the doctrines which they 
ought to receive, but as a work which might be made to 
authorize their own ideas " 

There is honesty in exhibiting even the cloven footf which deserves 
commendation, as the following extract shews: — 

From the He/ormer, 


IN a Catechism for Children, published by Gilbert 
M'Master. A M. Pastor of the Reformed Presbyterian 
Church, Duanesburgh, New-York, are the following 
questions and answer*: — 

Q Has Christ provided a government for his church? 

A. Yes;' he is the God of order. 

Q. What form of church government is exclusively 
of Divine authority? 

A . The Preshyttrian form. 

Q. Who are the officers of Christ's appointment in 
his church? 

A. iVIini^jters, Ruling Elders, and Deacons. 

Q. In what Judicatories should these officers meet for 
the transaction of business? 

A. In Congressional J Presbyterial^ and Synodical ju* 

A handsome specimen of the spirit of the age which now is:— > 

^^ Christmas and JSTew- Yearns Fair. 

^'THE first Sewing Society of Baltimore! auxiliary to 
the Education Society, propose to hold a FAIR for the 
sale of a variety of Fancy Articles and Toys, suitable 
for Christmas and New»Year's Presents, such as Orna« 
mental Baskets, Card Racks. Purses, Emery Books, 
Needle Cases, Watch Papers, Dolls, &c &c. The Fair 
w ill be held in the Lecture Room of 8ti Peter\ Churchy 
German Lane, on Fuesday and Wednesday next, the 
37th and 38th instant. The proceeds of the sale will ba 
sacredly devoted to the education of indigent and pious 
young men for the work of the Gospel Ministry. The 
purchasers of articles at^his Fsir^ tci^c^ ^ «^^^ ^^^«^ 
their taste. /^ratify their frienda ot fiViV^x^u^^xA^^^^^'^ 
C2use of Charity and R^lidon^ 
''Dec. 1625 J^ 



THE cause of the delay of the April number, as *»e-. 
fore hinted, was our baste to get the New Testameut 
out of the press. Those who desire to discontinue takir g 
this woik, are a$;ain requested to pay off all arrears, and 
to notify the agents at least one month before the close 
of the present volume, ofheiwise they will be stijl con* 
sidered as subscribers. Those who live at a distance 
from any agent can inform the editor by letter, post 
paid We do not desire to force this w^oik upon aiiy 
person, but we do desire that those who are disposed 
neither for their own benefit, nor for that of their 
neighbors, to encourage and support the woik, would 
comply with our conditions in notifying us of their in- 
tentions* We have ]ost hundreds of volumes through 
such neglects, by sending on the first numbers before 
apprized of 6uch discontinuances. There is not one 
drzen of unbound copies of the. 1st and 2d volumes on 
hand, and not many bound or half bound copies. There 
are several agents from whom we have not heard since 
the commencement of the present volume. It would be 
of great consequence to us that the small sums due the 
establishment, and widely dispersed over many states, 
were banded to our agents , and then forwarded to 


BCP IN reply to the numerous solicitations I have re- 
ceived, requesting me to visit dififerent regions oi the 
union, I must inform my friends that the very delicate 
state of my health absolutely forbids my leaving borne 
at present, and it is probable the same cause will con- 
tinue to keep me at home for some time to come. 



MANY communications are on file; some of ifvfaich 
will appear in due time. "W . C' in our next 

^ ^^The Christian Bafitxst'' U printed and 
published monthly hy'A^ €amtbeU. Pwt^ O^t 
^Dollar per annum. 

n^iiimaif ^j^i^'jfjFK' 

A^o. 11— To/. HI] ' BUFFALOE, June 5, 1826. [Jihole jVo. 3.; 

Sti/ie no man on earth ijour Fathevi for he alone is yojir father iL'/iO 
in in Iwaven,' and all ye are bi*ethren» jlssume not the title of Itaibt; 
for ye have only one teacher: — A^either asswne the title of Leader,- far 
ye have only one leader — the Mkssi^u. 

[Mat. xxiii. 8 — 10. Campbeirs Translation.] 

Prove all things: hold fast that -which is good. 

[Paul the Apostle.] 



SOME of the popiilars sneer at the term bishop, as 
if the spirit of God.had not chosen it to de^'gnate the only 
Ifsgitimate '^officer'' in a christian coni^rei^ation, who j>^ 
from office, to teach and rule. They love rabbi rabbi ^ 
or reverend and rigkt reverend too well, to lay them aside, 
or to exrhange these haughty titles for the apostolic 
and humble name of' overseer or bishop. And 1 sec 
that some of the Baptists too, who love the present or- 
der of things, and who contend for the traditions oi itia 
fathers in the mass, in their Editorial labours, ei(hM' 
capitalize or italicize, or by some outlaacii^h niaik, 
erect a monument of admiration at every insci ibiifp; ( f 
the name bishop. Yet their c/eor ''CoLfcbsioji of Faith'* 
saifh, page 43:— 

"8. A particular church gathered, and completely organized 
according to the mind of Chrisfy consists of officers and mtiiiLerF: 
and the officers appointed by Christ to be chosen and set apa't by 
the church, so called and gathered, for the peculiar administration 
of ordinances, and execution of power, or dut>, which he intrusts 
tliem with, or calls them to, to be continued to the end of the 
world, are bishops, or eiders, and deacons." 

Some, agam, because of the impieties of England 
and Rome in appropriating this <erm to a man who 
wore a wig, and a gown, and trnppm2;s, have consider- 
ed it very profane nideed, to call any mana bishop who 
does not wear a wig, and ki<s the pope's toe. But to 
those who have got an apostoWc Xv^\.^, "Cev^ >l\^\^ c>\\\A^«Nft. 
of o£Sce which Paul and Pelet ^vi^^v.^ii^w^'^^^^^'^^^ 


is incomparably preferable to the prescriptions of Gen- 
eva or Westminster. — I have lately heard that some 
Baptist teachers who at first recognized the ^'Divine 
right," at least, of the name, and were desirous of 
coming up to the ancient model in all things, are 
now startled, if not considerably shocked, when saluted 
bishop; but the term reverend can be heard without any 
nervous spasm. Perhaps this may be accounted for on 
good principles; and, indeed, if so, it is the best argu- 
ment we can find for giving an exclusive preference to 
the terms adopted, and fixed by the spirit ol Revelation.- 
Tlie reason why they are startled at the title, on this 
hypothesis is, they see some incongruity in its applica* 
tion to them. There is no incongruity arising from their 
want of an academical education, from their being 
merely acquainted with their mother tongue, from their 
not having a doctorate or an honorary degrte. — It is 
not' on this account they are startled, or affrighted at 
being called bishop. But they never read in the New 
Testament of a bishop of two, three, or four congrega- 
tions; of a bishop having the ^^pastoral care^^ of a 
church in Rome, and Corinth, andEphesus; — in Phila- 
delphia, Pergamos, and Thyatira at the same time« 
They might have read of a plurality of bishops in one 
congregation, but never of a plurality of congregations 
under one bishop. This they may have read in the his- 
tory of diocesan episcopacy, but not in the history of 
primitive episcopacy. But some of them are startled, 
perhaps, on another consideration. They were not 
made bishops according to law. Their declaration of a 
special call to some work, entirely distinct from the v 
bishop's work, was the ladder which reached from the 
fluor to the pulpit. And they do not read that any 
were made bishops in the hale and undegenerate days 
of the christian kingdom, because of their having de- 
clnred that they were inwardly moved by the Holy Spirit 
to take upon them the office of a bishop. In fine, there 
is no occasion for being particular or minute in finding 
out incongruities which may appear to some, a good 
and lawful reason why they should not be so designated. 
But they can discover no incongruity in being called 
mz/uster, preacher, or divine', toT ^NfeT-^ oti^VWtmakea 
public speeches or barangu^s on t^\\^\oxk^ ^^ ^^ ^^^^^^ 


their cotemporaries. The term reverend^ too, Is become 
such common property, that the preacher of the dreams 
of Swedenborg, or the leader of the dance of a Shaker 
meeting is fully entitled to all its honors and emola* 
ments. Equally heirs to its privileges in this world and 
that which is to come. That some half dozen of Bap- 
tist preachers have become shy of the name bishop, for 
the reasons above specified, is, indeed, a good symptom 
in their case. It proves that their acquaintance with 
the ancient order of things is encreasing, that they see 
a discrepency between the present order, and the an- 
cient — between themselves and the bishops instituted 
and appointed by the apostles. 

As to our Presbyterian brethren, they make little or 
no pretensions to the name. They are wise enough to 
know that it is unsuitable to their character; but they 
%vould have some to think, that their minister and Paul's 
hiskop are one and the same character. 

Our Methodist friends have not quite forgotten the 
^lory, and majesty, of the Lord Archbishop of York: — 
for even until this hour archiepiscopacy has some charms 
in their eyes. In other words, a few of this brother- 
hood still like the remains of diocesan episcopacy. 
They seem to admire it, even in its ruins, i believe, 
however, such is the progress of light amongst this 
zealous people, that few, if any, of their leaders, con- 
sider their is a Divine right for either their bishops or 
form of church government, other ihsLii ^^vox popuU^ vox 
dei^^ Yet still their *'church government" has too many 
heads, even when the horns are broken off. 

The good old High church bishops are not within the 
sphere of comparison. There is no point of contact; 
no one side of the system that can be measured by any 
side of primitive episcopacy. 

Our Baptist brethren began in the spirit, but ended in 
the flesh, in their adopting of i9t species of presbyteriai 
independency — licensing of preachers, and then convert- 
ing these preachers into elders, with the exclusive right 
of administering ^^sealing ordinances/' and creating or- 
finishing an order of its own kvud. 

But the fact is, very generaWy, VWV Ivw ^^ *Cs\^V.'^- 
ers of reUgiovLs assemblies, seem V.o \wio\s«i ^"t -^^^ ''^^'^ 


to decide, t^rhether they should be called evangel- 
ists, preachers, elders, bishops, or ambasadors; but 
the term minister or divine seems to embrace them 

To many it seems but of little consequence to be 
tenacious of the name. Why not then call all the lead- 
ers priests? Why not call them astrologers, soothsay- i 
ers, or oneirocritics, if the name be indifferent? Be- 
cau'^e, says one, these names are used to denote .quite 
difierent characters. For the same reason, therefore, 
let the names which ihe apostles adopted be used in their 
onn accpptation, and let those things, persons, and 
offices which the apostles said nothing about, be named 
or fttiled as the inventers pleased; but call not bitter 
sweet, nor sweet biiter. Let us not call the messenger 
of a congregation, an elder. Let us not call a preacher, 
a bishop. Let usr not call a bishop, a divine; nor a 
deacon, a ruling elder. In a word, let us give to divine 
institutions divine uames, and to human institutions 
human names* 

Were christian societies to constitue christian bishops. 
and to designate them by their proper title or name of 
office, many important results would exhibit themselves, ' 
amongst which, none of the least would be the leveling 
the haughty and supercilious pretensions of those who 
c(ai m another office under this name, and designate 
themselves as the only persons to be so viewed and de- 

Another happy consequence resulting from this course, 
would be the discountenancing and suppressing the pre- 
tensions and enthusiastic conceits of those who are 
imposing themselves upon society, under the pretence 
that they are specially called and sent by the Holy 
Spirit of God to preach. If they are sent to preach, 
let them go to preach— 6wf thejj can plead no right to 
officiate as bishops under the call to preach, if they are 
railed to go and preach the gospel to every creature, 
they dare not, of course, refuse to go; nor dare Ihey 
assume a work in relation to which they are not called, 
a}ji} to which no man was ever otherwise called, than as 
fhe brethren^ under the dlveclvoxv^ ol W^ WvA^ ^V^V\\.^ 
cal/ecl him. For amongst «A\ \^i^ c\\\i):\^v^^M\^\i^ \»1 

BAPTIST. ^ 245 

which Paul would have a bishop chosen --^Ae modern 
special call is not to be found — I again repeat, that the 
adoption of the course divinely recommended, would, 
in due time, suppress the impositions practised upon 
the unsuspicious by a class of raving, ranting mounte^* 
banks, who are playing themselves oft* as a kind of littla 
half inspired ones, who just give to the people what 
they pretend they have got from heaven; and sr^y that 
80 clear is their divine mission and call, that eternal wod 
awaits them if they preach not the gospel. 

The bishops of apostolic creation are sometimes called 
elders; because they were generally aged persons, and 
always amongst the oldest converts in the community iu 
which they officiated. But the officf is no where calle 1 
ike elder''s office. There is nothing in the term elders 
which can designate the nature of any office. Hut the 
mere term bishop implies a good and arduous work. 

While on the term elder^ it may be remarked, that 
there is no greater incongruity than to see a stripling.oi* 
a young man from twenty to thirty, styled elder; and if 
the name dont suit his years, it is a very strong reasci 
in favour of the conclusion that the office of a bisbo^i 
does not. 

Here I had intended to have called the readers atten- 
tion to the call and appointment of the bishop— but 
circumstances beyond my control, forbid an etlort of 
this kind for the present. Ed, 

I— :o:o:mm 

B amnty CMd.J Jpril 1, 1826. 


Dear Brother^ 

ALTHOUGH a stranger to your correspondents 
Faithful, sec page 47, and J — H— see page 17G, I feei 
an affection that proceeds for the truth's sake, that { 
cannot! withold from their view a statement of a church 
of Christ attending to the ordinances in their simplicity. 
Although I am in practice for years with the order descri- 
bed below, yet to copy thl^ ac.cckv\\x\.\^i'^x\i'^Vvft.^'^*2^^\. 
could do it otherwise — and y<%wT VAxa^^ Xi^vcsV-"^ -cccck^^^^^- 


cupied with printing the New Testament, you b*ve not 
been able to coroplj with what you say at the close of 
yours to Faithful — that is, "We intend to give the his- 
tory of the progress and proficiency of some congrega- 
tions who have taken tbis course, and are now enjoying 
a participation of the fulness of the blessings of the 
gospel of Christ." You will please publish this ac« 
count in the present volume, and my anxiety for the 
dear brethren Faithful and J — H — will be relieved* 

Yours in hove, 

W C 

The following is coppied from the 1st volume of the 
^^ Scripture JSlagazency'^^ printed in Edinburgh in 1809 — 
see page 161: — 

'\9n accQUjit of a remarkable occurence in a late journey, « 

^"Having occasion some time ago to travel in the county 

of I arrived on Saturday evening in the town of- . 

Being a stranger, I made inquiry of my host respect* 
ing the places of worship in the town. He told me 
there were two estabh'shed churches, a Burgher and an 
Anti-Hurgher meeting, an Episcopal chapel, and of late, 
said he, another meeting has been set up, whose mode 
of worship is different from all the others. J was curi* 
ous to learn wherein it differed, but he could give me no 
distinct answer; only he said, that many of the town's 
people did not approve of it, though, he had heard^ 
some of the graver cast liked it very much. Next morn- 
ing I inquired where I shculd find the new place of 
worship he mentioned, and being directed, I repaired to 
it. — Two persons, whom i supposed to be the elders of 
the churcL, soon entered. One of them, after a short 
prayer, imploring the Divine presence, gave out a hymn, 
celebrating the resurrection of the Lord Jesus. He 
then read a portion of scripture from the Old Testa- 
ment and another from the New. That from the New 
Tesitan'ent was judiciously chosen, as illustrating some 
D^rt of fihat had been read from l\ve 0\^ — ^^n\\v^xsv%:\v^ 
"^uetl ieveral of the members V>> t^^m^ \N\io^^T% \^xv- 


ouslj afflicted, he called on one of the brethren to praj, 
he was an aged disciple of grave appearance, his 
prayer seemed to be the effusion of a heart alive to God 
—plain, artless, and appropriate* I was particularly 
struck by the affectionate manner in which he prayed 
for these distressed brethren. It reminded me of the 
apostle's description k>f the body of Christ, "Whether 
one member suffer, 4ll the members suffer with it"— 
After again uniting inlpraise, the other elder addressed 
the church in terms, -^which made such an impression on 
my mind, that I believe I repeat his words almost ver!- 
batim "I have now," said he, '■'brethren, to lay before 
^ou a matter peculiarly painful, it is the case of ojar 

brother . His crime is described in (he 6th chapter 

of the Galatians, the 19th verse. The fall of our 
brother 1 lament to say is well known to the world, and 
ha$ caused the enemies of the Lord to blaspheme. By 
the offence of this person (for he did not again name 
him) the ohurch is called to deep humiliation before 
Cod. lu this monrnfui case we have a striking instance 
of the fatal effects, of unnecessarily mingling irith the 
men of the world. This was the first step of his de- 
fection and it paved the way for all that has followed. 
When first spoken to on the subject he positijrely denied it, 
but has now confessed it to me and to two of the brethren'^ 
[Here these two brethren siqiply attested the truth of 
the statement.] After a short pause he proceeded'^ 
'With the law of our Lord and Master in our hands^ 
we can be at no loss as to our duty in this case. That 
law is explicitly stated in the 5th chapter of the 1st epis- 
tle to the Corinthians, from the 4th verse to the end, 
[which he read ] Here then you perceive, brethreui 
there is no alternative, the Lord Jesus commands us, 
both for this person's good, and for that of the body, to 
separate him from our fellowship " The church (who 
I now perceived were sitting together in one place) 
having signified their conviction that this was their duty, 
the elder with much solemnity said, ^^We then, as a 
church of Jesus Christ, and acting by his authority do, 
in obedience to his commandment^ separate ■ from 

our fellowship." He then prated m ^ N«t^ "«:^^'^^^w 
ate and impressive manner^ iot IW >W3\\%:^y3 ^^^^^^^ 
of discipline^ that the ordiuwitit cA ^o\^\>^^:^^V'^<^^^'^'^ 


been attended to might be blessed to his soul, in bring- 
ing him to repentance: and to the church, in leading 
them to watchfulness, self abasement, and continual 
dependance on the grace of Jesus.-'After prayer the 
1 01st psalm was sung, which formed an extremely suita* 
ble conclusion to the solemn service . I never witnessed a 
acene more deeply afiecting. The countenance of every 
person present bespoke his feelings. — How is it, said I 
to myself, that I have lived so long atnong christians, 
and tiiat I have never till now seen this plain and positive 
law of Jesus carried into efiect? How beneficial are 
the laws of his kingdom! how much are they calcula« 
ted to promote the spiritual life of his people, and to 
awaken the thoughtless and inconsiderate! The church 
now proceeded to — what I afterwards understood was 
a stated part of their service every Lord's day — the ob- 
servance of the Lord's supper, the simplicity with which 
this divine ordinance wajs attended to, was in itself edi- 
fying, I beheld a representation of the unity of the 
body of Christ, which I never before witnessed. — The 
words of the institution were read by one of the elders, 
a few remarks were then made on the nature of the 
Lord^s supper, and on the spirit in which it ought to be 
observed . He then gave thanks, — and then breaking 
the bread gave it to the disciples, who divided it among 
themselves* Having again united in thanks- giving, he 
gave also the cup, and when all had drunk of it, con- 
cluded with a short exhortation and singing an appropi- 
ate hymn. This part of the service being closed, the 
elder said— --^Lj^t us now, brethren, attend to the ordi- 
nance of mutual exhortation:" when some of the mem- 
bers spoke, for a few minutes, alternately with much 
simplicity, earnestness, and evident humbleness of 
mind, the addresses of their brethren were, properly 
speaking, exhortations— calculated to excite to the per- 
formance of duty, and to bear with patience the various 
sufierings of the present life, each of them had some 
relation to the others, andctheir combined influence was 
highly salutary. Is not this, said I to myself, an ex- 
hibition of what the apostle means, when he speaks of 
^'//ic body of Chris?t edifjing itseJf in love?^' The ex- 
'hottations of the bretbTeuwete ioWoNs^AXi-^ vev^vV4\^ss 
/rom one of the elders, mw\ik\i\\^\>x\^?^^ \<t^^\;\\^iSa.Vjt\ 


the topics brought forward by the members, and en- 
forced the duties to which their attention had been call- 
ed. One of the brethren was then called on to pray, 
after af!;ain uniting in praise, the elder in a short prayer, 
implored the divine benediction on all their servi- 
ces, and entreated the blessing of God, while they 
attended to the fellowship of the saints, the church then 
sat down, when a collection was made and the worship 
closed . The two hours which I thus spent with these 
dear people were among the happiest and most profita- 
ble I ever enjoyed on earth. I bless God that unexpect* 
ediy I had had an opportunity of witnessing the order of 
a church, whch commended itself to my mind as com* 
bining all the ends of christian association, and6f which 
I had previously formed some idea from reading the 
JVew Testament. After an interval the services pro- 
ceeded, and the time was occupied by prajerand praise 
ihe teaching of the elders and the reading of the word 
of God; which last, I observed, throughout the day 
formed a conspicuous part of their worship. 

^'Being under the necessity of leaving this town early 
next morning, I was very desirous of learuiug their his- 
tory. Accordingly, when worship was over in the even- 
ing, I accosted a person whom I had noticed among 
the members, "Sir,'' said I, "I am a stranger in this 
place, and was happily led to your place of worship to 
4ay. Although unknown to any of you in the face, I 
trust I am one with you in the faith and hope of the 
;;ospel. I was very much edified with your order; and 
would esteem it a great favour if you would give me 
some particulars of your history." He, very kindly, 
invited me to his house, and gave me the following in- 
teresting detail.— "I have no doubt," said he, 'Hhat 
the motives of your inquiry are good, I shall, therefore, 
without reserve, give you the information you request. 
We have met together as a church for these six years 
past. The original members were intimately acquainted 
with one anotner, each of us had, for a considerable 
time, been groaning under the defects of the societies 
with which we were then connected. We clearly p^^' 
ceived that they bore none of tt^e fe«it.\ic^^ of tha 
churches set in order by the «i^o%W^%. \^viN. '^^ ixs^^i^ 
rnntented ourselves with oux ^^radciUow^ ^n« <Xcifc^^^'^ 


fort as to christian society, arose from assembling to- 
gether once a week, in what is called a fellowship meet" 
ing- On one of these occasions a member spoke with 
•oine freedom on the distress he felt, arising from the 
cause above mentioned. This led the way to a free 
conversation; and we soon found that our distress was 
not that of an individual, but common to us all. We 
therefore resolved to walk together as a church, in all 
the ordinances and commandments of the Lord Jesus, 
df'ligently searching the scriptures to know his will, and 
fervently praying to be guided by him. From that peri- 
od, we have assembled regularly on the first day of the 
Week, the Lord has been pleased graciously to counten- 
ance us' Our beginning was indeed small, wewereYew 
and despised, but walking, as I trust, in the fear of the 
Lord, and in the comforts of the Holy Spirit, we have 
been greatly multiplied. We had soon the satisfaction 
of choosing two of our brethren, with whose qualifica- 
tions we were entirely satisfied as our elders^their labours 
of love have been much blessed; and one and another has 
from time to time been added to our number. Our com- 
munion commenced," he continue<!l, ''''in the full con- 
viction that we were yielding obedience to the Lord 
Jesus. And now we have increasing experience of the 
truth of our Saviour's declaration, that it any man do his 
tvill he shall know of the doctrine, whether it be of 
God. We have no standard but the will of our Master; 
Jind this we find so clearly stated in the scriptures, that 
with the teachable spirit of disciples, we are in no dan- 
ger of misunderstanding it" ^''The brethren,'' said I 
•"appear to have much love to each other." '^Yes," he 
replied, ^'we know the benefits of christian fellowship, 
by coming together into one place on the first day of the 
week, and regularly observing the ordinances of Christy 
we not only get better acquainted, but our interest in 
each other is greatly promoted; if a brother or a sister 
be absent they are immediately missed* and inquiry is 
made for them* Our elders know well the situation of 
every individual, and in case of distress the church i& 
particularly informed, thus our sick, or otherwise dis- 
trpssed bre fhren, are not ne jlected. C hristian sympathy 
IS excited, and we are stined \xip Vo \)a^ ^mX-n qI n«^^^\w^ 
"frith those that weep: in bYioxI>^ coii\;\ix>x^VVx^^ '*''^^>Ei'w^ 


convincing proof of the wisdom of all the appointments 
of Christ, and how eminently the observance of them Is 
calculated to cherish and mature every christian grace, 
the people of God are not aware of the loss they sustain 
by neglecting any one of them." "I was much gratified, 
said I, by the short exhortation of the brethren to day, 
is every brother called on to exhort in the chuch?*' "Ites, 
be answered, we think the commandment to exhort one 
another can be limited no otherwise, than by a brother 
posses^ng no talent for it, it is the duty of our elders 
to take care that the edification of the church be not 
marred; and If a church is composed of real disciples, 
abuses will rarely occur. We have no right to make 
laws to ourselves, it is our province to follow implicitly 
the injunctions of our Master, A few Sabbaths ago one 
x)f our brethren, who had not formerly exhorted in the 
church, spoke on the consolations which the gospel af- 
fords to believers under the heaviest- trials, and wLth 
much feeling urged the duty of cordial submission to the 
will of God. The advice came with peculiar impressioa 
from one, whose deep affliction was well known to his 
brethren.— -Iqdeed, who that knows the Lord is not fitted 
to suggest a word in season, and bow grack>us is the 
Sa/iour's appointment, that his disciples should comfort 
one another with the words of truth. Individual expe- 
rience thus becomes a general benefit. — The Lord Jesus^ 
my friend, bestows gifts on his people, and every one 
knows that gifts are increased by exercising them.'' 
"But does not the singularity of your observances, draw 
upon you the censure of others?^' "I believe it does, 
but, added he, with a look of peculiar satisfaction, a 
full conviction that we are obeying the commandments 
of the Lord Jesus, raises us superior to these little ob- 
stacles. While we follow our own convictions of duty, 
and are thankful, that in this highly favoured country 
every man enjoys liberty to worship God according to > 
his own conscience, we at the same time cherish a lovi^ig 
spirit toward all who truly fear God; we earaestly de- 
sire the universal spread of the gospel; and use every 
means in our power for the salvation of perishing sin- 
ners around us.*' — I thanked this worthy ma.a €q\ <}c^^ 
free and open manner in w\i\c\\ \\^\v^^ \ai5&fe^'^>i^'«5^'\ 
nnd witti much regret bade bivxa i'^x^^<^\ ^ 



Next morning I pursued my journey, but not without 
casting a wishful eye on the spot tvhere these disciples 
sojourn. The occurences of this day I shall not soon 
forget. Never do I read of the churches of the New 

Testament, but I realize the christians at . Send 

forth, O God! thy light and thy truth, unite thy people. 
Thou hast indeed given them a good law, thy comnaand- 
ments concerning all things are right.— "Thus saith the 
Lord, I am the Lord thy God, which teachelh thee to 
prolit, which leadeth thee by the way that thou shouldest 
go. Oh! that thou hadst hearkned to my command- 
ments: then had thy peace been as a river, and thy 
righteousness as the waves of the sea!" 

Baltimore, March 22, 1826, 
Mr. Editoh; 

SIR, perhaps the follovnng may be as acceptable to your read- 
ers, as it teas to me; therefore, at a convenient time, give tt an inser- 
tion in the Christian Baptist, if thought -worthy, 

"The gospel is the history of the p^reatest act of love, where-- 
with the world of men, or angels is acquainted. This is the 
burden of prophets, and evangelists, and apostles— The end at d 
meaning of types, and ceremonies, and sacrifices — The foundation 
of a thousand arguments, and the subject of a tliousand Wai-m 
emotions. Throughout the scriptures, ever} one of \^hich, as 
they occur, elevates the mind to the divine contemplation, aiid 
brings with it admiration, affection, and joy. — "U'fc cannot afford 
to be diffusive, or we could show, in what a variety of ways, the 
gospel is fitted to affect the mind, into which it is received, as the 
great end of God*s revelation. It can no longer leave any doubt 
upon the terder affection of Gcd, towards the sons of mcr. for 
whose sake he has given up his only begotten, and well belrvcd 
Son. But, besides drawing out our affection to God, it rivets it 
upon one hitherto unknown, Jesus Christ the Son of God, who 
underwent such humiliation, and poverty, and fafHiction, on ^ur 
account; and healed the division there was between us and God. 
Whether that divison is from positive wrath on the side of God, it 
boots no inquiry, seeing it did exist, and does exist: there being, 
(o this day, no affection of heart, nor intercourse of thought, nor 
affinity of happy nature, between a human soul and its maker, 
until joined tbrorgh the intermedium of Christ crucified. The 
attention beirg cnre turned fairly on Christ, by the interest he 
hath tsiken in cur rtcoverj, a r.v.n.ber of effects are produced, 
whict gees to Ir.flucnrc tLe future conduct of ever} one who be- 
Jieies Ccci's (estinoiy c onceTi^^iv^ \\\% ^cw. ^^.a \.^ t-\^«^ t^^ \b.o 
ejects prodticed, by the c«iix^^V\ii\s ^^ ^'^^ ^t^v^l ^^x^x^i5iv^A.^ 


and revival of hope from its abject condition of despair, which 
doth, as it were, clear the road, and cheer the spirit for future 
action, but doth not furnish the instrument for action. Wo re- 

First, That Christ having kept the law of God, without spot or 
blemish, his life stands instead of the law. He is the personification 
of the law, which we can now peruse, not in words, but in a 
living example. This is a mighty advantage to the successful 
keeping of it; and were there nothing else, would secure a mucii 
more perfect performance, than when it had its exposition in bare 
language alone. For looking upon the law itself, our eye is set 
upon an object which, though holy, and pure, is cold, hopeless, 
and cheerless: but looking upon Christ's exemplification of the laM', 
our eye is set upon an object warm with life, friendly, afll'ectionati , 
and dear to every feeling of the heart. We have to deal no longer 
with written letters, constructed into conception abstract and 
formless; but with a fellow mortal, touched with the feeling of our 
infirmities, and smarting at every pore for his love of us, yet 
holding his obedience steadfast to the end. Not that the gospel of 
which Christ is the model, drops one tittle of tlie law, but embo- 
soms it in graceful and gainly attractions, and induces upon it all 
that persuades, wins, and keeps steadfast, and translates out of 
language intelligible to the heart of an unfuUen creature, into lan- 
guage intelligible to the heart of a creature tlUen. For if man had 
stood fast in his integrity, this law, which now seems no stem, 
would have felt merciful, "and kind^ and good, as well as ju3l; for 
peace is sweet, and chastity is good, and forgiveness is kind, and. 
truth is the very bond of confidence and love. 

These requirements are, in themselves, as much the essence of 
mercy, as is the Gospel, and it is only our imperfections which 
makes them seem otherwise; they go not with the grain, and there - 
fore we wince. The law is a g^cious object to an unfallen creature, 
for abstract unprejudiced reason to love and admire; but the mo- 
ment that reason mingles with flesh and blood, it is invaded and 
overcome by a thousand sympathies, and antipathies, over which 
reason hath but a slender control — Now the gospel catches at these 
very sympathies and antipathies, of flesh and blood, by investing 
the law, in Christ's person, with life, colour, beauty, and every 
attraction: from an idea making it a living, loving thing, 
taking it and dressing it, so as to be gainly and winning to the 
heart. The law, is the gospel to the unfallen. The gospel, is the 
law to the fallen The law, is God manifest in words. The gospel, 
is God manifest in flesh. Around the purity of the law, Christ 
has arrayed every thing, not being vicious, is pleasant to the heart 
of man; bearing in his hand every prize, not being vain, can influ- 
ence the ambition of man; speaking from his mouth every word, 
which, not being flattery, can soothe, and e^thilerate, and ennoble 
the breast of man; enduring, for our sake, every suflTering which 
pan make the sufferer g'-eat In the geTv\w% ^^ \>^^ ^^^t^^ os^^ 
heauiv, hveUnes, benevolence, ^ope, w\^ -^tos^^^'^-* ^v*^ "^-^ 
'whole constelltition of advantages a.x\A.«AtWLC>:vNft ^\xv^^\ '^^5^'^'*^^^ 

the genius of the law^ Purity stooei hi'vVSkv^^xv^'^'^'*^ 


terror, deaf to mercy, impervious to hope, while a thousand re* 
morseless shapes circled around his head, and a sword of judg* 
ment in his hand, like seraph's turned and flamed toward every 
tliinS that hveth." IRVING, 


THERE is as much wisdom exhibited in conceal- 
ing some things as there is in revealing others. Pa- 
rents, in relation to their own children, have incon- 
testible proofs of this, if they are parents of discern- 
ment. Our heavenly Father in revealing himself and 
liis designs to tlie children of men, has purposely 
concealed many things which it would have been un- 
wise in relation to all ends and results to have discov- 
ered. There was evidently some principle, some 
{Statute ill the counsels of the Omniscient which allow- 
ed the discovery of certain things, and forbade tlie 
disclosure of others. When this principle or rule of 
revelation is apprehended many important results 
are acquired; many reflections present themselves, 
wln'ch are of much value to the student of the Bible. 

We have no doubt but it is quite practicable to ascer- 
tain the rule or principle which authorizes the revela- 
tion of some things, and which witholds from mortal 
man the knowledge of others. 

When we take into view the object proposed, in 
giving to the world the Bible, wejhave got into the 
possession of more tiian half the secret. And what 
was this? It will be said the illumination of the 
world. But in reference to some end? Assuredly in 
reference to some end; for without this end • in view, 
there could be no selection of items or topics on which 
to address men. God has not disclosed the principles 
of astronomy or navigation in any pai*t of his revcla- 
tioi); yet if the object of his revelation had been the 
mere illuuiination of ihe mind on subjects Iiitlierto 
\inknown, the systems and laws of asti*onomy or 
chemistry would have been in times past a proper sub- 
Jcct of revelation. But it is wot t>ftfc \ii«v^ vllumination 
Qf the mind, which conatitot^A. ^ig^max^ ^^^'^^Nai 
^Jj" commauics^ixon from G^o^\» m^^^ 


To come directly to the point before us it must be 
observed, that the volume of revelation was not given 
to angels, nor written for them; nor was it given to 
man in his primitive state, nor adapted to a perfect 
innocent being; but it was designed for, addressed to, 
and conferred upon fallen and polluted human beings, 
composed of soul, body, and spirit; in such circum- 
stances as those in which we first find ourselves wiien 
introduced to life. Fi'om all which the inference is un- 
avoidable, viz: — 

That the Bible is designed for^ and adapted 
to, the children of men in their present circinn' 
stances^ to improve their condition here^ and to 
Jit them to become manbers of a pure^ refined, 
and exalted society hereafter. — 

It has long since been discovered, and almost uni* 
versally admitted, that three words comprehend (he 
sum total of human misfortune in this life — these ar^ 
ignorance, guilty and bondage. — From the brutal ig- 
norance of the Hotentott, up to the refined ignorance of 
a sceptic philosopher, there arc many intermediate de- 
grees; but as respects the true knowledge which the 
Bible communicates, there is a total blank in the ex- 
tremes and in all the intermediate degrees, 

To fit man for heaven, in one sentence, is the de- 
sign of the whole volume. This being admitted, then 
it follows that nothing is jrevealed which is not directly 
or indirectly conducive to this end. The grand rule 
or principle on which all revelation has ever proceed- 
ed is this, whatever may or can purify man is lawlul 
and benevolent to communicate, whatever cannot 
accomplish this, wisdom saith, disclose it not. 

Curiosity has prompted a thousand queries to which 
the Bible deigns no reply. And why? because, if an- 
swered, they would contribute nothing to the purifica* 
tion of the heart, or to tlie reformation of tlie life — 
God's sublime and glorious scheme of ameliorating 
and reforming the wQrld is YY^A\e^\fc^ w^wv*^^ «!ss:\?^*;^ 
condition of man. And as \Tv\.vb\\\^^\\^^> ^>\^>.v^ ^ 


J^eart, and rc^ctitudc of life, are as inseparably connect- 
ed with ])resent and future happiness, as ignorance 
and guilt are with bondage and wretchedness both 
here and hereafter, the Bible is prepared, was bestow- 
ed, and is adapted, to the promotion of intelligence and 
purity^ as prerequisites, as indispensables, as a sine qua 
non to happiness. **The whole scripture is divinely 
inspii*ed^ and is profitable for teaching, for confuta- 
tion, for instruction in righteousness. That the man 
of God may be perfect, and thoroughly fitted for every 
good work." Intelligence, purity of heart, and upright- 
ness of life arc the sole objects for which the Bible 
was bestowed on the world, — As ignorance, guilt, and 
l>omlage constitute the sum total of human misery^ so 
intelligence, purity, and tlie freedom of the truth com- 
prehend the whole object, design, and end of divine 

Ciiristians then eggregiously mistake, who value 
themselves on the account of their superior intelligence; 
or who pui*sue information in the things revealed, 
merely for its own sake. Unless this kno\^Iedge is 
conducive and allied to the art of living well, it 
merely puffs up and avails nothing. I have seen some 
christians who seem to think tliat the clearness of 
their views, and the comprehension of their under- 
standing would invade tlie kingdom of heaven, and 
take the citidal of God, whose piety, and purity were 
far below the standard of a Syrophenician woman, 
were far below the scale on which Zaccheus the publi- 
can was measured, in fact, a man who glories m his 
intellectual attainments in the Bible, (and of this class 
there are not a few) and pursues the knowledge of the 
volume for its own sake, resembles a foolish husband- 
man who boasts of his thousand measures of wheat, 
and his thousand measures of corn, who, as yet, has 
but ploughed his fields, and intends nothing more until 
harvest. Yet intelligence is one of the noblest of 
all things; for without it tliere is no purity. It is only, 
however, when it is purau^A, ^\i& ^jc^Yc^^^fepc live 
express purpose of living yjiou'sVy wcA nvc^qjvxA'^ "^CtoaX 


it is a blessing to the possessor. We sometimes meet 
with more piety, purity, and virtue amongst tliose ol* 
inferior intellectual endowments, ^than amongst those 
of superior attainments, **For knowledge puffeth up.'* 
As therefore the Bible was written to im])art intelli- 
gence to men, as this intelligence was. designed to 
promote purity, and as purity is essential to liappi- 
ness; we may sec what ought to be our constant aim 
in all our studies, in all our enquiries into the mean- 
ing of the Bible. And that, as Solomon saith, *'the 
fear of tlie Lord is the begmnmg of wisdoni/' so the 
conclusion of the whole matter is, "fear God and keep 
his commandments," for this is the whole happiness 
of man. Ed. 

Theoretic^ Scholastic j Metaphysical, Spec- 
ulative Theology, 

THE Editors of the *- Baptist Jiecorder" appear to be very 
strongly attached to dogmatic theology. With many, indeed, of 
the admirers of Aristotelian logic, ai\d the Geneva theology, sound- 
neas in the faiths means no more than pronouncing with an unfal- 
tering tongue a few dogmxis in the quaint style of puritanical di- 
vinity. Greater fears are entertained, and stronsyer doubts of my 
orthodoxy are expressed by those zealous and sound divines^, be- 
cause I will not subscribe a few improfitable and foolisli dogmas, 
than if I had denied the resurrection of the dead, and the final 
judgmient. At least so it appears to me. Great efibrts are made 
to enlist t!ie feelings and prejudices of those with whom sound is 
infinitely more important than sense, against my endeavours to 
call the attention of christians off from the vanities of spiritual 
quacks, to the pure milk of the divine word. 1 am rt presented, 
if not in so many words, yet in effect, as "in the gall of bitterness 
and bond of iniquity," because of my essay on experimental reli- 
gion — In a late liecovder an extract is given from some Christiau 
Secretary, pronouncing encomiums upon Messrs. Waller and 
Clack for their able efforts to expose my heresy, in whicli 
there is about a round half dozen of plump falsehoods, gravely 
told, and no doubt undesignedly from the overflowings of an hon- 
est zeal in defence of orthodoxy, which led the author to speak on 
a subject with whicli he was entirely unacquamted, and concern- 
ing a person, of whom he scarcely knows the name — Yet tliis will 
pass very well with those whose *Hmvard cotisdoiuness^* is made the 
test of divine revelation, and whose "experieftoe*' constitutes a tribu- 
nal from which tliere is no appea\. ^Va.^ \>j\^\jat^\\aM^ \svcx^l.m 
tijjoa those who (Jppose the reskXoT^\!vQ\\ q^ xXwc, \*.\vi\vt.^\ vi^t^i^'^ ^ 


things, and teach them the lesson which Gamaliel taught his 
compeers in the Sanhedrim! Poor men, I can enter into their views 
and feelings, for 1 know their system; 1 know my own motives too: 
and were they a little wiser, they would be the first to ud, and 
the last to oppose, wliat all who are born of Grod are praying for 
every day, the union, peace, harmony, and love of christians on 
the one foundation which the Great Architect himself laid for his 
spiritual temple. Should they succeed in securing the attachnnent 
of the misguided, to their moth-eaten systems, what reward can 
thev expect, and what do they anticipate from the Judge of all? 
Will he praise them for preferring the dogmas of the schools to 
the testimony of the apostles! Will he commend them for flatter- 
ing the people that they are just up to the model of the New 
Testament,that they are perfect in tlieir views and practices,wanting 
nothing! — Will he thank them for their zeal in maintaining the tra- 
ditions of synods and councils in contravention of his own apostles! 
O that they who have influence among the people, would use that 
influence to enlighten and purify their minds, and not to confiroun^f- 
ihem in cold, and sterile, and lifeless theories. 

The following dogmas are expressive of the views of the Edi- 
tors on one topic, in relation to which they have something in 
almost every paper. 

^*1. The regeneration of the heart is the work of 
God, by his Spirit exerted immediately and directly 
upon the hearts and understandings of men/^ 

*^2. riie regen^eratlon of the lieart is not the work 
of God, by his Spii»it exerted immediately and directly 
upon the hearts and understandings of men, but it 
is the effect of the word believed. The word itself is 
Spirit and life^ all that is necessary to produce what is 
called tlie new man^ is an honest reception and firm 
belief of the truths of the gospel; for the operation of 
faith is always in perfect accordance with the nature of 
the truth believed." 

The first of these positions the Editors declare to be a true one, 
and that the Baptists have long since ^^adopted** it. It is an alien, 
and they have adopted it. Who •'adopted" the second position the 
Editors do not say, and for my part I do not know* For 1 have 
never met with a creed which saith, "the regeneration of the 
heart is not the work of God, by his Spirit," &c. &c. I hope tlie 
Editors are so far regenerated themselves as not to invent dogmas 
tor others, that they may injure the reputation of others, and gain 
credit to themselves for their orthodoxy. But they avow the first 
dogma to be their own creed, and bolster it up by the *'intemal 
*'vj(}ence of consciousness," and the right it has to be true because 
^Af" Bhptjs^s have Jong since adopted \t. 'l!\vvs X^sX. WKv^tk of the 
^oj'mu I hesitate to admit. For »eiOiw XYvft "ttv^u^x ^QT&^^i\Qw ^\ 


Taith says so, ncf do I beUeve that the Baptists generally teach 
this dogma However, whether they do, or do not teach it, is, 
with me, a matter of no moment; for I am assured that neither 
John the Baptist, norany Baptist congregation in the apostolic age 
either taught, or entertained, or expressed such a dogma. But 
it is either expressed with ingenuity, or mental reservation; and 
where two opinions may be formed of an action or expression, 
charity saith, always prefer the more favourable one — We shall 4o 
so. Now the proposition saith, "the regeneration of the heart is 
the work of God, by his Spirit exerted «mined}a^e/^'-<-mark this' 
word immediately, i. e. without the intervsittion oj ant other 
cAt'SE, — independent of the rvord. So then messrs. Waller and 
Clack declare in favour of this dogma, that the regeneration of the 
heart is the -work of God, by hi* Spirit exerted independent of the 
•word or revelation of God, directly vpon the hearts and understand* 
ings of men. This they positively declare to be, witli them, the 
standard of orthodoxy Now the question is what advantage will 
result to any person from implicitly or explicitly believing, avow* 
ing, or teaching this dogma? It can effect no, change in the heart 
or affections of any human being. '*For men are regenerated by 
the Spirit of Ciod, independent of the word,'' and, most assured- 
ly, independently of this dogma. The believing of it can regener*- 
ate no body, the preaching of it can regenerate no body, if it be 
a true dogma. — If this dogma be true the Bible and the Alcoran 
are alike concerned in the regeneration of the human heart. This 
is no enthusiasm. It is the deliberate, premeditated, and writfen 
position of brethren Waller and Clack — The Spirit of God imme* 
diately and directly regenerates the heart! ! I have given Walker's 
definition of the term immediately, lest I should be supposed to 
give too high a colouring to the terms in which this position is ex- 
pressed. There is one thing which they say of this position which 
1 think passing strange: it is this — ** On its truth are founded all their 
fthe Baptists) exertions for the salvation of sinners." That is, be- 
cause the regeneration of the heart is the work of God, by his 
Spirit exerted independent of the Old and New Testament, the 
Baptists are themselves to be the means of regenerating men by 
the Old and New Testament, printed, published, read, and preach- 
ed, as the medium or means of regeneration; and all the while 
adopt, maintain, and proclaim the position that men are regenera- 
ted immediately by the Spirit of God. — — . If notes of 

admiration were not too common things, we should here call 
for battalions of them. No wonder then, that an improved version 
of the New Testament is considered by brother George Waller, 
as a superfluous and useless thing— In fact, the reading of it in 
Cireek or Syrocha.ldaic to an English scholar is just as useful,on the 
adopted position, as profitable, as any thing else. No wonder that 
these divines contend for a special call to convert men. Bid I say 
no -wonder/ ^ Yes it is a great wonder; for what use is their call 
and preaching, if the Spirit of God regenerates the human heart 
independent of all second causes. I will not furtive,? e'K.T^<i'5x^ ^Vsftw 
ruinous influence of such a dogma \£ \\.\>e. Vcm^. \"!^K\\>5i^NR»*^ 
rylth thesQ brethren one dileiiimar-KvX\vQ,ic >l\^^vsl (Nlq^cc». ^s» nx^^^ ^-^ 


not true: — if true, then it matters not what doctrine is taught by 
xne on the subject of regeneration; for the Spirit of God regener- 
ates the human heart independently of all doctrine true or false, 
even of the Bible itself. But if untrue^ then, indeed, to act under 
its influence is most injurious, as it will necessarily make the scrip- 
tures a dead letter, and all preaching vain. 

I have no disposition to enter into the field of speculation on 
such dogmas. But were I disposed to make the most of such a 
position, did I wish to gain an advantage over an enemy, I could 
not wish for a more favourable dogma, for 1 do not think that any 
other theorem of the Jansenites, not even their invocations for 
the dead, is more vulnerable than this dogma. 1 do fondly hope 
that these brethren speak and act otherwise than tliis dogma will 
authorize, in addressing men on the subject of religion. Perhaps 
there is some error in the composition of the sentence wljich they 
have overlooked, for I would rather account for it in any other way, 
than to suppose this sentiment to be a principle of action with 
them. Indeed I almost know it is not a principle of action with 
them, however pretty it may look on the lid of a snuflT-box, on 
vellum, I think it is not written on their hearts. * 

But all such preaching and teaching, all such theory is worse 
than mere trifling. A theory about the formation of Adam out of 
the dust, whether his creation began with his head or his feet, or 
whether he was instantaneously or immediately complete,and all his 
members simultaneously formed, is just as useful, as profitable to 
men as any theory of regeneration which I have seen; and 1 am 
always ready to shew that he who preaches any theory, orthodox 
or heterodox, preaches not the gospel of Jesus Christ, To this 
sentence I invite attention, and challenge investigation. 

1 have not heard from tlie Editors of the Recorder on my last. 
I have seen their ninth but not their eighth number, and seeing so 
much insinuation and indirect opposition to, I am persuaded, they 
know not what, I thought it expedient just to give them a hint 
how vulnerable they are, to assure them tnat their either propping 
an old theory, or attempting a new one, is out of the question 
iiltogether. JSJ. 

^^Church Government. 

"THE ancient Independent writers have poured forth 
abundance of nonsense about meetings for counsel and 
advice. Some of them have supposed, that though Acts 
2v. does not afford a model for meetings of ministers 
to make authoritative decrees for the churches, yet 
that it sanctions such meetings for the purpose of giving 
counsel and advice to the churches. But it'isnot possi- 
ble to explain this passage \\^ *uch a manner as to estab- 
JJsh the divine right o£ 3Lii?i^ui\i\\^?» lot ^^\\^^, '^Hslw 


meetidg gave not advrc«, but decrees*, did not submit 
opinions to be canvassed, but doctrines to be believed, 
and precepts to be observed. If it is ^at all a model for 
any foreign interference, it establishes a1)solate authorl* 
ty on the one hand, and passive and unlimited obedience 
on the other. I cannot see anj thing that could tempt 
inquiring christians to adopt this theory, except that 
they have not been thoroughly purged from Presbyte* 
rian prejudices, or a desire not to appear all at once 
to go so great a distance from Use churches of this 
world. Perhaps a mixture of these motives have ope« 
rated with them. They are a little shocked ^emselves, 
and perhaps are afraid that others will be more so, with 
the idea of being so unlike to other societies called 
churches, in every distinguished feature. On the con- 
trary, I am of opinion, that we ought not to wish to 
hide from the churches of the world, liow much we 
differ from them. We ought to be solicitous rather to 
show them, that in evenr distinguishing featnre the king* 
dom of Christ differs nrom the kingdom of this world. 
We ought not to keep the worshippers of the beast in 
countenance, by making an image of the beast. There 
is no reason to fear alarming the prejudices of the 
worjd, or of christians. If the cause is the Lord's, we 
may safely rest it upon his shoulders. If men will re« 
ceive instruction from the word of God as to the nature 
of Christ's kingdom, it is well; but if any man will be 
obstinately and perversely Ignorant, let him be ignorant. 
It is our duty to hold forth the word of life, in every 
part of it; it is in the Lord's hand who shall receive it* 
He has no need of our wisdom to help forward his 

But if such meetings are not instituted from this pass- 
age jttre divmoj they cannot plead it to sanction their 
innocency. If they are not the offspring of the wisdom 
of God, they must be the offspring of the wisdom of 
man; and the Lord will no more coimtenance one human 
religious instsitution than he will another. To sa^ that 
such assemblies are useful, yet not mstituted, is to ar« 
raign the wisdom of Jesus, as a ligislator, and to deny 
the competency of his institutions* l€ l\kvj ^\^^^^^^- 
vlnelf appointed, they catoioX. )a^ \x&^Wv^ >^«^ ^:.'Wjs^^N.>a!^ 
vnoceat. I am bold to pte^i^l, Va^V. yfaei^^^^ "^"^^ '^^'^ 


Cried, either an increasing acquaintance with the word 
of God, or a deeper knowledge o£ the nature of 
Christ's kingdom, will lay them aside, or thej will degen- 
erate into an eugifie of Satan. In the very first in- 
stance, they must tend to damp inquiry in the churches, 
and gradually habituate them to allow others to have 
the trouble of thinking for them '' 

[Canon^s Reply to Broum on Discipline,^ 

THE Synod of Virginia, in presenting to the churches under 
their care a view of the state of religion within their limits during 
the passed year, observe, that they *'find more than usual cause of 

■ humiliation and sorrow. Few similar periods of time," s&y they, 
*^ave elapsed since the organization of this body, in which they 
have not been permitted to record more numerous and greater tri- 
umphs of divine grace, than have been witnessed during the year 
now under review. And a number of new churches, which not 
long ago were blessed with revivals of religion, appear to have 
sunk into a state of lamentable coldness and insensibility. I'his 
fact is so remarkable, and indeed occurs so frequently, that the 
Synod cannot help suggesting to the members of their body and 
the churches committed to their oversight, ihe importance of a 
serious and careful inquiry into its cause. An increase of true 
piety and christian knowUd^, such as may reasonably be expect- 
ed in a real revival of religion certainly does not produce the de- 
plorable effects adverted to: nor ought it to be looked for from 
the addition of new converts to the church. But, whatever may be 
the cause, the fact is unquestioriable, that a powerful excitement 
on the subject of religion rarely takes place, without a subsequent 
decline of piety, and a degree of insensibility proportioned to the 
warmth of feeling before produced. It is frequent, too, for jeal- 
ousies, divisions, and dissentions to creep into churches, where 
not long before, all appeared to be full of love, joy, and holy 
zeal. — Thus religion incurs reproach, the name of Christ is dis- 
honoured, and a stumbling block is thrown in the way of unbe- 
lievers Sufficient evidence of these melancholy truths has been 
afforded, to render the inquiry suggested necessar}'; and to make 
it the duty of the Synod to caution the churches against these 

The Editor of the Bvangelical fVitncss, in remarking on this 
statement, observes: 

"We admire the honesty of this southern Synod, in this candid 
and faithful exhibition of the whole truth. We have long witness- 
ed *the deplorable effects adverted to,' as following the revivals 
in religion in this nothem region of our country, and we could 
easily verify it in our own immediate neighbourhood. The truth 
cf this business is, the feeWngs are eiccSled, vcvdvlv^ -passions fann- 

ed into 4 Hume* whUe tiie fcidgtaeiiX itxsxwxa ^wi^xJC^^x^Tv^^. 



« WE know, says Campbell in his lectures on Ec- 
clesiastical History, who they were in ancient timeis 
that sought honour one of another, who affected the 
principal seats in the synago/^es, and the uppermost 
rooms at feasts, who loved greetings in the markets, and 
to be called of men rabbi, rabbi. We know also who 
it was that expressly prohibited, amongst his disciples, 
such unbecoming emulation and worldly vanity, who en- 
joined them not to seek honour of men, or to contend 
who, in the judgment of men, should be greatest, but 
to seek that honour only which cometh from God; we 
know also who it was that made usefulness the standard 
of greatness^ and pronounced him to be possessed of 
the highest dignity, who is most humble and serviceable; 
who instead of courting, is solicitous to avoid such envi- 
able distinctions. On which of these models the con- 
vention at Trent, and other preceding councils, were 
formed, I shall leave to the candid and impartial to de- 
termine. I shall conclude this lecture with a story, 
homely indeed, but apposite: An English country par- 
son was bragging, in a large company, of the success 
he had had in reforming his parishioners, on which his 
labours, he said, had produced a wonderful change for 
the better. Being asked in what respect, he replied, 
that when he came first among them, they were a set 
of unmannerly clowns who paid him no more deference 
than they did to one another; did not so much as pull 
off their hat when they spoke to him, but bawled out 
as roughly and familiarly as though he were thei^qual; 
whereas, now, they never presumed to addr^ him, 
but cap in hand, and, in a submissive voice, made hiin 
their best bow when they were at ten yards distance, 
and styled him your reverence^ at every word. A 
Quaker who had heard the whole patiently, made an- 
swer; ^'And so, friend, the upshot of this reformation 
of which thou hast so much carnal glorying, is, that 
thou hsj^t taught thy people to worship thyseUV 

'^Implicit faith has been some times ludicrously styled 
Jides carbonaria, from the noted ^Vot'j o^ «ti^ N^Xj^a^ vn^ 
amining an ignorant collier on \xvs TfeX\^^\^^ ^\\\^w^«^n 
asked him what it was he belles e^* ^^ ^3xv«i^^^^% 


believe what the church believes.'' The other rejolne J, 
"What then does the church believe?" lie replied 
readiljr, "The church believes what I believe " The 
other desirous, if possible, to brin^him to particulars, 
once more resumes his enquiry; "Tell me then, I pray 
you, what it is which you and the church both beMeve." 
The only answer the collier could give was, "Why truly. 
Sir, the church and I both— -believe the same thing." 
This is implicit faith in perfection, and in the estimation 
jf some celebrated doctors, the sum of necessary and 
saving knowledge in a christian,"— -r*Camp&eZ/'5 Led, 


)N the notification in the dth number concerning the 
New testament, instead of new subscribers, read non 

WHILE making this correction we would inform 
the subscribers to this work, that, as it cannot be ex- 
pected that they all can be supplied equally soon, the 
rule we shall have generally to adopt will be, that the 
most accessible, and where the greatest number of sub- 
scribers reside, will be furnished with the first emissions 
of the work. It will, however, all be ready for trans- 
portation in four or five weeks. Scattering subscribers 
at a great distance, cannot expect their copies to be 
sent by a special messenger to them: they will, there- 
fore, by some medium of communication, send to the 
places of most commercial importance, nighest to 
them, where they may, in due time, expect to be 
supplied. Subscribers will find it to their interest to 
call as soon as possible for their copies, as our circum- 
stances require us to request our agents to dispose of the 
copies sent them to the first applicants — always, how- 
ever, charging non subscribers ^5cts. a copy in advance 
of the subscription price. We have printed a number 
of copies on royal paper, no better in quality, but larger 
in size, than the suDscription proposals. These also 
are bound in a more expensive and durable way than 
usual These copies will be sold at ^2 each. In ne 
case are the agents to distribute copies, unless prompt 
payment be made* Justice to owt exeditors require a 
£rin adbersuace to this system. T\vo^e xs.Vo 0^"5>\\sv ^ 
cop^ according to our proposaXs, uv^^t. ^^^ i•Q^xA«5^ 

Copies to be entitled to cue gcaXi^.— — ^4* 

JSTo, U—VoL III] BUFFALOE, July 3, 1826. [ Whole A'o. 36 

Style no man on earth your Father; for he alone is your father -who 
is in heaven; and all ye are brethren. ,^ss7tme not the title of Uabbii 
for ye have only one teacher: — JSTeither assifme the tifle of Leader; for 
ye have only one leader — the Messiah. 

[Mat. xxiii. 8 — 10. Campbell's Translation.] 

Prove all things: hold fast that tvhich is good. 

[Paul the Apostle.] 

FOR THE "christian BAPTIST." 

WHEN deep sleep cometh upon man, and mortals, 
, tos<;ed and harrowed in their minds, enjoy, for a mo- 
ment, the sweets of forgetfulness, I was disturbed witfj 
the following vision; which, upon the whole, has been 
conducive to raj happiness; having been for man h- pa t 
disturbed, notonlj by day, but sometimes by ni^ht. on 
the great difficulty of deciding who of all the guides of 
the people are uader the guidance of the Holy Spirit* 
I^ Mr. Editor, the vision will, in your view, be of any 
use to any, please lay it before the public. 


In visions of the night I saw most distinctly through 
thft whole area of a field which I supposed to be many 
thousand miles square, the most extensive groups* of 
human bemgs, which fancy when awake could well 
conceive of The field itself exhibited no little variety. 
On all sides there were hills and vallies, woods and rivers 
of singular aspect, yet presenting no obstruction to my 
sight. For every elevation and protuberance appeared 
to be transparent as glass. The field, as already descri- 
bed, was square, though at interval! it appeared to be 
ortagonaK and sometimes to have a hundred equal sides* 
Of the numberless curious and attractive scenes which 
crowded upon my sight, few of which can either be 
distinctly recalled or related, 1 shall attempt, at present^ 
the recital of but a few Never on earth before did V 
^ee a field of any dimens\<)iifi. ^o ^vi<?\ x^^Av.X'^ix ^^"^^^^^ 
pri(^ paths. Indeed, it somtAvxa^^ ^^^^^x%.<^ ^^ >ic>S5Nk'^ 


the whole area had been once trodden with hnman feet 
in the way of large and small roads, straight and crookT 
ed paths — Even at the present time, during my vision, 
it appeared as if the whole premises were allotted to 
enginpers and supervisors for the purpose of making 
oxperimpnts in the construction of roads and paths.-— 
No conceivable design could have located several hun- 
dred paths side by side, sometimes parallel to each 
other, and sometimes as serpentine as the milky way, 
other than the mere project of experiment — For, not- 
withstanding the myriads of paths in every direction in 
this vast field, there were but two gates and principal 
ro^ds, which all seemed at one time or another to fre* 

The whole scenery was illuminated with a very strange 
and fluctuating sort of light, which seemed to emanate 
from no fixed fountain or source-; but differing in de- 
grees at dififerent intervals, and sometimes so very ffldnt 
that objects quite contiguous could not be discriminated 
from one anotner. The countless myriads which were 
always, in motion in this vast area, kept up such a con- 
tinual noise, that for a long time, though extremely 
anxious to learn something about them, I could not 
distino;uish one articulate sound. They often appeared 
in great agitation, and in large and small groups ap- 
peared to oppose each other, and the stronger often 
compelled the weaker to desert one path and flee to 
another Either a gleam of light, or something under 
that appearance, often seemed to arrest the attention of 
those in its vicinity, and all seemed attracted by it, and, 
for a while, appeared tranquil in contemplating it: but 
in a shorter or longer period it vanished, and they all 
became as restless as ^ver. 

After many fruitless efforts to acquire some informa- 
tion on ail that pressed upon my attention, I resolved 
to minj^le with some crowd, or to set out a solitary trav- 
eler in quest of information. While thus pondering in 
niy mind, a venerable figure approached me, and look- 
JDS; very earnestly in my face, said, ^''Whence earnest 
iliou hWier?^^ I could make no reply-^He, without 
giving me time to propose a c\ne^t\on, said^ "It is all ^s 
uncerfain as before " WhaV> ^«a^ \. ^^^^vaAv^%.? V^ 
repIJedy aud instantly leaving tt\e ^«>XV^^^^^'^^^^'^^^\ 

BAPTIST. 5267 

began his inarch in another, and vouchsafed me no fur- 
ther information* 

At this moment, turning to the East, I saw an im- 
mence crowd assembled before a chair of huge magni- 
tude, in which many hundred persons could be comfort- 
ably seated, yet but one august personage sat in 11; 
beneath whose feet^ on platforms of different elevations^ 
stood myriads of mitred dignitaries having inscribed 
upon their foreheads, "T^c called and senf." At the 
right side of the chair stood a huge cross, on which, a?* 
well as on the chair, was inscribed, /. C F.* AVhile f 
was gazing with astonishment on these strange scenes 
which 1 could not understand, I observed many individ- 
uals, and sometimes considerable groups, abandoning 
the countless millions which stood, in solemn gaze upon 
the chair, its occupant, and the dignitaries beneath, and 
saw them pass through a grotesque and antique gate, oii 
the side of which, fronting the chair, was inscribed Her- 
edi/ "S^iid. on the other side Reformation. Through this 
gjite, of enormous dimensions, which permitted notjlonly 
whole groups to pass together without inconvenience, 
but, also to carry with them immense loads resembling 
bales, each mscribed with M E. T-t, I directed my 
course and saw two chairs, something smaller than the 
former, and not quite so ven^ble; dignified with two 
patriarchal rabbis resembling the archbishops of Yotk 
and Canterbury; a crown of gold, engraved and lettered, 
^^Defender of iht Faiihy'* hung at equal distance from 
them both. Around them stood twenty-four fathers, 
with beautiful vestments covered with sentences of He- 
brew, Greek, and Latin, all.importing, 'TAe caUtd and 
«en<." Many thousands kneeled before them with four 
cornered Tiaras having the same insciiption, ^^ The called 
and senf .'' 

A gate fronting these chairs, less than the former, 
but having the same inscriptions on both sides, was 
equally thronged with dissenters, who, after gazing a 
while at those exalted pontificials, withdrew through it, 
and disappeared. I pursued them in great haste, deter- 

•I suppose the letters /. C. V, dewole \Vvt Vxcav o^ W% C.Vj.xva . 
til is presumed these leUera 2ixe \\i^ \u'!^^OLW \wS.\\x^^ ^^ ^^-^^ 
noTu of the Mother C/iwrc/u— "C*^- 


mined to obtain some certain information. But, to mj^ 
astonishm out, on passing through it, more than a hun- 
dred pathii diverged from Tts threshold in all directions, 
each one leading to a small eminence covered with 
chairs, and all iilled with incumbauts, bearing upon 
their little Tiaras, m small -capitals, the same inscrip- 
tion, ^"I'he called and sent '' Larger or smaller crowds 
stood before tnem all; but so fluctuating that no one 
could tell which was likely to become the greatest or the 

The unceasing din and commotion between the out- 
posts of each crowd, reminded me of nothing so much 
Hs the swarms and commotions of a large assemblage of 
hecs, when the sun approaches Cancer. I could distin- 
:.^Mith not one sentence, though every chair was Biled 
« villi an orator, and, in every crowd, a multitude ap- 
pt^ared repeating the same sentences. In despair, I 
jriiied to a long skirt of woods, which covered the 
tisurgln of a tranquil stream; and there Expected to 
iiud a requiem for meditation. But soon as I descended 
fofvards its borders, 1 observed a great many straglers 
uho had deserted all the crowds and hastened to the 
river— These seemed at first to be following me; but 
passed me by, without uttering a word, until they reach- 
ed the stream, into whidi they plunged themselves as 
though they were weary of life and sought a termina- 
tion of its toils and uncertainties 1 looked to see 
them emerge no more; but, with no little surprise, I 
saw them every one ascend the opposite bank, and 
were met there by twelve long bearded men, wearing 
Ic.atheni girdles, and camblet gowns. Each of these 
seemed eager to seize, by the hand, every one who 
eruergedfrom the river, and to lead them into beautiful 
arbouis, and booths, pitched at a respectful distance 
from each other* along the stream. Each of these 
twelve primates had a difTerent head dress, but all in- 
scribed with "!7%€ calif d and sent *' At this moment I 
found my feet wet with the water of the stream, the 
ed.;.- of which I had unconsciously approached. — At 
tij' iistaiit I *va3 hailed and invited to cross by a very 
Ij'i-niji,^ a:iJ veiierable figure on the oji^posite shor^. But 
f^'^-i^J^ ijU auspansQ I was ca\jg):\lbY l\x^^^vxKs^ \i^ ^u>\\[k<^ 


ber of " The called and s«n<"* of <he crowd nearest to 
the river, having ^^ Liberty and Independance'^^ added to 
all their other inscriptions. These puHed me back, 
while I was zealously invited, by those on the opposite 
side, to enter their arbute arbours. One exclaimed Mf 
you fear the stream, I will send for you a^anoej' ano- 
ther said, ^nay, here is a baloon;' a third pointed to a 
rainbow over a bridge, and a fourth said, 'swim the 
stream or be lost forever.' In the mean time a crowd, 
like harpies, had a hold of every protuberance on my 
raiment, not a button was left on my garments; and £ 
was likely to be rent from head to foot. In the mean 
time, frantic with despair, I struggled for life, and by 
a fortunate effort disentangled myself and plunged into 
the stream. Soon as I had crossed I was seized by at 
least half a dozen of the sages I had seen, and was as 
likely to be torn to pieces as before. I begged for time 
to change my apparel, which being granted I made my 
escape^toa cavern I descried in an unfrequented spot at 
some distance, where I sat musing on all that had pass^ 
6d. After some time a refugee, like myself, entered 
the same cavern, and, after discerning me, said, 
*friend, how camest thou hither?' I told him my story, 
and he told me his. He informed me that he had been 
for many years on his feet, running in the diflerent 
paths, and now, for the first time, had sat down. He 
told me he had found a map in a cave, which he had 
long wished to peruse; but never, till now, had found 
an opportunity. 

All the information he had gathered, during many 
years traveling, amounted to no more than this: — that it 
bad been once announced, in these regions, that a hap- 
pier country, called Paradise, had been once prepared 
for all who desired it; that the way to this country had 
been graphically laid down; but that a predecessor of 
that god-like man who set upon the first huge chair 
which I noticed, had secreted the map of the country, 
and the high road that led to it; — and that his success- 
ors said they could describe it better by woi^ds than by 
maps; and that all the different roads and paths which 

♦i conjecture the sect caWed Inde|)€ndeuU v^ '^'^'^^- •^>^^^^ 
to. ^a. 


1 had noticed had been laid down by differentgreat and 
wise men of former times; that all those diflerent or- 
ders of chaired pontificials claimed the -lionour of being 
*' Tilt called and senV^ of the author of the original map, 
to put the inhabitants of these regions in the sure and 
certain road ^, that celestial country. He also inform- 
ed me, that many had traveled for years in different 
paths, and had followed different guides all called and 
sent; but that, they depending iipon those guides, had 
never found that country;— and that so great was the 
encrease of new and improved guides, that all the do- 
minions which they enjoyed were likely to be cut up 
with new roads and paths without promising a happier 
result than before. — ''But, says he, come let us open 
this map.' — We opened it, and to our surprise, found 
Ihat not one of those guides who claimed the patron- 
age of the author of the map, had been authorized by 
him; ttiit tliat he hid once authorized a sufficient com- 
pany of surveyors and engineers, who had exactly 
defined the country and the^^way thither. — We followed 
the map and soon found a road, which, although almost 
♦ overed with grass, shrubs, and trees, led us safely into , 
the confines of Paradise, where in transport I awoke, 
and found it but a vision. 



MANKIND are certainly moving in tlie horizon 
of some great and eventful change, into the centre of 
which, all society must inevitably and speedily be car- 
ried. Tiie world is in strange commotion, expectation 
is sill aroused — Anticipation of something good^ splen- 
did, and unknownis become undoubting and impatient 
even to painful ness; and the time is at hand wh^n a 
plenteous harvestof toil and talent mast be i*eaped from 
all orders of society, that many may run to and fro, 
and knowledge be encreased. 

The time is Certainly arrived, when the great pelitie- 
al establishments, the powers and principalities of the 
world which have created aivi\Vo^\fcY^vV Ww^^^'^^Lrllke 
findings, and mercantiteatlA\•\\^\^xk\sx<i-%\&^^ft>R»^Siift 


to the spirit of the gospel, and which have led men so 
far away from nature, must speedily be dissolved; and 
when that economy of GoA, which shall be more in uni* 
son with the religion of his Son and with nature, shall 
suddenly make its appearance. 

The object of this paper is to show that God has de* 
signs of high favour towards man, and will vouchsafe 
him an age of happiness in which the entire sum of 
physical, moral, and inte11ectuaI|good,which can be en- 
joyed on earth, shall be granted. 

The subject is one of immense depth and extent. 
It involves the whole series of scripture, history, and 
prophecy, and is as protracted as the durs^tion of the 
world itself. Accordingly the reader Will not expect 
the author of this paper to go into a detail of the sub- 
ordinate parts of a subject of such plenitude and sub- 
limity; but if the two extremes of the pi'ovidential 
chain, with a few of the more illustrious links by 
w'liich they are connected, shall be clearly pointed out, 
so as to furnish christians with an elementary clue to 
this grand topic, it is presumed the reader Mill be 
sufficiently remunerated for his trouble in reading 
tliis essay. 

All men exist binder a threefold order of relations, 
first, to tlie natural world — secondly, to one another, 
and thirdly, to God; and the history of the world de- 
monstrates, that to mankind in the aggregate, as to 
each individual^ the knowledge of these relations is 
slow and progi^ssive; that it is not incident to the in- 
fant child alone, but also to the infant family of man- 
kind, to stop at tliese immediate and more obvious 
relations which subsist between «s and matter, that 
mankind in tlie aggregate, as well as each individnal, 
have their physical pursuits; and that, therefore, the 
aii.ediluvian period, characterized by the absence of 
all governmental arrangmcnts, may, with propriety, 
be called the physical age of the species. 

Secondly, The middle period of the world's Kiefes^ 
is pi*e-eininentely distiivgu\s\v^A ^«t ^V\^x^'^«^ 
that more remote order oil re\vi\}v^w^^ ns;\cvOol^>^^^ 


great and populous empires^ as the Babylonian, Per* 
sian, Grecian^ and Roman; during which long epocha 
pei*sonal liberty and personal security hare been heU 
ter established; and nappiness, which is the end of 
our existence, rendered less fluctuating and uncertain 
thiji it was during the merely physical age, which 
past before the flood. This period may be styled the 
SECULAR age of our species, concerning which the pro- 
phet says, "I beheld until the thrones,'' i. e. of tliose 
empires, "were cast down/* — But 

Thirdly, Mankind having nearly exhausted tlic 
limits allotted to them for pursuits purely physical and 
political, and having, by dint of long experience, 
learnt the inefficiency of commerce and war to secure 
happiness, are now deeply inspired with a premonition 
of some great and incomprehensible change, the pre- 
sent nature of which, time alone can fully clear up.-*- 
This is the milknialor evangelical age of the world; 
during which the human race will enjoy great happi- 
ness, and that third order of relations which have been 
revealed as subsisting between men and their Creator 
and Redeemer, shall be fully investigated, developed, 
and enjoyed. 

Let it not be supposed, however,! that these obser- 
vations are made merely to arrive at the trite conclusion 
that man is a physical, moral, and intellectual being; 
but for the important purpose of showing the chain of 
high and holy providences, by which tlie God of all 
mercy and grace, has long been conducting the human 
family to an age of virtue and happiness — also that he 
has done it by a couree of physical and politico-moral 
experience, perfectly adapted to human nature, with- 
out which mankind would never, for any length of 
time, have remained either virtuous or happy; and tins 
division of the world into physical, secular, and evan- 
gelical ages, is neither arbitraiy nor fanciful, but is 
founded in matter of fact, and abundantly supported 
bj^ divine declaration. — ^The first age being marked 
out by a judgment not less TaotdtAo^ Wx^w^x^t '^xs^^, \3ftR 
Gcond issuing in the judgment «^i[v^\.o\s^ qn^t^kw^ ti\ 


the antichristian governments; and the evangelical ag6 
terminating in the final judgment itself. And let no 
one say that in order to induct the human family into 
the evangelical age, God has too much protracted 
the physical and secular ages; such language would 
be improper, even if we had made all of past experi- 
ence which we^ught to have made of it. But what im- 
provements have we made of past experience? Do 
not facts the most numerous, obvious, and striking 
demonstrate that we have not advanced one step in the 
art of applying the liberty and security so ricnly en- 
joyed in America to the promotion of our happiness, 
which is the grand and glm'ious end of all the present, 
past, and future dispensations of providence in regard 
to us. For of what value is personal liberty, and per- 
sonal security, so long as they are prostrated toambi« 
tion, speculation and war; for granting, that the inter- 
vention of science, and tiie milder influence of the 
gospel, has quenched the spirit of war in these states, 
yet mark the rival interests andintense passions excited 
by the commercial and trading spirit that is abroad — If 
the spirit of war is hushed, the fact more resembles 
the case whe^e one unclean spirit makes room for 
-seven others still more abominable than himself; for 
at this moment the United States, the noblest nation 
in the world, is on the verge of becoming a race of 
speculators; while their boundless territories, which 
is the i^ation's real estate, lies 'comparatively unap* 
propriated to their real happiness^- 

Meanwhile, let the reader bear in mind that history, 
and especially the holy scriptures, shew us that the 
march of man towards virtue and happiness has been 
slow and progressive; they shew us also that God is 
exceedingly opposed to, and displeased with aristo- 
cratic and oppressive government*?; while, at the same 
time, the fatal destruction of the aiitedihivians, clearly 
evinces the impracticability of existing in any way but 
under some gejaeral government to secure us at once 
against foreign force and 4ovi\e^\AC.\iYw\'?»% 'W^x^^'t* 
approaching age politick ^^uXko^VX.^ \oS0^^ ^^^c&si^^'^ 


the regulation of its proper concerns^ and while all 
enjoy the sum of physical, moral, and intellectual 
good — ^the word of the Lord will have free course 
and be glorified in the salvation of thousands. So 
much at present for the physical, secular, and evan« 
gelicai ages by which the scripture, history, and 
age of prophecy are seen to harmonize so admirably 
with tiie course of human improvement* 


C<mnecHcut, Jpri!2Sth^ 1826. 



t FTJLLT believe with you that much has been 
%h\6 and written on this fubject inconsistent with the 
oinnplicity of the Word, and tending much to perplex 
the miods of the disciples of Christ. I accord with you, 
that fdiith is the belief of testimony. That the faith 
wi^b which salvation or eternal life is connected, is the 
belief of the testimony of the Son of God in the scrip- 
tures of truth* Bn* the distinction you appear to make 
bt'tweeu faith and repentance, in respect to divine influ- 
ence producmg these, appears tome tobeunscriptural. 
Tou admit the scriptural truth that Christ ^4s exalted to 
be»tow rppentancei" — [No. I. vol TI. p. 16 ] but you 
say, [Sentimental Journal, p i6.] ^'evidence alcne 
producs faith, or testimony is ad that it. necessary to 
faith." I wish you to try this principle, and place be- 
fore your calumniators "^evidence" that you arc an hon- 
est man, and see whether it ^'produces faith." What 
meaneth this scripture, ^^how can ye believe^ that . re- 
ceive honour one of another, and seek ncit the honor 
that Cometh from God only," or the alone God? Does 
not Jesus Christ here plainly teach that the evil disposi- 
tion of the heart, biases the mind and causes it to resist, 
or prevents it from perceiving the evidence which is 
placed before it? Did he not teach that the cause why 
the Jews %vou!d not come unto him, or believe him w»s, 
thaf^ they loved darkness rather than light? Do you not 
tAwk thai the cause of some pet^^oivfe ^iAmvmv^^oxx^ v^ 
tie prejudice of their onn minds, %.ud wX. w^l ^^^wsu.- 


cy in the evidence 6f your good character^ which you 
have given them? Jesus told the Jews ^'because I tell 
you the truth, ye believe me not." They could believe 
the lies of false prophets. If some other came in his 
own -name, him they could receive; but because the 
Son of God came in his father's name, or to exhibit 
and establish the goodness of that law which they had 
broken, they would not receive him. They repented 
not that they might believe* Matth. xxi. S2. When 
Paul was at Corinth preaching ^Hhe things concerning 
the kingdom of God,'' the cause of many believing not 
was not a want of evidence of the truth of the divine 
testimony, but that they ^^were hardened,^^ Acts xix. 9. 
Passages of similar import might be added to prove that 
the cause of unbelief and impenitence is the same, and 
consequently, divine influence is as necessary to remove 
one as the other. The cause is loving darkness or sin 
rather than light, or holiness. Tou will please to ob- 
serve also, that Jesus Christ condemned the Jews, which 
is additional proof that unbelief arises from an evil 
hearty oi* divposition, and not for want of evidence. 
Again, '^Whosoever believeth that Jesus is the Christ, 
is born of God.'* There is, in my view, abundant evi- 
dence in the scriptures of truth, that the faith which is 
connected with justification, is as much 'Hhe gift of 
God,'*as repentance or any other fruit of the spirit. 
Faith and repentance, &c. are indeed acts of our own 
minds, but they are all effects of the renewal of our 
njinds by the Holy Spirit. It is no more congenial to 
the mind of a sinner to believe to the saving of the 8oul| 
than it is to repent of sin, or to love God. I have no 
desire to go beyond the word on this or any other divine 
subject; neither will I reject the plain testimony of that 
word, because the judgements of God are unsearchable 
and his ways past finding out. I apprehend that ^'the 
matter" oi saving faith is something more than ^^that 
Christ died for our sins, and was buried, and is risen 
from the dead," unless we suppose that the belief that 
Christ died for our sins, implies a belief of his holy 
doctrine respecting the law of God, the evil of sin, arid 
our just condemnation. I Bim N«t^ ^w^SAk^X ^^ca^. A. 
believed the facts that CVvml dixe^ otl Vkji^ ^xQ«^^^'' 
ffumd md rose trona the dead^ Vwi^ X^^tox^ V \aa»^ 


faith that "overcometh the world.'' These facts maj 
be helieved, while the hohj truth connected with these, 
is denied and rejected Mr Fishback, in the extracts 
you have published, well observes, when considering 
the truth to be believed, that 'Hhe gospels written by 
the four Evangelistn, contain the history of Christ's 
incarnation, life, doctrine, miracles, death, resurrec- 
tion, ascension, and intercession; and one of the Evan- 
gelists tells us the design of his history :--«^^These are 
written, that ye might believe that Jesus is the Christ, 
the son of God, and that believing, ye might have life 
through his name." He remarks, * It is of his own will 
that God begets men to the faith, — with the word of 
truth." He also declares that belief and love ^^nite in 
saving faith '' If so. divine influence must be as ne- 
cessary to produce saving faith as love. Mr. Fishback 
likewise remarks, ^^He (the Spirit) has imparted saving 
faith in the Lord Jesus." I notice these remarks of Mr. 
Fishback's. because you remark that his ^'observations 
concerning faith," are ''expressive of (your> sentiments." 
I have no idea of faith as a principle in the heart sepa- 
rate from the word of truth; but 1 understand that it is 
by the operation of the Spirit that the truth is believed 
to the salvation of the soul.. In your reply to JP. H. 
[No. 9. vol. n.] you observe, "some of them who 
believed the ancient revelations, like Lydia, and whose 
hearts wtrt thereby opened, honestly disposed." &c. 
I beseech you, dear sir, to compare this representation 
of the subject, with that of the Holy Spirit. The in- 
spired historian writing of Lydia, remarks, ^'whose 
heart the Lord opened, that she attended to the things 
which were spoken of Paul." You represent the open<^ 
ing of the heart, as the effect of attending to, or believing 
the truth. The Spirt of truth represents It as the cause. 
You observe, ''We are asked— why do not all believe 
the same testimony?" And "another, and another why 
is proposed." '*And so it ends with a why just where 
we began." I would rather say it ends just where the 
spirit of truth ends it. We may propose questions which 
are answered by the revealed truth Thus far we may . 
go, but here curiosity and piAd^muatbe stayed. II we 
a>lr, iri'jr do not all who have V\\ft ^o?»^^ >a^v^^^ VC^ 

^Jfh0 answer is, because tti^^ Vo^e ^to^ssi^^^ \^^^x \\x»^ 


light. "Ye mil not come," &c. said the faithful witness. 
If the question is, why do some believe rather than 
others? the answer is, "as many as we7*e ordained unto 
eternal life, believed*" "You hath he quickened who 
were dead in trespasses and sins,^'&c. ''But God who 
is rich in mercy, for his great love wherewith he loved 
us, even when we were dead in sins hath quickened us 
together with Christ, by grace ye are saved,' &c. 'For 
we are his xoorkmanship^ created in Christ Jesus unto 
good works,' &c. If the question is, why doth God 
thus quicken some rather than others? The answer is, 
'be hath mercy on whom he will have mercy.' 'For thy 
pleasure all things are,' &c. Here the divioe testimo- 
ny ends the subject; and here we ought to end. But if 
any are disposed to murmur against this truth, there are 
a few questions for them to answer. 'He that reproveth 
God, let him answer it.' ^Is thine eye ecil because I am 
good?' 'Shall I not do what I will with mine own?^ 
*Who art thou, O man that repliest against God,' &c. 
**Surely the judge of all tLe earth will do right." 



IF, as you say, **faith is the belief of tesHmoiiy,^* there can be 
no faith without testimony; and if faith be no more than the belief 
of testimony, nothing* more than testimony enters into the nature 
of faith. This is admitted by all persons of reftection on the sub- 
ject of fMth properly called human. But many will have that faith 
which is so often spoken of in the Christian scriptures, to be some- 
thing more than the belief of truth, or the belief of the testimony 
of God; and even of those who contend that faiti) is simply the 
belief of the gospel, or testimony concerning Jcsus the Lord, 
some will have this faith distinguished in some way, either as the 
effect of regeneration, as a holy or spiritual act, as inwrought by 
some physical agency in the heart, or some way differing from the 
usual and commonly received import of the term. Hence so much 
mystery, and mysterious reasoning on the subject of "saving faith.*' 
As nothing of this kind of reasoning or definition appears in the 
inspired writings, we are naturally led to look for its origin and 
progress some where else. We can soon trace it to ** Mystery, 
Babylon the great," but no farther. And there I am willing* to 
leave it. But many wish to leave only a part of it there, and seek 
to introduce an improved system of definitions into the christian 

If we receive the testimony o? Tcvetv, VJcw^ Vts'C\T5\wv'^ ^1 ^^^ '^S' 
jnore worthy of reception, and pTodxxce.^ igt^^Xfc^ ^^^v^vvV^n "^^ 
tlusistJX the difference the :New TeaX^m^TvX v^^.'^'^'^^'^^ ^^ ^ 

Ck A 


twixt faith in the testimony of man, and faith in the testiiTiOny o§ 
(iod — But this will not satisfy those of a metaphysical taste, wlio 
arc philosophically inquisitive into the doctrine of causation. 
They must, step by step, ascend to the ultimate cause, or to the 
most remote cause of eveiy thing; and while each one pursues 
the course which education or chance opensto his feet, and tenri- 
nates his enquiries only because he can travel no farther^ the 
christian taught of God, is meditating upon the thing's revealed, 
^vllich seraphs admire, and seeking to enjoy a fulness of the bless- 
ing of the gospel of Christ. But this is not the worst of it. One 
believer not unfrequently contemns another because he cannot 
soar so high in the doctrine of causation as himself. He dislikes 
him too, not because he is not as good a christian, but because he is 
not as wise a philosopher as himself. Hence one christian, philoso* 
pher terminates all his enquiries here — "As many as were ordained * 
to eternal life beHeved." — Or *'Ye believe not because you are not 
my shoe])." Another who it not so strong or perhaps stronger, 
terminates his enquiries here — "They searched the scriptures with 
all readiness of mind; many of them THtHxroftK believed." Each 
one loves his own theory, and is zealous for it, as though it were 
the gospel of Christ. Indeed some often call their *'doctnne of 
groce^" the gospel — Many texts are brought into tho field, and 
strung together, whose connexion is dissevered; and not one of 
M hich was, perhaps, designed to prove any such theorj'-. Some 
texts are of doubtfld import as respects either theory, these are ' 
declared to be lawful plunder, and each belligerent, according to 
his martial skill, captivates them to his service.— Thus the war is 
protracted, and the strife maintained, which it is the desire of eve- 
ry christian to see terminated, — To come to the drifl and scope of 
your communication, I Would observe, Mrst, — 1 hat you seem to 
gather from the Chihtian Baptist y (how lawfully I will not now 
enquire,) that I make a distinction between faith and repentance 
as respects divine inf^uencej in their production. This I never in- 
tended. Nor do I see that fifhrming that "evidence alone produ- 
ces faith," and that "repentance is bestowed," implies that there 
is any difference in the origin of either as respects divine influ- 
ence. In one instance, we spoke not of the oiigin of &ith, but of 
its nature, in the other, of the origin of repentance, and not of 
its nature. But we are so much accustomed to a quaint orthodox 
6tyle, that if a person speaks of faith or repentance, and does not 
always preface his remarks by observing, that both are the gift of 
/God, he is at once supposed not to be sound in the faith. 

It has often surprised me to find with what tenacity the sovna of 
i?ome texts is held, regardless of the meaning, because the aovpd 
more than the sense suits some favourite position. Of this veiy 
species is the text now before us.— I api quite certain that it is gen- 
erally quoted to support a position which was not before the mind 
of the writer.— In the new translation which we have just publish- 
ed of Campbell, Macknight, and Doddridge, it reads thus — **And 
when they had heard these things, t\\^^ «.c<^\t%t^^, vcvA ^lotified 
Ccd, saving, God hath then given \o \\\e ^ew\\\e% Kv%oit^^wxsN^K«i 
mito life. " 7 aken in all fbe atleivdacvV cATC\»K£i^\.wv^^^ v^ ^^x^VTs^ssa.^ 


'«^— Godhalh then nolong^er confined his beni^ity to the Jews, but 
has to the Gentiles, as to tbcm, given the same reiormatioii unto * 
life. Bat this is not the text to which the alhision is. It is; *'ili:ir 
hath God exahed at his ri jht hand to be a Pnnce and a Snvianr, to 
give reformation unto Israel, and remission of sins." This as evi- 
dently refers lo the Jews as a pcople,as the former does to the Gen- 
as a people. And both, I apprehend, mean no more, than that 
Jesus, as a Saviour, hath conferred upon both Jews and Gentiles 
the blessings of life throug-h a reformation proceeding- from a be- 
lief of the favour H)f God throug-h himself. And the term 
also, in reference to the Gentiles, shows.that it had already, prior 
ttt their calling', been granted to the Jews. But this is toto each 
different from the popular notion of what is called "evan:^elical 
repentance*' -wrought in the heart of any individual Jew or Gen- 

In the second place I observe, that I perfectly accord with what 
you say, "that it is not the want of evidence but the want of dispo- 
sition," so not the want of ability, but the power of prejudice, and 
vitious inclinations or a wicked heart, which prevents many from 
Iiearkening* to, believing, and obeying the gospel. Hence unbelief 
is a sin. But were it so that a want of evidence, or of ability 
^0 believe, was the cause of so many infidels, then infidelity 
could not be a sin, or a worthy cause of condemnation. But God 
has given sufficient evidence, and, consequently, suffice nt ubiLtv 
tx) every mafl to believe the testimony or nrs so'ttf and, therefore, 
the unbelief of every man is chargeable to his own wickedness. 
Nor is there, in my vicw^, the least discrepency between these 
positions, and that — "that evidence alone producetli faith, or is all 
that is necessary to faith," when speaking of the nature of faith. 
For, faith, however it comes into existence, is no more than the 
belief of truth; and it is evidence alone that ascertains and de- 
luonstrates what is truth. That the evidence of truth does not 
arrest the attention of all, is equally true of things human and 
divine. And it has been often and long remarked how easily men 
assent to a proposition which they wish to be true, and with what 
difficulty they assent to one averse from their inclinations. This 
only proves the influence which the will has upon the understand- 
ing. In other cases where there is no previous bias for, or against 
any proposition, the assent is just proportioned to the evidence. 
These remarks are as true in reference to the dogmas of sectaries, 
as they are with regard to matters of simple belief. 

I observe in the third place — That what you call the ^^matter of 
faith^^ or the truth to be believed, as mo"e than, ^^That Jesus died 
for our sins, was buried^ and rose a^ain,'* does not exactly accord 
with the emphasis which the holy apostles lay upon these superla- 
tive truths. It has often been admitted that thousands acknowledge 
these as facts from common education, as the Turks do that Mahom- 
et was heaven's last prophet, who do not understand their import, 
nor recognise the evidence on which they rest. 9n this we lay no 
stress. A'o man can truly believe them, and uol o-oevcome \Ve -»»v>y\o.. 
We have never said or supposed tVAt.3L' wy^w'^s. sav^vug V^ "^^"^^^^^ 
tbem, M'hile they did not work eSeclu^Wv vtv Vx^ V^-^^^ ^^^'^ ^^^ ^ 



was any evidence that he believed them; nor do we think that they 
can operate to the saving* of the soul, unless when received in their i 
scnptural import. On this topic we have repeatedly written very ' 

I remark in the fourth place — That the ^atest objection I have 
to the scope and drift of your communication is, that it g^oes to the 
trite, inoperative, inefTectual, and cheerless conclusions of the 
( ieneva metaphysics. I know right well how many texts can be 
paraded in support of these conclusions, and you know Tcry well 
iiow many texts can be paraded on the other side. I advocate nei- 
ther side of this controversy, because neither, in my judgement^ 
was the design of the apostolic writings. And J am very ture that 
io siNXERs there it no gospel in the Calvinistic system, as it stands in 
the creeds of those sects who embrace it. It is no gospel to pro- 
r.laim — " riiat God from all eternity elected a few individuals unto 
<;vcrla3tinif life; that these few of Adam's progeny are all that he 
ioved; the rest he doomed permissive ly to everlasting death; for 
;]iese few elect ones, and for these only, his Son was bom, livedo 
and died. These only he effectually calls, these he quickens by 
his Holy Spirit, and tliese shall, in spite of all opposition, per- 
severe unto the end and be saved." I say this honest front of Cal- 
, vinism, how true soever in metaphysics, is not the gospel of Jesus 
( /hrist our Lord; and all those texts which are brought to prove it^ 
iircs either wrested, perverted^ or misappliedc 

Though born, educated, brought up, and, I might say, confirm- 
t d in this system, by all the reading, and study of my life; I am^ 
1 rom the apostolic writings alone, convinced, that to teach, preach, 
or proclaim such a system, in not to teach, preach, or proclaim the 
gospel J find in the New Testament. And I can see no reason nor 
propqety in opposing such a system to deny that God rules overall, 
that his counsel stands, that he doth all his pleasure, that he influ* 
ences the heart' of every one that believes, as he did that of Lydia 
if you please, that he gives his Holy Spirit to all that ask him or to 
ull them who believe;— that our whole salvation is of favour, free 
as the light of the sun, and that God is its sole author: for all things 
in it and connected with it are of God. — I say 1 see no reason to 
deny or oppose these positions, to maintain the conclusion — That 
every man toho hears the glad tidings may believe them and be saved 
if he pleases f or if he truly desires it» 

This conclusion, strange as it may appear, I find no intelligent 
Calvinist able or disposed to controvert, however tenacious about 
his original swi, his total depravity, and his effectual calling, 

1 thank God that he has given the fullest proofs of pHlanthropy, 
and not of personal regards; that he has in sincerity called men to 
look unto his Son and be saved, and given the fullest assurance 
that whosoever tvill, may, can, and ought to come unto him, and 
be saved; and that all that disobey this call have no excuse for their 
sin. This may be called any ism men please, but that it is in ac- 
cord-ince with the whole scope, design, and letter of the inspired 
volume, I doubt not. 
' That mu/titudes love darkness TuVVveT Wvwv V^e \\^^-» «xv^ ^^ 

i grati/wation of their brutal and amma\ vji^e.\:vX^%» x^xJcvt^NXv-wv ^«^- 


hig the gospel I have to lament, but one thing I know, they 
cannot imphcate the benevolence of God, nor charge hhii either 
with partiality or injustice in condemning them for this course. 

That the Lord opened the heart of Lydia, and delivered Paul 
put of all his tribulations, is equally true. And that Lydia, before 
that day, was a pious worshipper of God, and that Paul escaped 
by his own feet, and once by a basket, is just as true, it is also 
true that the corn which I eat is the gift of God, and so is the faith 
and reformation which I enjoy. 1 say this merely as a hint to show- 
how easily all those texts can be rationally and scripturally under- 
stood, which are so often presented to prove dogmas which i>ro- 
phets and apostles never thought of, nor entered into their hearts 
to conceive. — You will see, then, that there is no necessity fur 
stopping to enquire into the truth or falsehood of those dogmas^ 
so long as the scope and drift of these conclusions are at variance 
with the whole current of revelation, nor of exumining particular 
proofs so long as the conclusions themselves make both law and 
g^ospel a dead lettei?, and represent men as dead as the stones of 
the field in a sense called "spiritual.** 

- Many have laboured with great toil to take the texts one by one 
from their opponents; but the whole contest is mere logomachy. 
Of this species is the text you have quoted from Luke's history— 
••As many as were ordained to eternal life believed." A correct 
translation, in most instances, is all that is necessary to settle ma- 
ny of these controversies. Doddridge, a Calvinist too, renders it 
•— '*As many as were determined for eternal life believed." This is 
as ambiguous as the original, which Dr. Campbell has proved 
to be the true method to be pursued in giving a fair translation. 
For the determination may either be that of tlie creator or of the crea- 
ture; which of tlie two must be ascertained from other considera- 
tions than the mere import of the term. Whitby has it, "As many 
as were disposed for eternal life believed," and argues that the 
original term is used but once in the same form by I.uke in this 
treatise, and there it must signify, ones* own disposition — ^'Paul 
wfl* disposed to go on foot." I mention this to show how much 
may be subtracted from the imposing authority of a few texts 
whose sound seems to sanction dogmas at variance with the whole 
scope of the gospel of Jesus. 

You will not, my dear Sir, suppose that I consider you as wishing 
to support the dogmas of (^Ivin or any other man; 1 have a fur 
higher opinion of youi* intelligence and virtue, than to suppose 
this; I know you aim at the mere understanding of the scriptures, 
and acknowledge no man as a mister in these thuigs. But 1 think 
yonr communication^, however well intended, and of this I enter- 
tain no doubt, is modeled upon that system, and terminates in 
sheer fatalism. And 1 know from experience iiow easy it is to be. 
under the influence of impressions and biases directing our views 
into particular channels when it is not our intention to go farther 
than the Bibie seems to authorize us. — ^rYv^x^v^ QW^Si^vtVi^^XNicw^c^s 
must be obvious; that it can be oi no use \o wvj i\\vw<i.t q^ Nixctv:'^^^^-- 



eiateii pevsrn, either to believe, or to have preached unto him, 
that only the ejected sinners can believe the gospel. I would wish 
to uUciul to all the items in your communication; but time and 
space lorbitl. 1 have been on generals, for particulars ag£un« 


— :o:o: ' mm 

>\lf\ Hditor, , 

IF in my last epistle I have sinned a^nst the law requiring' | 
fis to love sis brethren, my defence must be that it was not inten£ \ 
.•J. As "perfection" was not pretended to, you will forgave the 
"xceptionable words and phrases, arising^ from a strong feelings on 
itu* subject of discussion. It is a diflficult attsdnment, to be able 
;v) admonish in the simple and mild fanguage, which soothes while 
•t sanctifies. — The defence you make in reply to me, has been * 
r.urefully read, l am 7iot satisfied, and to speak candidly, it is, in 
my opinion, the first instance where the Kditor of the "Christian 
liuptist" sf'cmed to be at loss. AUguando Jfomerus dormitat. The 
eul question is not touched, and instead of a manly and trium- 
])luint ap])eal to apostolic principle and example, you have produced 

^ .1 tliinor maile up of verbose declamation, and sofisticated special 
; Jc.adinj^. 'VVitli the remark, that what you say of ••consistency" 
inay )^e gencrly true, but not called for, I hasten to the point. — 

With tlio liope of escaping" from the clutches of the Dialogue, 
\ ou assert that the ^^only bond of union among christians, advocated i 
oy t!ic ''Christian Ijaptist," is "a sincere and hearty conviction ex- 
!,:vssc'(lor (confessed by the lips, That Jesus is the Christ," &c. 
Taking' a(lvant:»s^c of tlie simpUcitij of this proposition, you go on 
*o say, that when this belief exhibits itself by an overt act, the 
'. 1 liviJuulso confessing and acting must be recognized as a brother. 
Now this is all true in termsy and yet in fact it is sheer trilling. 
l.'tiTic follow yonr exan»])lc by way of illustration. Suppose I 
:il:V-ctod to ]jrove the whole christian world to be one society of 
: ^.^.^•'.Jene(i, sanctified and regenerated individuals, in a state of 
.'Tiicious acocptuncc and reconciliation with the true God. Having 

. you f'i'.r [imuilel^ I would declare in favour ot" C7/«777i/ in- loose and 
l^i' terms, andclc/Sf* with *ltis written,' ^^Every spirit that con- 
/' .s'."..;/. t'tut Jusifs Chiist is come in the fiesh is of God." — Who 
.'.ocs not perceive, that excepting a few obstinate Jews, I have 
:tccor:llng to your mode of argument) dcnQonstrated the JSevt 
( 'n-:itur'' :iiih of tlie quicker, the Pope and the "Christian IJaptist," 
\.i(li :.]! i)ie c!iilsiian V orM, man, woman and child. Nay, it might 
' . cMi.e the s;ilv:,tio!i (»t' the Turk and the "restitution" of devils. — 
' fy :v'.t:iO"orhst. if 1 \)w(\ one, would no doubt reply, "It is so written, 
ni.r. ,';i.- i;^;e } ou make of the 'text' is sophistical; you have no right 
■' a- and ins'dalc words, thereby giving them an ap- 
I :io:i::. -1 'u.t ii)tfn,l(.-(l by the Holy Spirit. Does such a "confes- 
.-'/):.,' v.iivi would iisk,) imply the exprc^ssion of so many -words, or 
••.■:. 1 • : ,.{■ of a cl)ara(,lfr, thf inp;Te(lier.ts, features and qualities of 
1' 'tich 'Are to ha learned in tue ies\ oV \.\\t d\\vx\e. ttisUmony.'" The 
o::jy a: swcv vv/)ich this ciuesu w •ax\uuVs o\, \n o\\\^ cqv\2^\w v\\^ \tV\- 

tiit.'or ot my theory, and m\iX-Jdh. inLtcr.dls, 'A'.i v^'^-'-'^^^'^-^'-'^^'^^^^i^^- 

BAPTIST. 283* 

Waivii)^ the advantage I might cl^m, by a general view of the 
Messiah's character, I will confine myself to a single trait. "When 
Petersaid, "God hath made that saijie Jesus whom ye have crucified^ 
both Lord and Christ," and it was believed by a Jew, was not his 
confession that Jesus is the Christ, at least tantamount to the fol- 
lowing? viz. "I confess Jesus of Nazareth to be the promised Mes- 
siah — the Prophet like unto, nay, greater than Moses; that He is 
king of Zion and that (if possible) I am bound to "hear** Jesus 
with greater submission and obedience more exact, than ever Jew 
**heard" Moses the servant of God " — If so, the one foundation 
implies a hearty conviction of Christ's royal supremacy as sole law- 
giver in Zion, and instead of an "overt act" (as you loosely express 
It) as the exhibition of this conviction, it will, nay mi^/ be followed 
by obedience to the peculiar institutes of his house or kingdom. 
Your very charitable recognition of Paido-baptists, &c. as brethren, 
serves to neutralize the distinction between truth and error — be- 
tween allegiance and rebellion. As for the societies of sprinkled 
•*new creatures," with whom you could wish (if they would let 
you) to have "full communion," equal to what you have with the 
whole Baptist society, they resemble what a synagogue of Jews 
would be, who rejected circumcision, sacrificed swine and new 
modeled and modified the law to suit convenience and expediency. 
They might think themselves Jews — some time-serving rabbi might 
call them brethren Jews; but if they claimed Moses as their law- 
giver, I would justly charge them with gross inconsistency; a 
charge, which upon analogous ground is now proven . against the 
''Christian Baptist." 

Your reply suggested the query, "where now are all the scrip- 
ture proofs to whicli Mr. Editor, in a good cause, can make so 
powerful appeal?" The feeling was natural, for in christian sincer- 
ity, I consider your Bible knowledge to be immense. True, in 
one instance you call upon Paul to help you, by raising a question 
as to the probable pliability of the apostle's conscience in certain 
cases. But I am verily persuaded that Paul rejects this unholy 
alliance, llis Master commissioned him, to teach the baptized 
disciples to observe all things whatsoever had been commanded. 

. This tested and increased their love. When churches were built 
on the one foundation, the divine pattern was carefully copied — if 
irregularities crept in he reproved and admonislied — if they re- 
pented and confessed him the ambasador of the Great king, he re- 
joiced and approved them as brethren — if they repented not, he 
denounced them as fallen! and trampling on the accomodating 
conscieiitiousve&s of degenprate men, in the majestic moral attitude 
of a man acting "in Ciirist's stead" he decreed, "/Fe have no such 
custonit neither the chuuciils of Goil/" Tliis is a church ques- 
tion, and not a judging* any man's personal piety and conversion. 
It* a man says "1 believe," &c. well, I judge him not as concerns his 
firi.d salvation. But if he liint at ♦'full conmiunion" with the 
charch of Christ, 1 must reply "Arise and be baptized," Sic. "O, 
sa^ s lie, 1 have been solemnly ft\>YU\VwVci\i \i^ 'ic Va^nSxr ^^^•j^^'i'' 
Jl'urc [ pause till he obey. liu\ \\'\v'a^. N>;o\i\^ -jovslC^-X Xci.>^ >^v:=n^^ 

cull him brother Paido, and caI vmddvux^mXXA^^^"^^'''^^^'^'^^^ 


nion** ezpressinp^ approbation of the thing represented and of 
him in so far as he conforms to it." If this new creature should 
ask me why I refused hira, holdiifj; as he taid he did, to one Lord, 
one faith, one hope, &c. I would tell him, that, faith without 
works are dead; that he could not break bread; that Christ must 
be obeyed; and that no instance, divinely authenticated, had ever- 
appeared of any man having believed the gospel, in whom it failed 
to produce a desire, and willingness to be baptized, and to contin- 
ue ^^steadfastly in the apostles doctrine,*' &c. Here your practice 
and mine would be directly opposite, and yet I appead to the read^ 
ers of thie "Christian Baptist," whether I do not exactly coincide 
vnih your printed sentiments. If so, the charge of inconsisteiicy 
remsuns, and the panoply of the disilogue is impenetrable. But 
what need of ar^ment; it is a palpable evasion of the question, 
to talk of recognising a society of "new creatures*' as a New Testa- 
ment church, who, whatever may be their piety and solemnity, 
are not ashamed to confess that their church is organised and up- 
held according to the suggestion of human policy. Horresco re^ 

You attempt to fix the charge of inconsistency on me by a count- 
er-dialogue, going to shew that your "Christian Baptist" agrees in 
many respects with the Regulars, and that therefore, you would 
be inconsistent; if you did not maintain "full communion" with 
them — "the legs of the lame are not equal." That another object- 
or could prove you inconsistent, by a different road, js surely not 
my fault, neither does it invalidate the force and truth of my posi- 
tion. "See thou to that." Besides, your argument is inconclusive. 
It is as if I bad engaged, to show that gold and tin are both metals, 
but essentially different,and in order to do sol have pointed out the 
differential quality — You liave endeavoured to prove them to be 
one and the same metal, by an ennumeration of the qualities com- 
mon to both — and with the same truth and fairness with which you 
attempt to roll over the reproach upon me, you might affect to 
assure the world that you had proven the identity of gold and tin. 
To make the best of your argument, the **fuU communion" which 
you enjoy and advocate, if carried out to its legitimate extent, in- 
stead of producing in the church the visible ima^e of Christ, would 
create a resemblance to a certain "great image, his legs of iron, 
his feet part of iron and part of clay!" This is the drkam; canst 
thou, Mr. Editor, tell the interpretation thereof? 

The declamation youhave indulged in, with the view of decrying 
strictness, separation, &c. is what is termed in these days, liberal, 
charitable ana kind; but most astonishing as coming from yov. It 
breathes the spirit which has lowered the tone of scriptural feeling, 
and gone far already in the production of a homogeneous nonde- 
script, in which the church and the world are blended and the 
jRiema/ distinction lost. Suffer the word of respectful and affection- 
ate admonition— Ponder well the paths of your feet— Be warned — 
You have been at the monastic tropic and are now it seem leaving 
pe line^Watch and pray or by and bye ^ou^WWifc^t Uvc Uaiiudi- 
^3/1 tropic'^and instead of sinning (^aam^ \»T^>i«\v^%\i«:^Tv ^sxxv\ 

isj In the firaviment of the kingdom oi \ievjw, ^x j\xed^iuT>. 


you may yet resemble (which may God's mighty power prevent) 
the moon, at best but a satellite of the earth, having this motto, 
"Little light, less heat and many changes." 

May God keep you in hU way — and long preserve you an instru* 
ment of good in his church — ^•*Now therefore, O God, strengthen- 
his hands" — Instead of leaning upon •'Associations" as a prop» 
when the regular orirreg^ular Sanballats are wishing to prevent 
you from repairing the wj3i, craftily saying "Let us meet together 
in the house of God within the temple," &c. then is your time to* 
stretch forth your hand like good Nehemiah and say, "should sucb 
a man as I flee? and who is there that being as I am, would go into 
the temple to save his life? I will not go in." May your leaf never 
wither and your end be PEACE! 

I remain yours, &c. 


Saturday mornings May 20^A. 1826. 

To an Independent Baptist. 

Dear Sir, 

IT appears from your favour before me that the grounds ott 
which your first charge of inconsistency was predicated are sandy. 
Vou labour, indeed, to faslen upon me the same charge, but rather 
on new grounds than on the old. For your remarks upon what I 
kave called the bvnd of unUn andfieace, are fleeted more to affect 
the principle of union itself, than my declaration on which yoifl^ 
first letter was predicated So that in fkct. and in eftmetrywk nov^ 
contend with the principle itself, and not with my practice. Youf 
do not now admit, that the only bond of peace, and consequently 
of christian union is •'a sincere and hearty conviction expressed oi* 
confessed by the lips that Jesus is the Christ," &c. You ought 
then to: have manfully and explicitly attacked the principle when 
first advanced, in the 1st vol. of this work; and not now have 
demured at the carrying of this principle into practice. Forwitlir 
all your ingenuity, this to the judicious, must appear to be the' 
sticking point with you; the very thing itself ag^ainst which yo0 

It was not "with the hope of escaping the clutches of the dite* 
logue" that I now assert this principle. Nay, verily, it has been* 
asserted and contended for more than once or twice in the 1st vol, 
of this work. I take no "advantage of the eimpHeity of this pro'^ 
position" when I observe "that when this belief exhibits itself by 
an overt act the individual so confessing and acting must be con- 
8idt:red as a brother." This you say, even in your last, "is true 
in terms** — and strange to tell, "yet in fact it is sheer trifling.*^ 
1 his last assertion is yet to be proven. And here you fly oft' in »> 
tangent. Why, Dear Sir, do you labour to show me that the sim- 
ple pronounciation of the terms of any position, such as '*tha$ 
Jeauf i» the Chrigt;** or, "that every tpirit that eonfeeaeth that Chriet 
has come in the Jlesh is of God," te^<afd\^«& ^1 ^^ >sk^^'\\ ^"^ "^^a^. 
terms in the scripture sense o£ them» \%Tvu\.wiSSkSsvK«*'^»\5^5^!^ 
confidence in the per8on,soprano\M\c\ftt&^^'^^^'^^^^^^^'^^'^ 


Ss there lay such a position or declaration in this work? I say ther* 
is not You are really fighting with a creature of your own for- 
mation, and not with me. And here, give me leave to observe, 
you aflford me fresh evidence of the unasssdlable character of the 
ground on which I stand; for with all your ingenuity and dexterity, 
and these I admit are cons^caous, you cannot touch the principle 
otherwise than by cKaricaturing an abuse of it And with your 
remarks of making the pronudation of any terms, found in the 
Bible, regardless of the Biblical import, the criteria of a disciple, 
or a bond of union, I most cordially agree. You must perceive 
then that you are at war with some creature of your own forma- 
tion, and not with me, for I will join you and aid in annihilating 
this spectre of your own imagination. Strike it once and I will 
Strike it twice. We can annihilate it, for it has nothing immortal 
nor indissoluble about it But here let me put you on your guard. 
Take heed that when fighting against a monstrous production, you 
do not imperceptibly direct your artillery against the offspring of 
heaven, and be found in the ranks of creed makers and dogmatists 
who defame the one foundation^ and Babel like, project the basis 
of a city and tower which is to reach from the plains] of Shinar tg 
the heavens. 

When this half of your letter is disposed of, it is all disposed of 
AS respects the topic on which you commenced your correspond- 
ence. The charge of inconsistency is disposed of; and whether 
you or I will have to patromze it, i« not for you or me to say. 
Neither of us would, in civil courts, be admitted as evidence on 
ft question of this kind— This is the province of the jurors — And 
with their verdict am I satisfied. Are you? 

The new ground of inconsistency which you have now taken, 
arises not from my remarks to a correspondent in Missouri; but 
from my remarks to an "Independent Baptist." And here permit 
me to remark, that you have taken for granted what has not been 
asserted yet; that Baptists and Paidobaptists should, irrespective 
of their difference on the subject of baptism, break bread tog^th- 
^? Whether they ought, or ought not, has not been asserted by 
-me. This question is yet with me sub judice. It is true tliat I 
expressed a wish to be on the same terms of communion with the 
pious of all denominations as with the Baptist. This is a desire I 
am very far from hoping is peculiar to myself. — But if I had assert- 
ed it as my conviction,and upon that conviction had aojted so far,as to 
break bread with Paidobaptists on the same principles as those on 
which I would unite with a Baptist community, your remarks 
would rather confirm me in the practice than have caused me to 
doubt of its propriety. For I reckon that when any person at- 
tacks any prmciple or practice, and either fights with something 
else under that name, or is compelled to adopt principles of argu* 
ment which would condemn other principles and practices of the 
propriety of which there is no doubt» at least with himself, this 
proceedure rather proves than disproves the position agtunst 
which he argues. This appears, \£ you mWKiv^xsX^e xtvt k^tvc^ more^ 
to be a little the case with the InAepewAeivX laajp^A^^.. ^^>w %c^^* 

Patents will equally (wndcmn any \nxeicoraia>MQX>i o^ vi^t^Kv^ ^\v^ 


th£m. You cannot, on your principles, pray Vfittk diem, sing praise 
with them, or unite with them in one individual act of social wot- 
ship — I pray you consider this. 

With what propriety you compare a "society of sprinkled new 
creatures*' to a "synagogue of Jews who reject circumcision and 
sacrifice swine," I confess I do not see. There is no analogy he* 
tween the two cases. Erroneous and weak as the sprinkled new 
creatures are, they do not reject circumcision in some sense, nor 
baptism in some sense; nay, they are too much attached to circum« 
scision. They dislike the knife and prefer -water. But there is no 
*'rejection*^ of the ordinance of baptism by sprinkled new crea- 
tures; but a mistake of what it is. I think we can find an exact ' 
comparison which expresses the full amount of the pra-9ity of the 
error and practice of the honest baby sprinklers. It is this: — 

Paternus says to Filius brin^ me a book. Filius eager to obey his 
father, goes and brings to him a leaf of paper. Paternus says, 
why did you not obey me. Father, says Filius, I did; I went at 
your command, and lo, here it is, — pointing to the /ea/.— That is 
not a bookt says Paternus. I thought it was, replied Filius. Pa- 
ternus says, well my son, I accept your obedience, and pardon 
your mistake, because it was not a wilful one, Paternus calls ano- 
ther son. Go Junius, says he, and bring me a book. Junius goes 
to play at Tennis. His father indignant calls for him. He appears. 
Where is the book, says he, for which I sent you? O father, re- 

Elics Junius, 1 prefered a game at Tennis, to bringing you the 
ook; I thought you might go for it yourself, send some body 
else, or do without it. — "You are a rebel sir, and you shall be beat- 
en with many stripes." This Mr I. B. is your Jew, and that is my 
JPaido baptist christian Brother, Now, make you the comment, 
there is the text. 

You are equally unfortunate in your comparison of "^o/J and tin,** 
You make water the diflfercntial quality. It is a pretty comparison; 
but ill adapted. I did not make myself ^old and the baptists, in 
general,rm,nor wceve/'sa.-consequently,! was not engaged in proving 
gold and tin to be one metal; and if I had, you would not have 
proved them to be difterent by making water the essential differ- 
ential quality. You will reconsider this. 

Your "dream** and Nebuchadnezzer's are nothing akin. His image 
was partly gold, silver, brass, iron and clay. Mme is the repre- 
sentation of a family of babes, stripling, young men and fathers, 
all of one faith. Now to compare this image to Nebuchadnezzer's 
IS worse than to make water the essential difTerence between gold 
and tin. 

It was not the paucity of scripture documents which I have to 
urge in defence of the grounds assumed in my former letter that 
caused me to content myself with a reference to the alleged prac- 
tice of Paul in breaking bread with the congregations to whom he 
wrote letters of commendation, reproof, and admonition. It was 
because I thought a hint of this sotl >w«a etvovsL^. '^^^ \x\^«.t^'V 
£nd no point more fully developed, \tv «S\^^ c^vsfiOifcv *^^^ *^^ 
one /oundatioriy and the duty of aiHi c\afva>aai»N»XDD»s3^5is^ 


of the spirit in the bond of peace. Were I to enter upon thislopLjJ 
could find line upon line — and precept upon precept, enforcing M 
fnaxim; ^'wherefore receive ye one another without regard to differ- 
ence of opinion^" on which the apostle writes the largest section in 
the epistle to the Romans, (chap. xiv. and xv.) I would. caU to my^ - 
aid, his letters to the Corinthians, and his demonstrations to other 
congregations of this principle that "In Christ Jesus neither circum- 
cision nor uncircumcision availetb any thing; but a new creature .. 
— but faith which worketh by love." But of this agun. If there 
is any position laid down with unusual p]ainness,and supported with 
more than ordinary demonstration, in the epistolary part of the 
New Testament, it is this: — That Christiana should receive one ano- ' 
ther as Christ hath received them, with all their iktellbctdal 
WEAKNESSES. — This you may call Latitudinarianism; and such a 
Latitudinarian, I pray, you may become. * 

If you have any thing to add upon the principle,or the practice 
Resulting from the bond of peace which I have long since advocated, 
I will hear you cheerfully again. You have one advantage orer me. 
No person knows who the Independent Baptist?is; but alas! I am ' . 
as a target on a naked lull. Per naps if you would authbrizente to 
unbutton your coat it might contnbute to explain some items in 
your correspondence; but without your consent, not one button 
bhall be unplaced. 

In the mean time, however, 1 cannot close without most sincerely 
reciprocating your kind wishes. and unfei^ed desires for myseff ' 
and the cause in which I am engaged. I do pray that you may be 
an ally in the work of Restoration^ and that we may go on saifely ^ 
in the way, alike distant from an antievangelical separatism' and 
latitudinarianism, knowing that our labour shall net be in vsdn in 
the Lord. Yours sincerely, 


QC/* A DESIRE to clear our files of sundry documents on havyl, 
obliged us to suspend our course of essays on subjects already be- 
fore the public. We have not yet got through the communications 
forwarded. We are promised a series of essays on the Milleni- 
um quite original. The first or introductory one appears in this. 

number. We have not heard from the *<Baptist Recorder** sint . 

our last. The last mail brought us about twenty intricate ques* 

tions; some of which will appear in the next volume.— Subscri- 
bers to the New Testament in Indiana can be supplied at Louifl^ . 
ville, Ky. by applying to Mr. Van Buskirk, merchant, in that ■ 

place. This work has been forwarded to our agents in Mays- \ 

ville and Lexington, by whom the agents at a distance will be sup-.v^, 
plied, and new orders filled.-t: — '^^^s work has been fdiVarded to,' ' 
many of our agents already, sa^ the balance will soon be supplied '' 

OMo — Jacob Baker, Esq. Clinton^ Wayne Co. Wm. Hawx- 

Jvorth, Sfpubenville. Tcnnewce—- "Wwv. "D. 3Q>\tdai\> Sparta.--— 

J'ennatflvania — James HeazWU, P\»\aide\^\\\aL C\vj. ^Vvrs>vMh 

—P. U Towncs, Amelia^ 3oViti CoVe, ¥.wv C.«wi\mfe. 

OF \01a\J^^ viv 

JAN 2 3 1939